LESSON ONE: THE GREEK LANGUAGE
1.1 Some Background Information About Greek; 1.2 Accents and Breathings; 1.3 Pronunciation Guide; 1.4 The Alphabet: Greek/English Equivalents, with pronunciation keywords; 1.5 Vowels; 1.6 Consonants; 1.7 Writing; 1.8 Punctuation; 1.9 Greek Words
LESSON TWO: THE ARTICLE; THE SECOND DECLENSION; THE PRESENT ACTIVE FLEXION
2.1 The Greek Sentence; 2.2 Inflected Forms For Noun, Pronoun, and Adjective; 2.3 The Article; 2.4 Paradigms of the Article and Second Declension Nouns; 2.5 Inflection of Adjectives and Pronouns; 2.6 Prepositions; 2.7 The Verb; 2.8 Paradigms of the Present Indicative Active; 2.9 Word Order
LESSON THREE: FIRST DECLENSION, AND SECOND AORIST ACTIVE
3.1 Complete Paradigms For The First Declension; 3.2 Feminine Nouns of the Second Declension; 3.3 Pronouns; 3.4 Clues From The Agreement of the Article and Adjectives; 3.5 The Present Imperative, Second Person Plural; 3.6 Time, Aspect, and Conjugation; 3.7 Compound Verbs; 3.8 Paradigms For the Imperfect of εἰμί and the Second Aorist Active; 3.9 The Verb Morph Slots;
LESSON FOUR: THE RELATIVE; THE ACTIVE VOICE
4.1 The Relative Pronoun; 4.2 The Rest of the Active Verb; 4.3 Aspect; 4.4 Mode; 4.5 Linguistic Modification Rules; 4.6 Double Morphs; 4.7 Guidelines on How To Decipher A Verb; 4.8 Using the Guidelines to Understand Verbs in the Greek N.T. Selections; 4.9 Notes For The Selections;
LESSON FIVE: THE THIRD DECLENSION
5.1 How To Find Your Way Through The Third Declension; 5.2 Third Declension Vowel Stems; 5.3 Third Declension Masculine and Feminine Consonant Stems; 5.4 Slightly Irregular Third Declension Masculine and Feminine Nouns; Neuter Nouns; 5.5 Third Declension Neuter Consonant Stems; 5.6 Learning the Third Declension?; 5.7 The Declension of Adjectives: First and Second Declension Pattern; 5.8 The Declension of Adjectives: First and Third Declension Pattern; 5.9 Notes Re The Greek New Testament Selections;
LESSON SIX: THE MIDDLE AND PASSIVE VOICE
6.1 The Passive and Middle Voices of the Verb; 6.2 The Paradigm of the Middle Voice; 6.3 Points To Note; 6.4 The Future Indicative and The Other Modes of εἰμί; 6.5 The Paradigm of the Passive Voice; 6.6 Self-Testing Review; 6.7 Concerning The Second Aorist and The Imperfect; 6.8 Contract Verbs (Paradigms C1.2, C1.3 and C1.4); 6.9 The Reflexive Pronoun
LESSON SEVEN: ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS; THE SECOND AND THIRD CONJUGATIONS
7.1 Corresponding Adjectives/Pronouns; 7.2 Corresponding Adverbs; 7.3 Formation of Adverbs: The Regular Pattern; 7.4 Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs; 7.5 Attributive and Predicative Use of Adjectives; 7.6 Suppletives, And Other Verbs of the Second; Aorist; 7.7 The Third Aorist, and The Third Conjugation; 7.8 Direct Flexions;
LESSON EIGHT: PARTICIPLES AND PREPOSITIONS
8.1 The Paradigm of the Participle; 8.2 The Periphrastic Participle; 8.3 The Adjectival Uses of the Participle; 8.4 The Adverbial Use of the Participle; 8.5 The Genitive Absolute; 8.6 The Ins and Outs of Prepositions; 8.7 The Cases, Meanings, and Frequencies of the Prepositions; 8.8 Interrelationships and Usages of the Prepositions; 8.9 The Reciprocal Pronoun
LESSON NINE: USING NOUNS AND THE ARTICLE
9.1 Investigating: The Case of the Flexible Noun; 9.2 Self-Testing Review; 9.3 The Meaning and Use of the Cases: The Nominative Case; 9.4 The Meaning and Use of the Cases: The Vocative Case; 9.5 Oblique Cases: The Accusative Case (Without Preposition); 9.6 Oblique Cases: The Genitive Case (Without Preposition); 9.7 Oblique Cases: The Dative Case (Without Preposition); 9.8 The Use of the Article
LESSON TEN: VERB CONJUGATION
10.1 Greek Verb Conjugations; 10.2 The Formation of the Tense Stems; 10.3 The Principal Parts of the Verb; 10.4 The Paradigms of the First Conjugation; 10.5 The Optative Mode; 10.6 Periphrastic Tenses; 10.7 The Infinitive and the Impersonal Verb; 10.8 Conditional Sentences; 10.9 Direct Flexions and Other Verb Terminology
THE WAY AHEAD
STAGE TWO: INTERMEDIATE GREEK COURSE
PART ONE: LESSONS ELEVEN TO TWENTY
PART TWO: LESSONS TWENTY-ONE TO THIRTY
UNITS OF THE TEXT OF MARK (FORTY UNITS)
A: A STUDENT'S GUIDE TO THE USE OF THIS BOOK
B: BASIC PRINCIPLES FOR TEACHERS USING THIS BOOK
Bl A Personal Word From Author to Teacher
B2 Course Teaching Patterns
B3 General Approach To Course Teaching
B4 Course Teaching Aims
B5 Course Teaching Methods
