A0.11 This Appendix aims to provide additional material which may prove helpful for those who are studying on their own. Those who are part of a Greek class will also find it useful to have these further explanations and comments about some of the points being made in the main Lessons.

A0.12 These additional comments relate to Lessons One to Six. The comments on each Lesson should be read in conjunction with that Lesson, and the indicated Grammar learnt.

A0.13 In general, material of continuing reference value is given in the Lessons, whilst this Appendix contains additional explanatory material and comments which once noted will probably not need to be referred to again.

A0.14 Because of individual differences between all of us, the rate at which you personally will progress, and your speed and understanding and retentivity, will be different from that of others. However, it will help you to attain the maximum of which you are capable in these areas if you note some positive and negative factors that will affect language learning.

A0.15 Eugene Nida, in writing Learning A Foreign Language — A Handbook For Missionaries, begins on page 1 to analyse why missionaries find they have great difficulties in learning a language, and his comments will apply equally well to your learning New Testament Greek. He says:

"There is no valid reason for tragic failure in language learning, for languages can be learned. Children of six years of age in all cultures are able to speak their mother-tongue intelligibly and to discuss many things which missionaries seem never able to talk about. Naturally, we may then ask ourselves, 'Why do we not learn a language as well as a child?' The reasons for our deficiencies are not difficult to discover. In the first place, as adult missionaries we have already acquired a set of language habits, and we have practised them for fully twenty years, until they have become thoroughly a part of us. In the second place, we shelter our ego with all types of inhibitions and restraints. We are afraid of exposing our ignorance and of being laughed at, and as a result our speech becomes ridiculous. Of course, it is also true that we do not have native parents who fondly try to teach us, who never seem to tire of repeating words, and who praise us for our feeble efforts. Furthermore, we are not exposed to the taunting of other children who cruelly force conformity upon their playmates. In reality, we do not have many of the advantages afforded children."

A0.16 F. L. Billows (The Techniques of Language Teaching, page 38) makes a comment on rather similar lines: "Opinionated, over-confident people have not the flexibility of mind to learn languages easily." The extent to which we can put aside our inhibitions and self-consciousness, and risk making ridiculous mistakes and take them in our stride, is the extent to which we will make good progress in language learning.

A0.17 And Nida adds three other comments which are relevant: "On the other hand, we have other advantages which come from analytical training and mature mental faculties." (p.2.) "Lack of time is the most common reason for failure in language learning." (p.8.) "Some of the failure to learn a language results from the wrong approach." (p.9.)



A0.18 From what Nida and Billows have said, one can draw the observation, regarding partici-pation and learning in class: "The smaller the pride, the greater the progress: I will learn lots of Greek from participation in class — unless my pride and dignity get in the way." A0.19 On page 26, Nida stresses that "Language learning means language using". We can see then that a second major principle in the learning of Greek is, in effect, "Use it, or lose it".


A0.21 The major problem for many students in a language Course like this is one of attitude and expectation. They expect to be able to memorize and master everything they are told the first time they are told it. This is the approach to learning which has been customary in other subjects they have studied, and so they come to Greek with the intention of mastering it in the same way. They believe this is what is expected of them. Then they find that the material is presented to them faster than they can absorb it, and that they are becoming overwhelmed by an avalanche of information which they cannot fully keep up with.

A0.22 If you are able to assimilate thoroughly everything in the lessons as they are presented, this is excellent; but it is also exceptional. You are not expected to master all the contents of a Lesson when you go through it.

A0.23 What is happening during this Stage One (Beginner's) Course is that you are being introduced swiftly and systematically to the entire range of Greek grammar that is needed for beginning to read and understand the New Testament. The more fundamental paradigms and constructions are set for learning; the rest are provided at this stage as information. What you are asked to do is to become aware of them without necessarily learning them (for example, to know that there is such a thing as the perfect tense without necessarily memorizing the whole flexion). Then, when these words and forms are encountered in New Testament sentences, you will begin to get practice in recognizing them, and your teacher (if you are a member of a class) will explain the forms and their use, in the contexts in which they are actually used in the New Testament — and you will be able to follow and to understand the explanation.

A0.24 This does not mean that you are now being told not to try too hard to learn your work. Not at all. But it does mean that you are not being asked to do all your learning on your own account, by rote, in isolation from actual use situations: you are being asked to become aware of the total framework of work to be learnt, and then progressively to flesh out that skeleton with knowledge and understanding as you gain experience with actual sentences from the Greek New Testament.

A0.25 Your learning acquisition is thus to be a steady progress on a broad base, so that you are gradually developing an increasing awareness of the way in which Greek words and forms and constructions are actually used, from encountering them in use.

A0.26 For most people this is a completely new approach to learning a subject, though it is in fact akin to how you progressively learnt your own mother tongue in the first place.

A0.27 This all means that you should indeed learn as much as you can by means of each of the learning opportunities (as set out below), concentrating particularly upon those sections of a Lesson that are indicated as most important: but you should not be dismayed or even surprised when you are taken on to a new Lesson before you have fully grasped the last one. You should proceed at your own pace (that is, irrespective of whether others are ahead of you or behind)


without being concerned that your pace is not faster. Be content to build your knowledge of Greek gradually; do not be discouraged if you do not remember everything at the first or second hearing: you are not expected to. Your knowledge of the different aspects of Greek will fill out as you are exposed to more and more of the language in extracts from the New Testament during Stage One (the Beginner's Course) and, in Stage Two (the Intermediate Course), in progressing through 1 John, Mark or John (or some other New Testament book) and in working through Appendices C, D, and E.

A0.28 The points of grammar which have been made in each Lesson, and that do need to be noted, are covered in the Workbook which accompanies this book. Be sure to make the fullest use of the help this Workbook can provide.


A0.30 For those who are part of a class (there will be comments for students studying privately in #A0.4) there are several "learning points" for each Lesson which provide "learning opportunities" that will contribute cumulatively to the growth of your knowledge of Greek:

A0.31 Student's Preliminary Reading of the Lesson: If you are able to do so, it is always helpful to do a quick preliminary reading of each Lesson before coming to the Session of your class where it will be introduced. This will provide you with a sense of direction — an awareness, in a general way, of the work that is to be tackled next, and an overview of that work. This quick Preliminary Reading enables you to see the whole of the next work unit in its totality, to get an idea of its scope, and thus to prepare yourself for its presentation in detail. It is something akin to looking at a roadmap of where you are going before you commence a journey.

A0.32 The Introduction of the Lesson by the Teacher: The teacher introduces the grammar content of each new Lesson in its turn, going through each section and explaining it, giving drills in the new paradigms, and discussing any questions raised by the class. This provides you with the opportunity of becoming familiar with the new material, seeing its interrelationships, and gaining an initial understanding of its use.

A0.33 Specific Memorization: In each Lesson, two or three Greek paradigms or flexions (or other material) are set for memorization. A specific effort is now to be made by the student to memorize this particular material.

A0.34 Second Reading by the Student, and Workbook Exercises: The Workbook Practice Sheets and Exercises focus attention on the various issues covered in each Lesson. You are then to find those answers not known to you by looking through the Lesson material, which will require a second reading of whatever was not remembered. This will serve to consolidate your overall understanding of the Lesson.

A0.35 Sentence Translation: Next, you are to put the work of the Lesson to immediate use in the translation of a number of sentences from English into Greek, and of selections from the Greek New Testament, which utilize the grammatical content of the Lesson. The aim of your translation from the New Testament is to reflect an understanding of the meaning of the Greek text, and therefore it must be as literal as it can be (a full explanation of the approach to your translation will be given in #A2.4). In seeking to understand the meaning of the Greek, you will need to use the paradigms you have learnt and to refer back frequently to the grammatical content of the Lesson, and to make use of other aids available such as your Vocabulary Cards. This point in your work,


at which you make use of the Lesson material in gaining an understanding of a New Testament sentence, is a major learning opportunity: seek therefore to gain an adequate grasp of the grammar that is needed to understand the sentence, and of how the sentence uses that grammar to express its meaning. There will be words, expressions, or constructions, that you cannot readily decipher: do not spend time on these (see #A2.6) but make a note of the problem for classroom discussion.

A0.36 Revision and Recapitulation: Your next Classroom Session will commence with a brief recapitulation of the previous Lesson, together with drills in that Lesson's flexions (or the most important ones, at least). Use this as a check on your overall understanding of that Lesson and of your work in memorizing the set flexions, and in your general understanding of the other flexions and your ability to recognize forms from them.