B6 Course Presentation
B7 Course Examinations
C0 The Greek Verb
C1 The First Conjugation
C2 The Second Conjugation
C3 The Third Conjugation
C4 Verbs With Direct Flexions
C5 Verbs Which Take Two Aspect Morphs
C6 Conspectus of the Three Conjugations
C7 Deponent Verbs
C8 Irregular Verbs
C9 Verb Groups For New Testament Verbs
D0 The Greek Declension System
D1 The First Declension
D2 The Second Declension
D3 The Third Declension
E: EXPLANATIONS IN PHONEMICS AND MORPHOLOGY
E1 The Component Elements of Language
E2 Phonemic Modification
E2.1 Elision; E2.2 Contraction; E2.3 Vowel Lengthening; E2.4 Compensatory Lengthening; E2.5 Syncopation; E2.6 Amalgamation; E2.7 Assimilation; E2.8 De-aspiration; E2.9 Crasis
E3.1 Morphs; E3.2 Allomorphs and Morphemes; E3.3 Root, Stem and Ending
E4 The Morphology of the Greek Verb
E4.0 Morph Slots of the Verb; E4.1 Slot 1: The Preposition; E4.2 Slot 2: Past Time; E4.3 Slot 3: Reduplication; E4.4 Slot 4: The Lexal; E4.5 Slot 5: Passive Voice; E4.6 Slot 6: Future Time; E4.7 Slot 7: Aspect; E4.8 Slot 8: The Specifier; E4.9 Slot 9: The Ending
E5 Morphological Analysis of the Greek Verb Form
HOW THIS COURSE OF STUDY WORKS
0.1 As the purpose of this Course is to equip the ordinary Christian with the ability to read and understand the Greek New Testament, the primary emphasis is upon learning to read Greek. There are English-into-Greek sentences provided for translation, to direct the attention of the student to how Greek handles specific grammatical situations; but the main emphasis is not upon translating from English into Greek (on the assumption that it is not really the aim of students to learn how to do this). Grammar is introduced and taught in this Course on an "explanation" basis — elements of grammar are explained which will enable the student to understand the sentences from the Greek New Testament that he is being given to work with. That is, you learn your grammar at the point where you will use it, and you then use it in the sentences given at the end of the Lesson in which you were introduced to it.
0.2 There is much less emphasis in the Course upon learning vocabulary than is usual in a beginning Greek Course. There are two reasons for this: First of all, it is because there is no actual word-for-word correspondence between Greek and English, but most words have a number of meanings the choice of which to a considerable extent is context-determined. For a new student of Greek to learn a single word of English as representing a particular word of Greek can therefore be misleading. Rather, the meaning of each Greek word is given for its particular context in a passage, and then these words are used and re-used in slightly varying contexts, in order to lay a foundation for the understanding of the "area of meaning" of each word. The second reason is a firm conviction on my part that, as a student has only a given amount of time available for spending on Greek study, he is much better employed in spending it, not in learning vocabulary lists, but in actually reading and grappling with a slab of Greek text, with an open word-list/vocabulary alongside. He will of course find that many word-meanings will "stick" in his memory, and he should encourage this. These word meanings will be reinforced and expanded as he reads more and more widely in Greek as the Course progresses.
0.3 This does not mean that learning vocabulary is unimportant but, rather, that words are better learnt in context than in isolation. Therefore make it your aim to master the meanings of words as you see them used — and the Assignments for each Lesson include making out Vocabulary Cards for the new words of that Lesson. By the time you complete the ten Lessons of the Beginner's Course you will have been introduced to the three hundred words which occur more than fifty times each in the Greek New Testament. These are listed in Appendix G of this book. It is very useful to go through this list at least once every week or so, and tick off in pencil those that have been learnt: this enables you to see for yourself how you are progressing. These three hundred words are referred to as "common New Testament words", and in the vocabulary that is listed for each of the Lessons of this book these common New Testament words are marked with an asterisk, *, to indicate that it is particularly worthwhile remembering them because of their frequency.
0.4 The Beginner's Course is self-contained and complete: no additional books are required. When you are ready to begin reading the Greek New Testament, you will need a good edition, and an Analysis or Key.
THESE ARE THE BASIC BOOKS YOU WILL NEED:
The Greek New Testament (United Bible Societies, Third or Fourth Edition)
Greek—English Dictionary of the New Testament (Ed. B.M. Newman, United Bible Societies)
(It is preferable to use the edition which has these two combined in one volume.)
An Analysis of the Greek New Testament (Zerwick and Grosvenor, Biblical Institute Press)
Or A Linguistic Key to the Greek New Testament (Rienecker and Rogers, Zondervan)
12 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
THESE BOOKS ARE USEFUL:
Biblical Greek (M. Zerwick, Biblical Institute Press)
Reader's Greek—English Lexicon of the New Testament (S. Kubo, Andrew's University Press/ Zondervan)
The Morphology of Biblical Greek (William D. Mounce, Zondervan)
Greek—English Lexicon of the New Testament (Bauer, Arndt, Gingrich and Danker, University of Chicago Press)
0.5 Remember that the aim of the Course is not really to train you in translating the Greek New Testament into English, but to enable you to understand the meaning of the New Testament in Greek. Therefore, do not concentrate on the task of translation as an end in itself, but use your translation work as a means of reaching your real goal, which is to understand what the text says in Greek, and what it means by what it says. This is your first step towards putting it into practice yourself, and teaching its meaning and message accurately to others.
0.6 Paragraphs in the book which begin NOTE or IMPORTANT NOTE contain points which it is very important for readers to note; and paragraphs which begin RULE contain a point of grammar formulated as a Rule of the Greek language, which should then be learnt.
0.7 NOTE: # indicates a cross-reference to a paragraph in this book: # followed by a number refers to the Lesson with that number in the Beginner's Course; # followed by a letter refers to that Appendix in the Reference section. Thus #1.46 refers to the paragraph with that number, which will be found in Lesson One; and #C1.21 refers to the paragraph in Appendix C with that number. // is placed between references to parallel passages in the Gospels.
0.8 NOTE: When a new term is introduced and defined or explained, it is given in italics (see for example in #1.9 and #2.1). The meaning of the new term should be learnt at that point.
0.9 IMPORTANT NOTE: Under no circumstances ever write an English translation above any of the Greek sentences in this book — this would restrict your later understanding to what you had learnt at the time that you wrote out that translation. (But you may of course photocopy or copy out the sentences you are working on, and put on that copy an interlinear rendering of the words, as an intermediate step while you are engaged in working out the meaning of those sentences.)
These abbreviations are used in the grammatical notes at the end of each Lesson:
STAGE ONE: BEGINNER'S GREEK COURSE
THE GREEK LANGUAGE
1.1 SOME BACKGROUND INFORMATION ABOUT GREEK
1.11 Some hundreds of years before the time of Christ, the country now called Greece consisted of a number of separate city-states. The people of these states shared a common culture and a common language, though with some differences of dialect from one region to another. In the centuries before Christ's birth, Attic (the dialect of Athens) had become the main literary form of the language, and this is what is known now as "Classical Greek". Through the conquests of Alexander the Great, Greek then became the official language of most of the Middle East, and was used as the language of trade, learning, and administration throughout the whole of his Macedonian Empire.
1.12 During this process, however, the literary form of Attic became broken down into a somewhat simpler and less rigid pattern of grammar, and it absorbed words and forms from other Greek dialects and also from other languages (including Latin). This colloquial form of Greek is known as "Hellenistic Greek", or koine ("common") Greek.2 In the First Century AD koine Greek was spoken and understood throughout Palestine and around the entire Mediterranean basin, as well as much further afield in the Roman Empire and beyond. At this time Rome ruled the civilized world, and Latin was the official language of government; but Greek continued as the common language of everyday activity and communication. It is illustrative of the situation at the time that the inscription on the Cross (see John 19:20) was written in Aramaic (the local language in Judea), Latin (the official language of government), and Greek (the common language that just about everyone could read).
1.13 It is highly probable that Jesus gave much of his teaching in Greek, and we may well have in the Gospels a great deal of material that is not in fact a translation from Aramaic into Greek but a record of Christ's actual words in Greek.' Thus koine Greek naturally became the language in which the New Testament was written, as it was the ideal vehicle for enabling God's message to reach the greatest readership. Even the Epistle to the Hebrews was written in Greek, not Aramaic, and the Epistle to the Romans was written in Greek, not Latin.