A0.37 Classroom Consideration of Sentences: After the recapitulation and drills, the class will consider in detail the Greek sentences given in the set Assignments. Take every opportunity to translate a sentence in class and to have it commented upon. Note differences between how you have rendered each of the sentences and the renderings of other members of the class, and ask questions about all the points that are not clear to you. It is important for the learning process that you should come to the point where you can understand the explanations that are given, and the form and meaning of the words in the sentences.

A0.38 Review and Reference Back: In the work on subsequent Lessons, matters will arise which require you to refer back to points of grammar in earlier Lessons. Use these references back to earlier material as an opportunity to review and consolidate your knowledge of that work. Additionally, use any break between the conclusion of your Stage One (Beginner's) Course and the commencement of Stage Two (the Intermediate Course) to work through all the Lessons again, in sequence. You will find that the Greek sentences will now be considerably easier, and that many matters not quite clear when you went through the book the first time will have now fallen into place, and you will be able to have a much better "feel" for the overall functioning of Greek. In your Review of Stage One in this way, attempt to translate the sentences accurately at sight, without writing down a translation. The greater the extent to which you can do this, the better the extent to which you have grasped your work. But however well (or badly) you fare in this Review, the next stage in your learning, studying a Gospel in Greek, will help you progress further.


A0.41 If you are not a member of a Greek class, why not form a class of your own to work with you? In your church or Christian fellowship or circle of friends, there are sure to be several people who would like to learn to read the Greek New Testament, given the opportunity and a little encouragement. You can provide both of these. Gather together those interested, and plan a suitable meeting time and place. Read through the Basic Principles For Teachers (Appendix B) and you can teach yourselves, even though none of you has done Greek before. Amongst the many advantages of working together in this way: you can give help and encouragement to each other in the work; you can verify each other's pronunciations of the Greek; one member of a group will often spot an error that another has made and not noticed; you can test each other's memorizing of the paradigms and flexions; a co-operative attack on the translation of the Greek sentences will produce better results than if you are working alone; often a small group working together will persevere with the Course through the hard and the tedious parts where a lone student will be tempted to give up; and so on.


A0.42 A small group working together can provide an environment for learning that is not far below that of a formal class. While taking the study of Greek seriously, a group can have fun and fellowship together. Laughter is a tremendous learning environment. A0.43 If joining a class or forming your own group are both out of the question, you can certainly do this Course successfully on your own. But you need to realize that to do this is more difficult, and that you will have to accept the discipline of putting time aside for Greek on a regular basis a few days every week, and keeping that time sacrosanct — or there will always be something "more important" that will arise and claim it. Make it your aim to progress through this book at the fastest rate you can, and follow as far as possible in your personal study all the guidelines for classroom situations that are given in this Appendix and Appendix B — adapt these according to circumstances and apply them to your own situation.

A0.44 There will of course be problems you encounter where you (or your group) will need to consult someone with a greater knowledge of Greek. A minister or some other person who has studied Greek may be your answer here. Alternatively, you yourself may be that person at a later stage of your own Course — you yourself will then have a greater knowledge of Greek, and you will find that many of your earlier problems simply resolve themselves.


A1.1 LESSON GOAL This Lesson has a threefold goal:

A1.11 To become fluent in reading the Greek letters accurately. This includes learning the alphabet. The graduated pronunciation exercises which follow will introduce you to the alphabet. A1.12 To begin writing the Greek letters correctly. A1.13 To become familiar with Greek punctuation. A1.14 To learn about Greek words, including learning the flexion of the verb "to be", and doing some simple translation from Greek into English and vice versa.


A1.21 Almost half the letters of the Greek alphabet — ten out of the twenty-four — are sufficiently close to their English counterparts for them to be readily recognizable. Nine of the ten can also be pronounced similarly to English (the tenth, υ, will be discussed a little later, in #A1.37).

A1.22 These ten similar letters are: α β γ δ ε ι κ ο ς τ and υ. Their English equivalents are: a b d e i k o s t and u.

A1.23 There is no dot over the Greek ι.

A1.24 The α can be pronounced as short, as in "along", or long, as in "father", but it is NOT pronounced with the English "a" sounds as in "cat" or "name".

A1.25 The ι can be pronounced as short, as in "in", or long, as in "ski", "kiosk", and "machine", but it is NOT pronounced with the English "i" sound as in "find".


A1.26 When pronouncing a Greek word at this stage, make α and ι short unless it "feels" better to you to pronounce them long.

A1.27 BUT: ε can only be short, as in "penguin", and ο can only be short, as in "got".

A1.28 NOTE: In the following pronunciation exercises, many words start with a smooth or rough breathing. Make sure you say them correctly!

A1.29 The following forty-nine Greek words use only these letters (not including υ). Practise reading them out aloud several times, being particularly careful to pronounce the vowels correctly, as in the key words "along", "father", "in", "ski", "penguin", and "got". Ἀββᾶ, βία, δέκα, διά, κατά, κακός, τάς, βάτος, βίος, διαβάς, καταβάς, δέ, δίς, δοκός, δέος, ἴδε, τε, ἐκ, ἔτι, τίς, ἔτεκες, ἔκδικος, ἔτικτον, ἴδιος, ἀδικία, διότι, κακία, ἄκακος, ἄδικος, κόκκος, ἔκδοτος, ὁ, ὅς, ὅτι, ὅτε, ὅδε, τότε, τόδε, ἐᾶτε, ἔτος, ὁδός, ἐδίδετο, ἐκτός, ἕκτος, δεκτός, τακτός, ἄτακτος, διδακτός, διδακτικός


A1.30 Six Greek letters look something like English letters but are in fact quite different — and so they need to be carefully noted. Practise reading the words containing these letters. Take care to pronounce each letter separately: there are no pairs of vowels here that are pronounced together as one sound (a diphthong).

A1.31 γ not "y", but "g" as in "got".

γέ, ἄγε, ἅγιος, ἁγία, κατάγαγε, διαταγάς, ὄγδοος, ἀγάγετε

A1.32 η is not "n", but long "e", pronounced as in "there" and "where".

ἤ, ἥ, γῆ, δή, βοή, δίκη, γόης, ἀκοή, ἥδε, δεκάτη, διετής, ἀκήκοα

A1.33 ν is not "v", but "n" as in "in".

ἐν, ἕν, ἦν, ἀνά, ἵνα, ὅταν, ναός, τέκνον, γένος, ἤγαγον, ἱκανός; διάκονος, ἐγένετο, ἁγνήν

A1.34 ρ is not "p", but "r" as in "throw" or "rope".

ἀγρός, ἀγορά, ὄρος, ἕτερος, τρίτος, νεκρός, κρίνετε, γάρ, ἄρτος, καρδία, ἔργον, κέρδος, ὄρνις

A1.35 χ is not "x", but "ch" (sometimes written "kh") — this sound is not used in standard English, but it occurs in Scottish "loch", and German "Bach" (the name of the composer), and it is also found in Hebrew and numbers of other languages. You make this sound by forming your mouth as if you are going to say "k", almost closing the back of your palate, and then breathing a rough "h" sound through it.

χαρά, χάρις, χόρτος, χρόνος, ἄχρι, ἀρχή, δοχή, διδαχή, ἔχιδνα, ἔνοχος, τρέχοντες

A1.36 ω is not "w", but long "о̄" ("ow"), as in "throw" or "rope".⁷

ἐγώ, ἔχω, ἄρχω, ἕως, ὧδε, ὥρα, κρίνω, ὁράω, διώκω, δώδεκα, ἐρωτάω, ἀγωγή

A1.37 υ is indeed "u", but it is NEVER pronounced like the English "u" in "but". It is usually short (in which case it is pronounced like the "u" in "put"), and it can be long (in which case it is


pronounced like the "u" in "truth"). If it carries a circumflex, as in νῦν, it will always be long; if it has another accent or no accent, it could be either short or long: adopt the rule of thumb of pronouncing it as short (as in "put") unless you are told otherwise by your teacher.

νῦν, νυκτός, γυνή, ὕδωρ, δυνατός, τυχόν, κύριος, ὑδρίας, ἐκχύννω, τέτυχεν, ὑγιές


A1.40 The remaining eight Greek letters are different in appearance from any English letters, and there is, in addition, another form of the letter "s" which is used whenever it occurs anywhere in a word EXCEPT as the last letter.