1.14 As a result of a law passed in Attica in 403 BC4, there came to be 24 letters in the alphabet of Athens, and thus of Classical, New Testament, and indeed modern Greek. In ancient times and across various dialects, there had been other letters representing the sounds of Greek speech. As pronunciation changed over the centuries, so did spelling. Three letters, koppa, sampi and digamma survive only as numbers.' The first two are variants of kappa ("k") and sigma ("s") respectively. Digamma was a "w" or "v" sound, which dropped out of Greek pronunciation but has left behind a few peculiarities in the words in which it used to occur — we look at these in later Lessons.
1.15 The common form of writing used in the First Century is called UNCIAL, and this was replaced in the Ninth/Tenth Centuries by an alternative style called cursive or "running" writing.' The cursive style is used now for all printing and writing, whilst the uncial letters function (with slight variations) as capital letters.
1.16 NOTE: In the standard printed editions of the Greek New Testament, capital letters are used for:
(a) proper nouns (the names of people, places or things, like "Jesus", "Bethlehem", "Jordan"),
(b) to mark the beginning of a paragraph, and
(c) at the beginning of direct speech (that is, when the actual words which someone spoke are being quoted).
Apart from these circumstances, a sentence does not begin with a capital. (Some editors of editions of the Greek New Testament may differ slightly from this convention, by using capitals for sub-paragraphs or not using them for direct speech.) We can see then that capitals are relatively infrequent in Greek.
1.17 During the koine Greek period (330 BC to 330 AD), some of the sounds were pronounced differently at different times and places (compare similar differences in the pronunciation of English today in various parts of the world). Thus there is a degree of uncertainty about the way to pronounce some letters, especially the vowels.' In cursive writing, small marks called accents were placed above one of the vowels of each word, as a guide to pronunciation; unfortunately, the key to the meaning of this pronunciation system has been lost.
1.18 In learning and using New Testament Greek today, we are not going to attempt to pronounce words in the way that a First Century speaker would have done - indeed, this would hardly be possible, because (as we have seen) there was no uniform way of pronouncing the language but there was some diversity of pronunciation during the Hellenistic period. Instead, a standardized pronunciation system is adopted which is indeed based on how Greek sounds were pronounced but which is also intended as an aid to memorization.8 Even in this regard, however, there are variations in the pronunciation of New Testament Greek which will be found in its use today.
1.19 The pronunciation scheme followed in this book is a common one which is in current use. It adopts pronunciations which were used during the Hellenistic period and also takes account of how words are spelt and how they are best pronounced by students of New Testament Greek today, with the goal of having a phonemic system, that is, "one letter, one pronunciation". Thus the pronunciation scheme adopted in this book (which is also found in numerous other Grammars of New Testament Greek) is superior on these grounds to the alternatives, particularly because it has the practical advantage that (with a minor exception) no sound has more than one spelling: so that if you can remember the pronunciation of a word this will assist you to remember the spelling.
1.2 ACCENTS AND BREATHINGS
1.21 When you look at a page of the printed Greek New Testament, you will notice that the letters of the Greek alphabet are different from those of English, and that almost every Greek word has one or more little marks or signs written above one (or more) of the letters. The signs are only written above the Greek letter for "r" if it comes first in a word, or above vowels. These signs are of two completely different types, accents and breathings.
1.22 Most Greek words carry an accent, which will be written above one of its vowels.⁹ This accent will be one of three kinds: an acute (written ´), a grave (pronounced to rhyme with "carve", written `), or a circumflex (really a combination of the acute and grave, written ^, but in some printers' typefaces it will be printed as ῀ or - as in this book ῀ ). In this book, the Greek words are given with their accents, because they are printed with accents in the text of the New Testament which the reader of this book will be learning to use. There are a small number of instances where accents are useful for the student, by serving to distinguish between word pairs which are identical apart from their accent, or by assisting with pronunciation - attention will be drawn to these instances when they are encountered. Apart from these special instances, accents serve no real purpose for those starting Greek study, and can be ignored. (The general principles of accentuation are set out in #E6, which is reached at the end of the Intermediate Course.)
ONE: THE GREEK LANGUAGE 15
1.23 When a Greek word begins with a vowel or the letter "r", that initial vowel or "r" will be written with a mark over it which is called a breathing. There are two kinds of breathings, which look very much like English single opening and closing quotation marks (or "inverted commas"), ῾ and ᾿.
1.24 If the breathing is curled to the right, like an opening inverted comma, ῾, then it is called a rough breathing, and it is pronounced as an "h" in front of the word.
1.25 If the breathing is curled to the left, like a closing inverted comma, ᾿, then it is called a smooth breathing, and it simply indicates that the word is not pronounced with an "h" in front of it.
1.26 Thus ὀσ- would be pronounced "os", but ὁσ- is pronounced "hos"; and ἐκ- is pronounced "ek", but ἑκ is pronounced "hek". NOTE: "οσ-" or "εκ-" could not exist, because without a breathing over the initial vowel you would not know whether or not the word started with an "h". The letters upsilon (υ, "u") and rho (ρ, "r"), always carry a rough breathing when they are initial; all other initial vowels may have either a smooth or a rough breathing.
1.27 If a word begins with two vowels which are pronounced together (this is called a diphthong), then the rough or smooth breathing will be placed over the second vowel of the diphthong. Examples: οἰκία ("oikia"); οἱ ("hoi"). If a word begins with two vowels which are not pronounced together as a diphthong, then the breathing will be placed over the first vowel. Example: ἐᾶτε, "e-a-te".
1.28 An accent can fall on the same vowel as a breathing. If it is an acute or a grave accent, the breathing comes first, followed by the accent: thus, ", ". If a breathing and a circumflex occur together, the circumflex is placed over the top of the breathing: thus, or . A breathing is placed in front of a vowel which is a capital letter. Thus, the breathing is placed:
(a) over the top of an initial vowel if it is a small letter. Examples: ἰδού, ἴδε, ὁδός, ἕκτος
(b) in front of an initial vowel if it is a capital letter. Examples: Ἀδάμ ("Adam"), Ὅτι ("Hoti").
(c) over the second letter of an initial diphthong, whether or not the first letter is a capital. Examples: εἰς ("eis"), οἶκος ("oikos"), οἰκία ("Oikia").
(d) over the first letter of two vowels which do not make a diphthong, or in front if the first letter is a capital. Examples: ἑόρακα ("he-oraka"), Ἐᾶτε ("E-a-te").
1.29 THE BREATHINGS RULE: Automatically note the breathing when you come to words beginning with a vowel, and be sure that you NEVER drop your aitches but always pronounce a rough breathing when it occurs, and always put the correct breathing over an initial vowel or diphthong when writing Greek words.
1.3 PRONUNCIATION GUIDE
1.31 TURN NOW to Appendix #A1 and work through the Pronunciation Guide and exercises which are given there.
1.32 These exercises provide a progressive introduction to the recognition and pronunciation of all the letters of the Greek Alphabet. The exercises will be found helpful both for Greek classes and for students learning Greek on their own.
1.33 After practising these exercises, return to this point in the Lesson.
16 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
1.4 THE ALPHABET:
GREEK/ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS, WITH PRONUNCIATION KEYWORDS
* Common Greek words — see #0.3.
1.42 The Greek sounds represented by the letters are called phonemes. That is to say, phonemes are to speech what letters are to writing. (Phonemes are described in detail in #E1 and #E2.)
1.43 The third letter of the alphabet, gamma, pronounced "g" as in "got", also has a second function in Greek. When the letter nu, "n", occurs in front of any of the phonemes made at the palate (the phonemes γ, κ, χ, and ξ), it is pronounced "ng" and is written using the letter gamma instead of nu. Thus ἐγχρίω consists of ἐν joined with χρίω, and is pronounced "eng-chrio". (In English, "n" in front of a palatal is also pronounced as "ng", as in "anger", "ankle", "anchor", "anxious", "anxiety".) When gamma is used in this way, and given this pronunciation, it is actually quite a different letter from "normal" gamma. When it is to be pronounced in this way it can be called enga (ἔγγα).¹¹ Practise pronouncing these examples of the use of enga:
ἐγγύς, ὄγκος, ἄγγελος, ἀγκάλη, ἄγκυρα, ἐγγίζω, ἐγχρίω, ἐγκρίνω, τυγχάνω, ἐγγράφω, ἐγκακέω, ἐγκαλέω, ἐγκάθετος, ἐλέγχω, σάλπιγξ, φάραγξ
1.44 When the letter iota begins a word and is followed by a vowel — as indeed it is in its own name — then it is pronounced as "y". So iota, the name of this letter, is pronounced "yo-ta" (rhyming with "quota"). Ἰησοῦς, "Jesus", is pronounced "Yair-sous", rhyming with "their use". Similarly, upsilon, υ, is pronounced as "w" when it comes in front of a vowel (as in υἱός, son).
Because they have some of the functions of a vowel and some of those of a consonant, these two phonemes, and rho, ρ, can be described as semi-vowels.