A1.41 ζ is "dz" (a double letter), pronounced as in "adze".⁷ (This sound is also heard in the word "gods", though in this particular English word it is spelt with "ds".) Be careful to pronounce both sounds, even when this letter stands first in a word.

γάζα, ζῆν, κράζω, ῥίζα, βιάζω, ἁγιάζω, ζωή, ζάω, ζητέω, ζυγός

A1.42 θ is "th" as in "think" or "throw", NEVER as in "this" or "though".

θεός, θύρα, θρόνος, καθώς, ἔθνος, ἐχθές, ἐχθρός, ἐνθάδε, ἀγαθός, καθαρός, θάνατος, θυγάτηρ, θεωρέω

A1.43 λ is "l", as in "boil", "glimpse".

λέγω, λόγος, βάλλω, θέλω, ἀλλά, καλός, λίθος, ὅλος, λαός, ὄχλος, ἐκλεκτός, λαλέω, δῆλον, βιβλίον

A1.44 μ is "m", as in "men", "glimpse".

μόνος, νόμος, ἅμα, ἐμός, ῥῆμα, μετά, μένω, μήτηρ, ὄνομα, τίθημι, δύναμις, ἡμέρα, ἔρημος, μαρτυρέω

A1.45 ξ is "x" (a double letter), as in "six", "treks", "locks".

νύξ, θρίξ, δόξα, ἔξω, ἕξετε, ἔξοδος,ἐξάγω, ἄξιος, δεξιός, ἀξίνη, ἐδέξατο, ξένος, ξύλον, δοξάζω

A1.46 π is "p", as in "put", "group".

πᾶς, πρός, παρά, ὑπό, ἐπί, ἑπτά, τόπος, πόλις, πάλιν, πίπτω, γραπτός, βλέπομεν, ἀγάπη, ἄνθρωπος

A1.47 σ is "s" when used initially or medially (that is, elsewhere than at the end of a word).

σύ, σύν, σάρξ, σῴζω, ὥστε, γλῶσσα, ὅσος, μέσος, κόσμος, ὅστις, Χριστός, γένεσις, ἐκκλησία, ἀπόστολος

A1.48 φ is "ph", as in "photograph" (pronounced the same as the "f" in "feud").

φῶς, φωνή, φημί, φίλος, τυφλός, τρέφω, γράφω, σοφία, ἄφεσις, ἔφαγον, ἔφυγον, κεφαλή, ἀδελφός, προφήτης, ὀφθαλμός

A1.49 ψ is "ps" (a double letter), as in "glimpse", "steps".

ἅψας, ὀψία, διψάω, ὑψόω, θλῖψις, ὀψάριον, ψυχή, ψηφίζω, ἀποκάλυψις, ψαλμός, ψαλλέτω




A2.11 The first goal for Lesson Two is understanding the concept of an inflected word. As a rough and ready rule-of-thumb you can take it that, in a given flexion, the part of a word that does not change is the stem, and the part that changes in the different forms in the flexion is the suffix.

A2.12 Question: Apply this rule-of-thumb to κύριος and ἔργον (#2.40): what is the stem of each?

A2.13 Answer: The stem of κύριος is κυρι-, which is the lexical morph (lexal) carrying the meaning "lord". The various morphs added to κυρι- are the suffixes called numbercase morphs meaning "nominative singular", "genitive plural", and so on as the case may require. Similarly the stem of ἔργον is ἐργ-, and the morphs that are added are the numbercase morphs, indicating number and case. Note the similarities and differences between the masculine and neuter numbercase morphs.

A2.14 Question: Apply this rule-of-thumb to λύω (#2.81): what are its stem and suffixes?

A2.15 Answer: The stem of λύω is λυ-, which is the lexical morph (lexal) carrying the meaning "loose", and the morphs added to λυ- can for practical purposes be treated as suffixed pronouns (pronoun endings) meaning "I", "you", "they", etc.

A2.16 This rough rule-of-thumb sometimes needs to be elastic enough to take account of the fact that a stem can change. Thus, Question: What is the stem of the Article (#2.4) and of εἰμί (#1.95)?

A2.17 Answer: The stem of the Article is τ- , and the rest of each form of the Article consists of the numbercase suffix; but in the nominative singular and plural of both masculine and feminine, the stem is the rough breathing only. The stem of eipi is really ἐσ-, but in three forms the -σ- has been replaced by an -ι- (the reason for this will be explained in due course).


A2.21 The second goal is to understand the reason for the twenty-four forms of the Article.

A2.22 Why so many? Because the noun selects the form of the Article that must be used with it, and the form of the Article selected will be the one that agrees with it in gender, number, and case.

A2.23 A noun has an inherent gender: ἔργον, for example, is always neuter. This means that only the neuter forms of the Article can be used with it. In a particular sentence, if ἔργον is being used as a subject, and in the plural (as for example, "The works of the flesh . .", Galatians 5:19), then the form of ἔργον used will need to be the nominative plural, ἔργα, and this will select to accompany it that form of the neuter Article which is nominative plural, τά.

A2.24 Similarly, if one wished to say "of the lord", κύριος will need to be in the genitive singular, κυρίου, and being masculine will select the form of the Article that is masculine genitive singular, that is, τοῦ.

A2.25 The converse of this is that the Article is frequently a useful guide to the gender, number, and case of the noun with which it is used — something which becomes quite important with the Third Declension (see Lesson Five).



A2.31 At this point, make sure that you have memorized the set paradigms for this Lesson. The next goal is understanding how the paradigm of one word applies as a pattern for other words.

A2.32 If the stem of κύριος is κυρι- and -ος is the numbercase ending, then we can tell that the stem of νόμος is νομ-, for -ος is its numbercase ending. From the paradigm of κύριος we see that, as κυρι- is the stem, -οις is the dative plural numbercase ending, having the meaning "to (the) — " or "for (the) — ", so that τοῖς κυρίοις means "to the lords" or "for the lords". Therefore if we put this same ending on to the stem νομ- (which means "law" — see #1.41), then we get τοῖς νόμοις, which thus means "to the laws" or "for the laws". Which of these two possible meanings is intended would be indicated by the context each time it is used.

A2.33 So when you come across a Greek noun (say, θεοῦ), the first step towards understanding its meaning is to break it into stem and numbercase ending, then locate the lexical meaning of the word in your Vocabulary/Dictionary, and work out the meaning of the numbercase ending from the parallel form in a paradigm (that is, the form that has the same numbercase ending). The lexical form of θεοῦ) is θεός, "God", and so the appropriate paradigm for θεός is the one for κύριος, and the parallel form for θεοῦ is κυρίου, which is genitive singular. Thus we arrive at the meaning of θεοῦ as "of God", "God's".

A2.34 The same approach is followed with verbs, using the paradigm for λύω (#2.81): λυ- is the stem (the lexal, carrying the verb's meaning) and the balance of the word consists of two grammatical morphs that are closely joined together. The first of these is the neutral morph (#2.77) and the second is the pronoun morph, a cut-down version of an unemphasized personal pronoun added to the word, meaning "I", "you", "they", or the like.

A2.35 The neutral morph is always -ο- or -ε-: it is -ο- when it is followed by -υ- (λυ-ο-υ-σιν), and when the pronoun morph commences with a nasal (as in λυ-ο-μεν) or consists of lengthening the neutral morph (λυ-ω), and it is -ε- in all other cases. The role of the neutral morph will be explained later (#4.36 and #4.44(b)]. It does not affect us at present and so for convenience the neutral morph can be taken together with the pronoun morph.

A2.36 Thus we can divide the forms of the flexion of λύω in this way:

S1λύ - ωI
2λύ - ειςyou (singular)
3λύ - ειhe/she/it
P1λύ - ομενwe
2λύ - ετεyou (plural)
3λύ - ουσι(ν)they

A2.37 The same flexion can be constructed for any other verb:

S1βλέπ - ωI
2βλέπ - ειςyou (singular)
3βλέπ - ειhe/she/it
P1βλέπ - ομενwe
2βλέπ - ετεyou (plural)
3βλέπ - ουσι(ν)they

A2.38 All the verbs that follow λύω in their present tense (the great majority of New Testament verbs) can be divided in the same way that has been done for βλέπω. You then replace the -ω of the lexical form with the appropriate pronoun suffix for the form that is required. Thus to form "they say", take the lexical form, λέγω, "I say", and substitute -ουσι(ν) ("they") for -ω ("I") to get the correct form λέγουσι(ν).

A2.39 Test yourself: from ἔχω, "I have", construct the form "we have".



A2.41 The various explanations and ideas that have been given so far can now be put together and used as the translation techniques for deciphering Greek sentences. The section which follows next will show how that is to be done.

A2.42 First of all, however: reflect for a moment upon the question of what kind of translation you should aim to produce. There is a temptation for a student to attempt to give the best, smoothest, and most idiomatic English translation of the Greek sentences he is working on. This attempt is in fact misguided and unhelpful. Do not allow yourself to fall into this trap.

A2.43 When you translate Greek material into English, this is not the ultimate purpose of your study in Greek at all. It is simply a means to an end. Your goal is to be able to read the Greek New Testament with understanding; when you translate from Greek into English, this is done as a stage in the process of developing your own understanding of the Greek, and it is also to enable your teacher to assess the level of your progress. Do not try, therefore, to put the passage into a kind of smooth-flowing, natural language that the biblical author may have used if he had in fact been writing in English. On the contrary: render the Greek into equivalent English so that the English shows what the author actually wrote in Greek.

A2.44 Your aim therefore must be absolute accuracy in your translation into English. The Greek grammatical form must be expressed in its precise English equivalent: you must render a plural in Greek by a plural in English; if the Greek verb is present tense you must express it by a present tense in English; and so on. Translate what is there, without omitting material that is in the Greek or adding extra material into the English. This will very definitely mean that at times you are producing English that is stilted, jerky, and even perhaps unnatural, but the test is: Is it conveying accurately exactly what is being said in the Greek?

A2.45 However, it is important to translate not only the words of the Greek into English, but also the other features of Greek syntax — word order, special constructions and ways of expressing an idea, etc. There is a difference, that is, between a word-for-word translation and a literal transla-tion. A word-for-word translation (as in an interlinear version) renders each word by its English equivalent but does not take due notice of units of expression larger than the word. A literal translation (and this is your aim) expresses in English exactly what is in the Greek but in doing so translates all the other features of the Greek in addition to just the words as such.

A2.46 Some of the features of Greek syntax that have been referred to are ones that will be explained in subsequent lessons, but we can note these three examples from what has been covered in Lesson Two: (a) Greek names of people often have the Article; this Article would not usually be rendered in English (see #2.34); (b) Greek word position can indicate special emphasis (see #2.92), and it may be desirable at times to find a way in English of indicating this emphasis-by-position; (c) it is a Greek idiom that a neuter plural subject regularly takes a singular verb (see #2.17) — you would render this Greek singular verb into English in the plural. An example of another idiom to be covered later in the Course: When Greek reports indirect speech, it retains the tense that the original speaker would have used, whereas English requires that in indirect speech the verb be put into the past.

A2.47 At times the Greek will be found to be ambiguous, being capable of having two (or more) interpretations. So far as possible, retain this ambiguity in your English rendering, so that you show an awareness of both possibilities; do not shut out, in your English version, part of the range of meaning that is present in the Greek.


A2.48 The ultimate goal towards which you are aiming in Stage One of your Course is to be able to read the Selections from the Greek New Testament in Greek and understand the meaning of what the Greek is saying without actually translating them into English. Now this goal may prove to be beyond the reach of many who do the Course: but a slightly lower goal, which should be well within the range of most students, is to reach the point of being able to read through all the various sentences in this Course and to translate them orally at sight. You may well fall short of this at the time of doing each Lesson (though some students will be able to attain it), but after you have gone through all ten Lessons of the Beginner's Course and you return to the earlier Lessons to revise them (#A0.38), you should find yourself increasingly able to do this.

A2.49 Always write your translation of sentences on a separate piece of paper. NEVER write a translation on the pages of this book itself. If you were to do that, you would see it each time you revised your earlier sentences, and your understanding would thus become limited to what it had been at the time your translation was first written out. To translate afresh each time you revise is to improve your competence in understanding the meaning of the Greek.


A2.51 Before attempting the translation of a Greek sentence, read it over aloud in Greek one or more times, being careful to use the correct pronunciation. Try to get a "feel" for how the sentence operates (this will become easier as your familiarity with Greek improves). Associating the sound of Greek in word and sentence with the appearance of the Greek is a very valuable aid to learning which should not be neglected — it is reinforcing learning by familiarizing you with the sight and sound of Greek simultaneously.

A2.52 The first step to take in commencing the actual work of translation is to check whether or not the sentence is a question. This will be indicated in your edition of the Greek New Testament by a question mark (;) at the end — as your familiarity with Greek increases, you will learn that there are also a number of Greek words which indicate that a question is being asked. If it is a question, you may possibly find it easier to translate the sentence first of all as if it were a statement, and then transform it into a question in English as a second step.

A2.53 Look for the verb in the sentence (or, if it is a long sentence, with two or more sections joined by conjunctions such as καί, δέ, ἀλλά, γάρ, οὖν, or others that you will learn, work on the first section of the sentence first; then go on to the next section). At this stage you will be able to recognize the verb by its form: either it will be one of the forms from the flexion of εἰμί that you have learnt (#1.95) or it will consist of the lexal of a verb plus one of the endings of λύω) (see #2.81, #A2.36 and #A2.37). If you have learnt λύω thoroughly, you should be able to spot a verb quite quickly. In subsequent Lessons you will be introduced to more of the varied forms that a verb can take — each time you are presented with a new verb flexion it is important for you to note the features that will enable you to recognize each of its forms as being a verb.

A2.54 If the verb is afirst or second person form, then the subject is an internal subject, that is, it is the pronoun suffix (#2.76) already contained within the verb: "I", "we" or "you" (singular or plural) as the case may be. There may also be an external subject in the sentence as well, which will be the nominative case of the separate pronoun with the same meaning, and this will thus have an emphatic effect (see #1.95, #2.86). The degree of emphasis will vary according to the style of the author and his intention in a particular context, and can range from slight to very emphatic: the context will be your guide.


A2.55 If the verb is third person, then the next step is to look for an external subject (#2.84). If there is one, it will have three features which will aid you in locating it: (a) it will be in the nominative case (which you will recognize from knowing the nominative case endings for the different paradigms); (b) it will very frequently have the definite article in front of it, in the nominative case (and the forms of the article are ones that you have learnt, and are very easy to recognize); and (c) it will customarily be just after (or sometimes just in front of) the verb of which it is the subject — occasionally it may be separated from its verb by other words. If there is no external subject to be found, then you will make use of the verb's internal subject: "he" (or sometimes "she" or "it") if the verb is singular, and "they" if it is plural (#2.83, #2.85).

A2.56 Look next for other words which are linked to subject and verb — an adjective referring to the subject (which will be either in front of the noun, or after the noun with the noun's article repeated in front of it; such an adjective will have the same gender, number and case as the noun), or a word — such as a negative — referring to the verb. Another common type of word to look for is a noun or pronoun in the genitive case referring to the subject. The usual position for such a genitive is immediately after the word to which it refers.

A2.57 Now see if there are words in front of, after, or fairly close to the verb which are accusative case and are not preceded by a preposition. Apart from a few special idioms that you will meet in due course, these accusatives will normally form the direct object of the verb. In your English translation you will place such a word or words immediately after the verb. Thus in the sentence "You have faith", "faith" is the direct object and so will be in the accusative case (πίστιν) and, as is frequently the case for the direct object, it comes in front of the verb in Greek; when the sentence is translated into English this direct object is then placed after the verb ("have").

A2.58 Finally, translate any prepositional phrases (a preposition followed by a noun, either with or without an article between them) and any other words which remain. Use your Vocabulary Cards or the Greek Vocabulary at the end of this book (Appendix G) for any words you do not know.

A2.59 Assemble your translation, putting the Greek word order into correct English order: any introductory words (such as "and" or "for" or "behold", etc.), the subject, the verb (noting if it is negative or interrogative), the object, if any, and any other expressions in the sentence, putting these with the words to which they refer. If a sentence is in two (or more) parts, the division will usually be marked by punctuation and/or a conjunction (such as "and" or "but" or similar word), and each part of the sentence (called a clause) is best handled separately. In your translation, do not take words out of one clause of a sentence and put them into another clause.


A2.61 Some people encounter no problem with Greek word order, while others find it very difficult. This section is intended to assist those who are having trouble with Greek word order.

A2.62 In both languages, a sentence may consist of one or more clauses — if there are more than one, each clause will usually have a verb of its own, and at least one clause and quite probably both or all of them will have a conjunction (#2.18; #2.96). You need to deal with each clause on its own.