1.45 When the letter rho begins a word, it is written ῥ, "rh", but the "h" should not be pronounced. (Compare the "silent h" at the beginning of English words which have come from the Greek, such as "rhapsody", "rhetoric", "rheumatism", "rhyme", "rhythm", and numerous others.) If a double rho occurs in a word it may be found with a smooth breathing written over the first rho and a rough breathing over the second one. For example, ἐρρήθησαν (Galatians 3:16) may sometimes (especially in older editions of the Greek text) be found printed as ἐῤῥήθησαν.
1.46 NOTE: The syllables of a Greek word are pronounced so as to begin with a consonant. Thus γράφω is not pronounced γράφ-ω but γρά-φω. Similarly ὅλος is not pronounced ὅλ-ος but ὅ-λος. Break up other words in the same way. Where there are two consonants between vowels, start the syllable with the second one, thus: ἄν-θρω-πος, ὑπο-κρι-τής. Similarly divide up the pronunciation of a double letter; thus ἔξω is pronounced ἔκ-σω.
(a) The Greek alphabet (from the Greek column), in the correct order, with the correct pronunciation, as shown by the English keywords.
(b) The English keyword(s) for each letter. Each keyword contains the English equivalent of the Greek letter you are learning, and the keyword gives that letter the pronunciation that it has in Greek. Knowing these keywords can assist you greatly with your pronunciation in the initial stages of your study of Greek.
1.48 NOTE: When going through the Vocabulary of each new Lesson, always carefully pronounce each word aloud. When commencing work on each Selection from the Greek New Testament, read aloud that Selection in Greek first of all. This care about pronunciation, and practising reading out aloud, is exceedingly important. It is no harder to get into the habit of pronouncing a word correctly instead of incorrectly. An incorrect pronunciation will very easily mislead you into an incorrect spelling and possible confusion about words and forms. On the other hand, if you harness your eye and ear together, so that they operate in conjunction, each will aid and reinforce the other in the learning process. In consequence you will learn your work more quickly, more effectively, and more permanently.
1.51 Vowels are sounds (phonemes) that you make by the shape that you give to your mouth while you are breathing out air from your lungs.
1.52 There are seven vowels in the Greek alphabet, two of which are short, two of which are long, and three of which may be either short or long. These vowels (with their keywords) are:
|Short Vowels||Long Vowels|
|α (along)||α (father)|
|ε (penguin)||η (there)|
|ι (in)||ι (ski)|
|ο (got)||ω (throw)|
|υ (put)||υ (truth)|
1.53 Short vowels followed by ρ and a consonant can be pronounced as in English. Thus: Short α followed by ρ can be pronounced as English "ar", as in καρδία, "kar-dia". Short ε followed by ρ can be pronounced as English "er", as in ἔργον, "er-gon". Short ο followed by ρ can be pronounced as English "or", as in ὀργή, pronounced "or-gair".
1.54 Two vowels, ι and υ, can combine with each of the short vowels and with each other into a vowel-pair which has a distinct pronunciation, and which is called a diphthong (pronounced diff-thong). There are thus these seven diphthongs:
|αυ||Strauss||*αὐτός||he, self, same|
NOTE: υι is pronounced as in "penguin" if ι is short, and as in "suite" if ι is long — as is usually the case. However, this diphthong is not very common.
1.55 Practise your pronunciation of the Greek diphthongs with these words:
(a) καί, ναί, παῖς, καιρός, χαίρω, δίκαιος, παιδίον, δαιμόνιον, αἰών, αἷμα, αἰτέω
(b) εἰ, εἰς, εἷς, δεῖ, εἴτε, εἶδον, εἶπον, εἰμί, τρεῖς, ἡμεῖς, πλείων, πείθω, σπείρω, εἰρήνη, ἐκεῖνος, ἀλήθεια
(c) οἶδα, οἶκος, οἰκία, λοιπός, ποιμήν, πλοῖον, κατοικέω, ποιέω, ὅμοιος, ἀνοίγω
(d) υἱός, λελυκυῖα
(e) αὐτός, αὐτή, αὕτη, αὐταί, αὗται, αὐγή, αὐλός, αὔριον, αὐξάνω, σεαυτοῦ, σταυρόω, θησαυρός
(f) εὖ, εὐθύς, πιστεύω, βασιλεύς, εὐαγγέλιον, δεύτερος, ψεῦδος, εὐλογέω, εὐχαριστέω, εὑρίσκω, εὐαγγελίζω, πνεῦμα, γραμματεύς
(g) οὐ, οὐκ, οὐχ, οὐχί, οὖν, οὐδέ, οὐκέτι, οὐρανός, οὗτος, ποῦ, πούς, νοῦς, ἰδού, ὅπου, δοῦλος, ἀκούω, ἐξουσία
1.56 IOTA SUBSCRIPT: The long vowels (α, η, and ω) can also combine with ι, and the iota is then written subscript, i.e. below the main vowel, as ᾳ, ῃ and ῳ. A vowel is pronounced the same with iota subscript as without it. NOTE: As with the breathing, iota subscript is part of the spelling of a word and must never be omitted in writing a word in which it occurs.