A2.63 Your goal is to end up with an intelligible English sentence that accurately conveys the meaning of the Greek. Each Greek sentence and each English sentence consist of a number of "meaning units" — words, and groups of words which collocate (that is, "go together" in meaningful patterns). These "meaning units" are the "building blocks" of sentences in both


languages. But Greek word order is rarely the same as English word order. Therefore, to achieve your goal you are going to need to translate Greek word order into English word order. Think of these "building blocks" as actually being empty boxes with different names, into which are placed the appropriate words of a clause or sentence. That is, a sentence (in Greek or English) is like a row of these boxes, with most of the words going into one box or another, and a few words being jammed into the "cracks" between two boxes. You will find these boxes in one order in a Greek sentence, and your task is not only to translate the Greek words but to rearrange the boxes into the right order required by an English sentence.

A2.64 First, let us note the standard English word order. There are five main "building blocks" or "boxes", usually occurring in a set order:

Conjunction Subject Verb Direct Object/ Complement Indirect Object

That is, these are the names on the five "boxes" which make up an English sentence, and this is the order in which those boxes need to be placed. If the verb has a negative, this goes as part of the verb's "building block"; the article, adjectives, and genitives which refer to a noun go in that noun's "building block" or "box". Other words — vocatives, adverbs, prepositional phrases, and the like — are then fitted into the "cracks" between these "boxes". Very few sentences will have something in every "box" — for most sentences there will be one or more empty "boxes". Here is a two-part sentence which we can put into two rows of "boxes" and "cracks": "So Jesus told these parables to the crowds, but privately he explained everything to his own disciples."

SoJesustoldthese parablesto the crowds,
butprivatelyheexplainedeverythingto his own disciples.

Sometimes these "boxes" can be rearranged differently in English — for example, some verbs (but only some) allow you to put the indirect object in front of the direct object, without using "to", like this: "So Jesus told the crowds these parables"; and you can usually rearrange some of the units, for example, "but to his own disciples he explained everything privately". But the pattern we are using will serve to give us an intelligible English sentence, so make it your goal to turn the Greek word order into this pattern in English.

A2.65 Greek sentences are make up of the same basic "building blocks" as English sentences —#A2.5 has explained how these "meaning units" of a Greek sentence can be identified. Sometimes these "blocks" are already in the same order that English uses, as in Selections B9 and B22:



ὁ Πέτρος






Direct Obj/Compl


Indirect Object

to him,








ὁ Χριστός

Direct Obj/Compl

the Christ.

Indirect Object






Subject Verb

I am sending

τὸν ἄγγελόν μου

Direct Obj/Compl

my messenger

Direct Obj/Compl

πρὸ προσώπου σου.

[other words]

before your face.

A2.66 However a typical Greek sentence will have these "building blocks" in a different order:


Direct Obj/Compl



NOTE: (a) if a verb has a noun subject, it will typically be placed after the verb; (b) if a verb has a pronoun subject, this may occur anywhere in the sentence; (c) if a verb has an internal subject, then verb and subject will be just one word; (d) there is no typical position for an indirect object — it can be found almost anywhere, in one of the "cracks" between the "building blocks".

Selections B4 and B21 follow the "typical" pattern of a Greek sentence:




Direct Obj/Compl

οὐκ ἔχομεν

Verb Subject


NOTE: A negative goes into the verb "block", and when there is no external subject there will be just the one "block" for the verb with its internal subject.



ἔργα τῶν χειρῶν σού

Direct Obj/Compl


Verb Subject

οἱ οὐρανοί·


NOTE: (a) εἰσιν is a verb of equivalence (#2.95), so ἔργα is its complement;
(b) the genitive expression referring to ἔργα goes into the same "block" with it.

A2.67 Most Greek sentences will have one or more words which do not fit into any "box" and which lie in one or other of the "cracks" between the "boxes"; and/or which have a "box" in a different order. For example, in Selection B 1 the emphatic pronoun ("we", ἡμεῖς) comes first. Similarly B3, B7, B12 and B20. And you will notice how the "dative of the person(s) spoken to" usually comes after the verb of speaking (in B8, B9, B 13, B 16 and B 17 — but not in B 15). For each Greek clause or sentence, identify the "building blocks" used in it, and what words come in between them.

A2.68 Now take these "building blocks" of the Greek sentence which you have identified, and translate the Greek words and the order of the Greek "blocks" into English words and the order of English "blocks". You may find it helpful, while getting used to this procedure, to draw up a grid for your translation of each Greek clause, with a named box for each "building block", and fill in, in the correct box, the English translation for each "meaning unit" of the Greek sentence when you have identified it. Bear in mind that other parts of a sentence not covered by these "boxes" will be placed in the "cracks" between them.


This is the box grid you can use for your English translation:




Direct Object/Complement

Indirect Object


A2.71 All these guidelines are to be used for the Sentences of Lesson Two and for all subsequent Lessons in this Course as well — they will enable you to decipher most of the Selections from the Greek New Testament. But what should you do when you meet problems: a word or a sentence that you simply cannot work out?

A2.72 The best advice for such a situation is, Give up on it. Don't worry about that particular Selection — after you have worked on it and tried to translate it, and found it too difficult to understand, leave it altogether, and go on to the next one. Never feel obliged to work out each Sentence before you can leave it for another one: if you keep wrestling with one that you find difficult you could waste a great deal of your valuable time which could be more profitably used in doing the other Selections. The problem which has temporarily defeated you will invariably solve itself as the range of your exposure to Greek material increases. If however you do wish to pursue the problem further when you first encounter it, the following guidelines will be of help, both for Lesson Two and all subsequent Lessons.

A2.73 First of all, reread the particular Course Lesson, and if necessary look back over the previous Lessons as well. Chances are that you have overlooked some comment or explanation which will give you the key to the point that is unclear, or which will unlock the right approach to the meaning. (If there is not a comment or explanation in any of the previous Lesson material, write and tell me — it means I have omitted including one, and it would be helpful for me to have you point this out to me.)

A2.74 Next, consult (according to the nature of the problem) a lexicon or dictionary, the appropriate Appendix at the end of this book, a detailed grammar book, or a commentary on the Greek text of the New Testament.

A2.75 Check out the particular passage in an Interlinear Greek New Testament, or in one of the more literal English translations of the New Testament (RV or NASB), and see if this clears up the difficulty. (This is most likely to be helpful if the problem is being able to work out the right English order for the Greek words.)

A2.76 If you are a member of a Greek class, discuss the problem with other members of your class. This is always a good practice for your Greek work generally — two or three students working together can often help each other to understand the full meaning of a Sentence, for one will see what another misses.

A2.77 Make a note of the problem that you have met, and if it is not covered in working through the translations of the New Testament Selections at the next Session of your Greek class, raise the problem yourself for discussion and clarification.

A2.78 But remember: don't be at all concerned at finding in practice that your knowledge of Greek is only partial and incomplete, even for dealing with these Selections from the Greek New Testament. Reading and more reading from the Greek New Testament is the best way of filling the gaps in one's knowledge. It is also the most enjoyable way.




A3.11 The English equivalents for the personal pronouns should be carefully noted. They are:

First Person Second Person Third Person Masculine Feminine Neuter S N e yd) I 015 you afFcciç he afyrri she afxro it A eyelpe me cre you afirov him afyrriv her afyro it G epoi3/uov my col) your afYrof) his oct)-cfb; her afn-o13 its rto me rto you afyroj ito him I to her ito it D epoi /pot tfor me col ifor you af)11:7 t for her (xii i for it tfor him P N niueic we 'Oleic you throi at'n-ai af)Ta they A riyag us wag you at'rcoi5c- at')Tac af)rde them G npu5v our upo5v your ayrciiv cteniii v afn.ciiv their f to us , _ ito you to them D riiiiv vpiv airroic af)icafg. afyrof; {for them { us ifor you

A3.12 The longer forms of the first person singular pronoun (eye, etc.) are usually the emphatic forms, and the shorter forms (ye, etc.) are usually unemphatic, but sometimes this distinction does not seem to hold. The second person singular forms are emphatic if accented, unemphatic if not.

A3.13 If you tend to confuse the respective meanings of r)peic and tViefg, note that the last letter of the English word is the first letter of its Greek equivalent: we long e you u 15,aeic

A3.14 afird; al)24, afro means "he/she/it", but this word will be referring to some other word and takes the gender of the word that it refers to. Thus if afytdc refers to (for example) -kingdom" or "cloud" (which are feminine in Greek - see Vocabulary, L2/823 and L2/826), then it will need to be feminine in form, though the English translation would be "it" (because these words are neuter in English).

A3.15 The plural forms of al:Fro; are all equivalent to English -they", but: the masculine plural covers masculine or combined masculine and feminine units; the feminine plural covers a group of units all of which are feminine; the neuter plural covers units which are neuter. "Unit" here means "whatever the word refers to", whether person or thing, and "masculine, feminine and neuter" refers to its/their grammatical gender in Greek.

A3.16 The demonstrative pronoun/adjective ant); sometimes has the diphthong au- in its stem, and sometimes changes this to au-. Can you see when each one occurs? It is related to the ending of each form: if the ending contains an "o" (short or long), then the stem diphthong will be ov-; but if the ending contains an "a" (short or long - and this includes an i, which at times functions like a lengthened a), then the stem diphthong will be ay-.

A3.17 The singular of oi5roc (see #3.32) means "this" and the plural means "these"; the same case meanings apply as usual, and the same features about gender apply as in #A3.15. Note that when a form of this word is used as a pronoun (i.e. without referring to another noun) it means "this one", and the gender indicates "this man", "this woman", "this thing" (#3.36).



A3.21 Note (#3.62) that k- added at the beginning of a verb form is the augment, the past time indicator or morph. Thus every verb that is referring to past time will commence with an k- if its lexal begins with a consonant; for example, 0a)ov, second aorist (note the single A) from PciA,A,co; and EiSov, from verb lexal iö- (#3.69). But there are some verbs which have a verb lexal commencing with k- (for example, x(.0, which we met in Lesson Two). Therefore, when working on a New Testament Selection, whenever we come across a verb form which commences with è-, we need to check in our Vocabulary or Dictionary to see whether this is a verb which has a lexal commencing with è-, or whether this k- is the past time morph added to the verb lexal.

A3.22 When the verb lexal itself begins with E- , the past time morph (the augment) is the change of this E- into Thus the verb stem kAO- becomes 7);t9- when it is augmented (second aorist: 42,60v). Similarly, an initial a- also becomes , and o- becomes lengthened to co-. Whenever therefore we come across a verb form which commences with rfr or co-, we have to bear in mind that this may conceal an augment and thus the word may be a past time form of the verb.

A3.23 There are some verb lexals which already begin with a long vowel or diphthong and are not changed by the addition of an augment. Thus the verb stem thy- remains thr- when augmented (second aorist: throv, #3.69).

A3.24 There are three different patterns of the aorist active tense in Greek. This is to say, there are three conjugations in Greek (see #10.13) which may be clearly distinguished from each other in the aorist active flexion. The one being introduced this Lesson is the second aorist, i.e. the aorist active flexion of the Second Conjugation. The first aorist will be introduced in Lesson Four, and the third aorist in Lesson Seven. (Eipi is from the Third Conjugation, but the flexion from it which is given in Lesson Three is the imperfect tense — it has no aorist flexion.)

A3.25 The second aorist active indicative is formed by prefixing the augment to the lexal and adding to the verb stem a two-part ending. The first part of this ending consists of a vowel which is called the neutral morph (see #2.77, #A2.35), and as in the present tense (see #A2.34) this two-part ending is made up of this neutral morph followed by the pronoun morph. Some of the pronoun morphs are the same in the second aorist as they were in the present tense (#A2.36), and some are different.

A3.26 There are thus four morphs in the forms of the second aorist flexion: augment (past time morph); lexal; neutral morph; pronoun morph. They are all readily identifiable — except in the third person singular, where the ending is just -E. This -e is the pronoun morph: the neutral morph, -E-, elides (that is, slides off or hides from view) when a vowel suffix is added. (Elision will be further explained later on.)

A3.27 Can you recognize the morphs in the forms of the flexion of f3a?Lov (#3.8)? The forms divide into morphs like this:

1 -1(3o(A-o-v 2 .-Pot2L-E-3 -J3a). e(v) P 1 k-fica-o-atiEV 2 k-/3d)-e-TE 3 i-Pa).-o-v A3.28 Sometimes we find that in a second aorist form a Greek writer has replaced the neutral morph with the vowel -a-, the vowel of the punctiliar morph which is used by the first aorist (as we


will see in Lesson Four). Thus we can come across thrav for the third person plural instead of the grammatically correct throv. An example of this is given in Selection 30 of this Lesson's Selections. This is a stylistic variation, and makes no difference in meaning. Indeed, it seems that when it is done it is intended to differentiate the third person plural from the first person singular form, throv- these two forms are identical in the paradigm of the second aorist.

A3.29 Note the movable nu (#1.75) in the second aorist third person singular.


A3.31 Understanding the functioning of the Greek verb is crucial for understanding the meaning of a Greek sentence. And a Greek verb is made up of many rnorphs each containing a unit of meaning, all of which together give the total meaning of the verb form in any particular sentence.

A3.32 Like a freight train loaded with valuable merchandise, a Greek verb form is loaded with meaning. Just as a freight train consists of a number of "units" — trucks — each carrying valuable goods of different kinds, so a verb form consists of a number of "units" — morphs — each of which brings you a different piece of information.

A3.33 To get the total value of your freight-train-load of goods, you have to unload all the trucks. Similarly, to get the value out of all the morphs in a Greek verb form, you must be sure to "unload" the meaning out of each individual morph, for every morph in the verb form is carrying its own piece of information for you.

A3.34 Alternatively, a verb form can be viewed as a key to a lock, the morphs being the various bumps and indentations on the key. The exact form of these determines the particular meaning "unlocked" by a given verb form.

A3.35 Or, a verb form can be likened to a jigsaw puzzle, the morphs being the different pieces, each of which has to be identified and put in its right place to build up the total picture.

A3.36 Again, the meaning of a verb form is a mystery, and the morphs of the verb are the clues — work out the meaning of the clues, put everything all together, and you solve the mystery of what happened (the action described by that verb form).

A3.37 One of the most helpful ways of viewing the verb morphs is as being like a set of electrical switches — some of them are simple on/off switches, and some are multiposition switches. Thus the augment is the past time on/off switch: when the augment is present in a word, this switch is "on", and it "switches" the meaning of that particular form of the verb to "past time position". The ending is a multiposition switch: when this switch reads "juev", this "position" indicates the meaning "we"; when this switch reads " Ti" , however, this "position" switches the meaning of the verb form to "you (plural)". And so on.

A3.38 Keeping in your imagination these different ways of viewing the nature and function of the morphs in a verb form can help you in your approach to unscrambling its meaning.


A3.41 Most verbs require accusative case in the noun which follows them as their direct object. Thus (Selection B26): et 8EV thjo a6E24aoc, where 815o dukAlpoijc ("two brothers") is the direct object of ET &V ("he saw"), and is therefore accusative case.


A3.42 Some verbs take the genitive case instead of (or as an alternative to) the accusative. Thus aicotjw, "I hear", is sometimes followed by the accusative case and on other occasions by the genitive case (as in Selection B 19). Different shades of meaning can sometimes be intended (see for example the standard commentaries on the use of ocovrj in the genitive case in Acts 9:7 and 22:7, but in the accusative case in Acts 22:9, in the accounts of Paul's conversion).

A3.43 Some verbs take the dative case instead of the accusative case, especially where the noun refers to the person to whom the action of the verb applies. Thus 7r107E15C0 ("I believe") is often followed by the person who is to be believed, in the dative case. Alternatively, it can be followed by etc plus the accusative (as in Selection B6) or ?v plus the dative (as in Selection B 11).


A3.51 Do your Assignments in sequence. Make sure that you have memorized the paradigms set for learning in this Lesson — and in the previous Lessons — and that you understand the meaning of each of the forms you memorize.

A3.52 After you have finished reading this section of Appendix A, answer the Questions in your Workbook, and then turn to your translations. Note particularly the Prepositions and the fact that each takes or selects a particular case (pErd has two possible cases, each with a different meaning).

A3.53 When you commence your work on the Selections, remember to read each Selection aloud carefully and correctly before attempting to translate it (#A2.51). Then translate each of the Selections, not so as to produce smooth-flowing idiomatic English, but so as to bring out the exact meaning of the Greek. Read again #A2.44 to remind you of your aims in this regard.

A3.54 Note that δέ never comes first in the Greek, but is always put first in the English rendering (#2.96). It can be translated either "and" or "but", according to the context (translate it as "and" unless the context shows that a contrast of some kind is in view, in which case "but" is the right rendering).