1.57 OTHER VOWELS TOGETHER: In all other cases where vowels occur together they do not form a vowel combination but are each pronounced separately; e.g., ὄγδοος, "eighth"; κύριε, "sir"; Βηθλέεμ, "Bethlehem". (Notice that it is not possible to use a rough breathing in the middle of a word to give an "h" sound, so the "h" of "Bethlehem" is simply omitted.)
1.58 LEARN the seven diphthongs, together with the English keyword(s) for each diphthong.
Each keyword contains the English letters corresponding with those in the diphthong you are learning, and the keyword gives that diphthong the pronunciation that it has in Greek. (There is
ONE: THE GREEK LANGUAGE 19actually no English word which contains the right pronunciation of "au" corresponding to the Greek, so the name "Strauss" has been used because most people will know of this composer. The αυ sound of Greek is usually written in English as "ou", as in "cloud", or "ow", as in "crowd".) Knowing these keywords can assist you greatly with your pronunciation in the initial stages of your study of Greek.
1.59 It is essential to become completely fluent as quickly as possible in reading the Greek letters, and pronouncing words correctly. The following passage from Luke 14:27-28 should be read and reread out aloud until correct pronunciation is automatic, and complete fluency is attained — it contains all 24 letters of the Greek alphabet:
Καὶ ὅστις οὐ βαστάζει τὸν σταυρὸν αὐτοῦ καὶ ἔρχεται ὀπίσω μου, οὐ δύναται εἶναί μου μαθητής. Τίς γὰρ ἐξ ὑμῶν, ὁ θέλων πύργον οἰκοδομῆσαι, οὐχὶ πρῶτον καθίσας ψηφίζει τὴν δαπάνην, εἰ ἔχει τὰ εἰς ἀπαρτισμόν;
1.61 Consonants are sounds (phonemes) that you make by interfering with the smooth flow of air from your lungs when you breathe out. Consonants can be classified according to how you interfere with the flow of escaping air (this is called the manner of articulation of the consonant), and where you interfere with the flow of escaping air (called the place of articulation).
1.62 There are three possible places of articulation: at the lips (producing sounds that are called labials), or at the teeth, using the tongue (producing dentals), or at the palate, again using the tongue (producing palatals).
1.63 The manner of articulation can be either to stop the flow of air altogether for a moment (producing a stop consonant) or to restrict the flow of air without stopping it, causing friction while the sound continues (and thus producing the continuants).
1.64 The stop consonants can be made either with or without the use of your vocal chords, so that they will be either voiced or unvoiced. It is also possible to put your mouth into position for making one of the stop consonants and to make an "h" sound there: this will give you three aspirated sounds, one aspirate for each "place" position in the mouth. The three Greek aspirates were originally stop consonants. Consequently, when they interact with following phonemes (sounds) they usually behave like (and therefore are grouped with and treated as) stops.
1.65 The continuants can be released either through the mouth or the nose. If the sound is released through the nose, this produces the three sounds called nasal liquids, one for each of the three "place" positions, labial (at the lips, giving "m"), palatal (at the palate, giving "ng"), and dental (at the back of the teeth, giving "n").
1.66 There are also two "liquid" sounds which can be made in the mouth, the oral liquids ("1" and "r"). Rho, ρ, is both an oral liquid and a semi-vowel — at times it functions as a consonant, and at times as a vowel. It is therefore listed twice in the following table.
1.67 Other oral phonemes one can make are a hissing noise (called a sibilant, the "s" sound, if unvoiced, and the "z" sound, if voiced). A sibilant can be added to a stop consonant in each "place" position: which will give you the three double consonants, ψ, ξ, and ζ — but note that two of these, ψ and ξ are unvoiced, and ξ is voiced.
1.68 Zeta, ζ, functioned in New Testament times as "z", the voiced equivalent of sigma, σ (for example, in transliterations from Hebrew such as Ναζαρέτ, "Nazareth"), and also (more frequently) as the double letter "dz". It is listed in the following table in two places: as a sibilant (the voiced equivalent of σ) and again as a dental in the "double letter" line, since it functions in the language in both ways. In early times zeta had two pronunciations, as zd, and as dz, reflecting the two sources from which it developed. Of these alternatives the pronunciation adopted and recommended here is dz, paralleling the labial double letter ψ and the palatal ξ.⁷
1.69 The Greek consonants can be set out in a table which shows their manner and place of articulation and all their other features.
|MANNER OF ARTICULATION||PLACE OF ARTICULATION|
The "special" double combinations πτ and σσ are included here for the sake of completeness, and will be explained in due course. At this stage it is only necessary to note them.