A3.55 Some common expressions, especially with prepositions, are regarded as definite even (hough they do not use the definite article. Thus ev kthacio (Selections B23 and B28) means "in the middle/midst". Conversely, watch for places where the Greek article would not be required for English (as in Selection B1).

A3.56 In addition to being used for "to" or "for", the dative case can also have the meaning of "in", as in T CP aái avopa-ct, "in your name" (Selection B 12).

A3.57 When translating Selection B 19, remember that (contrary to the normal rules of agreement) in Greek a singular verb will normally be used after a neuter plural subject (see the Rule, #2.17).

A3.58 If you need to find the meaning of a word in order to understand a particular Selection and the word is not printed alongside that Selection, this is because you have been introduced to this word already, either in a previous Lesson or earlier in this Lesson. You will be able to find the word in your pack of Vocabulary Cards, or in the earlier "New Words" for this Lesson. Remember to take off an augment, if it has one, in working out its lexical form (the form in which it will be given in a Vocabulary). (You will find it helpful to make out Vocabulary Cards for the new words of this Lesson as you come to each of them. so that you keep your pack fully up to date.) You can also look up any words you need in the Greek Vocabulary in Appendix




A4.11 Note carefully the indicative flexions of this Paradigm; particularly: (a) that the future is the same as the present, with the future time morph, -a-, added between lexal and endings; (b) that the imperfect has the augment and exactly the same set of endings as the second aorist (see #3.81); (c) that the first aorist is marked by having -o-a- throughout, except only for the third person singular where the punctiliar morph is -a-, the -a- of the full morph -aa- eliding when a vowel suffix (-E-) is added; (d) that the perfect has the same suffixes as the first aorist (with the aspect morph -Ica- instead of -aa-). The one exception is the third person plural, which is -at(v) not -v.

A4.12 Note the meanings of the different morphs in the future forms; that the neutral morph has no meaning (when short, it simply shows that the form is not subjunctive mode); and that the English meaning of the word can be read across from right to left in the combined meaning of all the other morphs. Thus: — a — o loose will we

A4.13 Similarly, the meaning of the aorist and perfect forms can be read in the morphs: (a) The aorist: e — A.v aa — 1.IEV -ed loose- we

The aorist morph -aa- is not translated, but is noted as indicating the punctiliar meaning of the form, as distinct from the durative meaning of an imperfect tense form, etc. (The meaning of the imperfect cannot be read off from the morphs in this way, but aboitiev means "we were loosing".) (b) The perfect: — — /1EV -ed loose- have we

A4.14 When a verb lexal commences with a consonant, the rule for reduplication is: double that initial consonant, and insert -E- between them. Thus, for the verb 8otaeow, the 8- is doubled and -E- inserted between, and the aspect morph -Ka- added to the lexal, to give the perfect 8e6otaevica. (When a verb commences with a vowel, a p, an aspirate, a double letter or two consonants together, special reduplication rules apply: see #E4.3.)

A4.15 Note carefully the subjunctive flexions; particularly: (a) that the present subjunctive is the same as the present indicative but with the neutral morph lengthened, and that the -t- of a diphthong goes subscript and the -v- of the diphthong -ov- drops out; (b) that the aorist subjunctive is the same as the present subjunctive, with the punctiliar morph, -a-, added between lexal and endings. (The -a- of the full punctiliar morph -aa-has elided before the vowel suffixes.)

A4.16 Note that the difference of meaning between the present and aorist subjunctive has nothing to do with time, but aspect. The present subjunctive means that the action under consideration (for example, "we might loose") is of a durative nature ("we might loose on an ongoing or continuing basis"). The aorist subjunctive means that the action under consideration is of a once-only nature, or relates just to the occasion in question ("we might loose on this particular occasion"). This difference of aspect applies to all use of the subjunctive.

A4.17 Note carefully the other forms of the active Paradigm, and especially the differences between the corresponding forms of present and aorist.

A4.18 Note that the aorist only has the augment in the indicative mode, which means that the aorist has past time signification only in the indicative mode.


A4.19 Note the three pairs of forms in these flexions which have the same spelling: 0vov: the 1st person singular and 3rd person plural of the imperfect (we saw this also last Lesson for the second aorist, #3,83); ittjw: the 1st person singular present of the indicative and also of the subjunctive; 2.13cro): the 1st person singular future indicative and also aorist subjunctive. When these "ambiguous" forms are used, usually some factor in the context will enable you to know which of the pair is intended in any given instance.


A4.21 In #4.45 we learn that the words Iva ("in order that") and div ("ever", indicating indefinite-ness) take the subjunctive after them. The word div is used when the indefiniteness of something is being expressed. Thus: (./1; áv n-apeA9r3 6 apavac icth tj yf (L4/B18), literally "until ever the heaven and the earth were to pass away", indicating the indefiniteness and uncertainty of the time when they shall pass away, or indeed the uncertainty that they ever shall. Occasionally this óv is written in the variant form kav, with the same meaning. Thus, bc kav oZ-v 2.15Trii (L4/B 18), "whoever then were to loose/break ..." Usually eav (a combination of Ei, "if", and ay) means "if ever", as in Kai kav 15piv EI7r0 ... (L4/1321), "and if ever anyone were to say to you ...", indicating that it is a possibility (but not certain) that someone will say something.

A4.22 Similarly, 'Iva takes the subjunctive, for it usually expresses a purpose. Thus, Iva rcAripwerj )67.70ev 6tde rof) 7rpoOrfrov (L4/B19), "in order that what was spoken through Isaiah the prophet should be fulfilled". Sometimes Iva is used to indicate what should happen (and is translated "that"). Thus: bre-ripricev af)roi,; Iva oavepov afrrOv 7rotrio-watv (L4/B19), "he commanded them that they should not make him known". At times Iva is used to express a wish. Thus, Paf3Povvi,'Iva avaf3Aitm (L4/1321), "Rabbi, [my wish is] that I might see again".

A4.23 Example of future of liquid verb (#4.56): In the future atjpw ("I drag") becomes first of all oweco, with the addition of future morph -E-, and then when this form is actually used in writing or speaking the two contiguous vowels (that is, vowels next to each other) contract and the word form becomes owai: note the different accent, which results from the contraction and distinguishes the future from cropco, the present tense. Similarly the future of vim ("I judge") is kplvew, which contracts to vivo5. (This is the sixth situation where an accent should be noted: for the five earlier ones, see #A1.37, #2.88, #3.37, #4.17, and #4.94.)


A4.31 The core meaning of eic is "into" — something/someone is outside an environment, and enters it. Thus Jesus was driven by the Spirit Eig. iiv 437-1,uov (L3/B29). The core meaning of n-poc,- is "towards" — it means to go to someone/something, but does not include in its meaning the idea of entering it. The English sentence "They came to the town" does not itself indicate whether they entered it or stopped outside. Greek is able to resolve this ambiguity: if it uses eic for "to", then they entered the town; if it uses npoc then it implies they reached the town but does not in itself imply that they entered it.

A4.32 Part of the extended meaning of Eig is "right up on to". Thus if the disciples came gpoc the mountain, they arrived at it; if they came eic the mountain, they went right up on to it. (See Selections B4 and B7.) Both Irpog and si; imply motion, but eic indicates that the motion continued right into the sphere indicated by the word which follows it.

A4.33 Sometimes the sense of Eic is "throughout", as in Selection B5, ei; ariv rfiv FaAlAalav, "throughout the whole of Galilee".


A4.34 An extended meaning of Eig is "for, with a view to". Thus L5/B11, eig doEctv apapzicov, "for the forgiveness of sins".

A4.35 There is an exactly parallel distinction between kIC and (bro. & indicates the source or origin out of which something has come. It was inside, and now it has come from there. Thus L3/B13, "Did the baptism of John arise out of heaven or out of men?" (k of)pavoii TY devOpoilrow;)— this is a question about its origin or source. Similarly in L2/B5.

A4.36 An extended meaning of eK is that something started right at the point mentioned. Thus L3/B7, E apxlic, "right at the beginning, or at any point after that".

A4.37 In contrast, ago can be used of being distant from something without implying having come from that something or not. Thus in L3B18 the disciples in the boat were not far durb Tfig yfig, "from the land". Had they come from that shore or not? The wording does not indicate. Again in L3/B14 Jesus tells a man that he is not far dare 2 lig Pao-IA.Eiag, "from the kingdom". It is obvious that this does not mean that he had been in the kingdom and had left it; on the contrary, he was coming close to the kingdom, but he was still some distance dura it. A4.38 Another extended meaning of kiC is to indicate the connection of someone with a group. Thus L5/B10, ko-re 26V VOParCOV 2o5v kycov, "you are out of my sheep", that is, "you are part of my sheep, you belong to my flock". It does NOT mean "you are out of my sheep" in the sense "you have left my flock". This meaning of "belonging to" or "being a member of" a group is a very common meaning of eic.



A5.10 The goal of this Lesson is to understand how the Third Declension works. It may be helpful for some people if this goal is broken down into a series of small steps, which indicate how to go about achieving it in stages.

A5.11 First of all, learn ἰχθύς, because it is the basic Third Declension pattern paradigm. It has a long vowel stem (the upsilon is long, as in νῦν, pronounced as in the keyword "truth", #1.52). Note that the endings are added straight to the stem without any modifications.

A5.12 In contrast, whenever endings are added to short vowel or consonant stems, linguistic modifications will occur. Most of these modifications are predictable, and are explained by the Rules (#5.31—#5.38). The second thing to do, then, is to learn crap, and to compare its paradigm with that of ixOt5g. Be sure that you understand the differences: adif:4 takes the consonant-stem ending -a- for the accusative singular (#5.30), and combines the last phoneme of its stem, -1C, with a following sigma into in accordance with the Amalgamation Rule (#5.33). Otherwise its paradigm is identical with that of izaog.

A5.13 Thirdly, compare the other vowel stem paradigms (#5.20) with izafig and note how they agree with and vary from it. Some explanation of these variations will be given at a later stage; for now, seek to cultivate "recognition memory" of the forms of the vowel stem paradigms by the comparison and contrast with ixffac.

A5.14 Fourthly, note the other Linguistic Modifications Rules one at a time (#5.34—#5.38), and observe how these Rules account for the other regular paradigms given in #5.30 and #5.44. If you understand these six Rules, you will understand what is happening in the forms of the vast majority of Third Declension words. This is an understanding well worth gaining.


A5.15 Next, compare how the "slightly irregular" consonant stem paradigms of the "family group" 4) vary from the regular, and note the explanations of these variations (#5.41—#5.44).

A5.16 Then note the similarities and differences of the neuter paradigm (Rolla with its ---1Lculine/feminine equivalent, raic, D3.8 (#5.5).

A5.17 Finally, observe how adjectives use the paradigms of the three Declensions (#5.7—#5.8). Note particularly 7t-ok6c; and Reyac (#5.85), which change their masculine/neuter from Third to Second Declension after the first two case forms; and Er; (#5.86) — students often confuse :he masculine and neuter forms with prepositions because of not noting the rough breathing, and sometimes they totally fail to recognize Ilia as the corresponding feminine flexion form when they encounter it. Be sure, also, that you are able to identify the compound forms of 6; ofkkic and 77 &li

A5.18 The most important of the Third Declension noun paradigms have been set out in Lesson Five. For all the others, including full paradigms for adjectives, see Appendix D.

A5.2 EXERCISE: The answer for #5.39: S N vv A vOicra G vvIcrog D vv KT/ P N V1j1C2Ec A vijicrac G vu icro5v D vt4i (v)


A5.31 It is quite common to find that some Greek authors will use the same preposition in a compound verb and governing a noun in a related prepositional phrase. For example, in L5/B6, EA,OE a (throf), and again in kfiA,19Ev afnofi.

A5.32 This is a stylistic feature, referred to as the iterated preposition, and does not indicate emphasis upon the preposition. In translating, you can choose a word which captures both prepositions; e.g., in the above example, "depart out of him". Frequently it is sufficient to translate just one of the iterated prepositions.



A6.11 NOTE CAREFULLY how the presence of the morph -pev- in Slot 8, the Specifier Slot, indicates that the form is a middle participle (#6.35); but that a middle future participle form will be switched to passive by the insertion of the passive morph -en- in Slot 5. Thus: kvaopEvoc is the middle future participle (#6.33), and AvOricroiuevoc is the passive future participle (#6.50). The slot is important: -,tiev in Slot 9, the final slot, is the pronoun "we". NOTE ALSO that the aorist passive participle has a completely different flexion from the aorist middle participle (#6.29, #6.50).

A6.12 NOTE CAREFULLY that Greek has no passive flexions for the durative and perfective aspects and can use the present and perfect middle forms with passive meaning (#6.37, #6.50). Because of this, whenever you come across a present or perfect middle form, examine the context carefully to assess whether the author's intended meaning is the middle or the passive voice.


A6.13 NOTE CAREFULLY that only the future and aorist tense systems take the passive morph -9e/On-. In itself, this morph indicates "aorist passive" unless it is followed by the future morph which in its turn must always be followed by the neutral morph (#4.22, #4.74). The presence of these three morphs together — passive, future, and neutral morphs — indicates that the form is future passive.

A6.14 THE REFLEXIVE PRONOUN: Do not overlook the Reflexive Pronoun given at the end of Lesson Six (set out in full in Appendix D, #D6.8). The 1st person singular means "myself", the 2nd person singular "yourself", the 3rd person singular "himself/herself/itself" (depending upon gender). Note that the one plural flexion is used for first, second, and third person, and means "ourselves/yourselves/themselves" — the reflexive pronoun reflects the subject of the verb, and thus the person of the verb will indicate which person is meant for the pronoun.


A6.21 Progressively, we have now been introduced to all nine morph slots of the verb, that is, positions in a verb framework where a unit of meaning can be placed. The verb's lexal is the core of the verb, carrying the word's lexical or dictionary meaning. There are three types of prefix which can be placed before it, and five kinds of suffix which can be added after it. These nine morph slots of the verb can be likened to switches each of which "switches" the meaning of the verb to a particular alternative (see #A3.37).

A6.22 In a compound verb, four slots are always filled, that is, always contain a morph, each of which will be one of a range of alternatives (with different meanings) that can occur in that slot. Each of these four slots is thus like a multiposition selection switch — it selects for that slot a particular meaning out of the range of alternatives available. These four slots are Preposition, Lexal, Aspect, and Ending, and they thus provide the basic framework for the structure of every verb form (so that a zero morph in one of these four slots is significant). They are represented in the diagram that follows as circular switches.

A6.23 In between these four framework slots are five other slots, all of which can be likened to on/off switches. They are represented in the diagram as rectangular switches. Four of the five are simple on/off switches — for these slots there is no range of alternative morphemes. Rather, there is only one morpheme (or unit of meaning) which can occur in a given slot, though a morpheme can have different allomorphs or alternative morphs — that is, it can have different forms, with identical meaning. (For example: the future morph, which is -e- after liquids and -6- otherwise.) If this morpheme is present in its slot it switches the verb to have that particular meaning (that is, in the example just given, "future"). Thus these are all optional slots — slots which may contain a morph, or may not.

A6.24 The fifth optional slot, Slot 8, is also an on/off switch, but if it is "on" — that is, if it is filled by a morph — it can have in it any one of six different possible morphemes, and the verb will then be "switched" to the meaning given by that particular morpheme. Only one of these six morphemes can occur in any given verb form (which is why it is only one slot, not six); or Slot 8 may be "off", and have no morpheme in it at all.

A6.25 The English meaning can frequently be "read off" for a Greek verb form by giving each morph its English equivalent and then reading the morphs from right to left. Examples: e — v — 017 — aav eIC - ;71111 - 817 - a - E - tai w — run — Ica --ed loosen- were they out sought be will it -t kep- have you


The Greek verb has nine morph slots, which can be viewed as being a mixture of on/off and multi-position switches.


PREPOSITION 20-position switch for: No preposition (simplex) 18 prepositions Special prefix (#E4.14) OFF ON i1f1 T r:i "mi j I J PAST REDUP- LEXAL TIME LICATION On/Off On/Off The lexal will be one of the one thousand that occur in the New Testament. OFF -1 ON PASSIVE FUTURE VOICE TIME On/Off On/Off o- 41E ASPECT 3-position switch (Absent in Third Conjugation flexions.) OFF ON' cs) 0) 2 4 5 6 SPECIFIER On/Off switch — but when it is on, it will specify one or other of six pieces of information: 1. pluperfect active 2. perfect active participle 3. other active participle 4. middle participle 5. middle imperative/ infinitive 6. optative mode —4 to N 00\ ENDING 3-position switch When switched to one of these three positions, the verb will then take one of the range of endings for that position