NOTE: SEEK TO UNDERSTAND this table now, and why the different phonemes are listed in a particular classification — you will frequently find it very helpful to know which consonants are labials, palatals and dentals. We will refer back to it from time to time because the place of articulation affects how words behave when different endings etc. are added to them.
1.71 WRITING GREEK: The written form of Greek at which you should aim is a style similar to that of the Greek printed characters, but without any of its ornateness. Aim at simplicity, clarity, and ease of recognition — avoid frills and flourishes. Practice writing the cursive (lower-case) characters as they are given here:
ONE: THE GREEK LANGUAGE 21
1.72 NOTE THAT: β, δ, ζ, θ, λ, and ξ, and these only, are double-height lowercase letters (though the strokes of φ and ψ go to double height); THAT the two strokes of χ cross on or just above the line; THAT the tails of ζ, ξ, and ς go below the line, as do the stems or legs of β, γ, η, μ, ρ, φ, χ and ψ. All capital letters are of uniform double height, and sit upon the line.
1.73 TRANSCRIBING INTO ENGLISH: English words derived from Greek are usually spelt with the corresponding English equivalent letters. But note that Greek chi (χ) comes into English as "ch" (as in "Christ") and not as "x", which is ξ. When upsilon (υ) is long it comes into English as "u"; but usually it is short and transliterates as the vowel "y" (as in "hypocrite"). The diphthong ου comes into English as "u" (as in "uranus", "Luke", and "Jesus"). The diphthong ευ is still "eu" in English before a consonant ("Eucharist"), but "ev" before a vowel ("evangelist"). The Greek γγ (i.e. enga plus gamma — see #1.43) becomes "ng" in English ("angel"); κ comes across into English as "k" when it is taken directly from the Greek, and as "c" when it has come via Latin. Be careful to distinguish the Greek capitals Ρ, Χ, Η and Υ from their English look-alikes.
1.74 THE WORD ENDINGS RULE: All Greek words end either in a vowel or else in ν, ρ or ς (including ψ and ξ). The only exceptions are the words ἐκ ("out of") and οὐκ/οὐχ ("not"), which are always pronounced with the word which follows; and foreign proper names (for example, Ἀβραάμ, Βηθλέεμ). Whenever the inflectional changes that take place in a word bring any other consonant to the end of that word, then that consonant is dropped.
1.75 MOVABLE NU AND MOVABLE SIGMA: Numbers of words which end in -εν or -ιν may drop the -ν, especially when followed by a word beginning with a consonant, without any punctuation between these two words. (Thus: the Greek word for "is" can be written ἐστίν or ἐστί.) This -ν is known as "movable nu". Similarly, ἐξ, "out of", and three other less common words drop their final sigma phoneme before a following consonant. That is, they have a "movable sigma": ἐξ thus becomes ἐκ before a consonant. (Note that is made up of the amalgamation of κ and ς.)
1.81 PUNCTUATION MARKS: There are six punctuation marks in Greek:
(a) , The same as the English comma.
(b) . The same as the English full stop, or, period.
(c) · The high point — similar to the English semicolon and colon.
(d) ; The Greek question mark — do not confuse this with our semicolon.
(e) ' The Greek apostrophe, similar to the smooth breathing in appearance, which is used (as in English, in words such as "can't", "he's") to indicate an elision, that is, where a letter has dropped out. Its use will be explained in due course. Examples: δ’ ἂν (Mark 3:29) for δὲ ἂν; ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ (Mark 1:42) for ἀπὸ αὐτοῦ; ἀλλ’ ὁ (John 1:33) for ἀλλὰ ὁ.
(f) ¨ The diaeresis, which is used (as in English, in a word such as "naïve") where two vowels which normally combine to form a diphthong are to be pronounced separately. For example, ἀϊδίοις, βαΐον, Ἠσαΐας, ἰχθύϊ, προϋπῆρχεν.
1.82 LATE USE: This punctuation was NOT used in the earliest, uncial, manuscripts of the Greek New Testament, where in fact the practice of the time was to run all the words together without a space between them. Punctuation was later incorporated in cursive writing and is used today in all printed editions of the Greek New Testament.'² NOTE that as there was no punctuation in the original manuscripts, this has been added by later editors.
22 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
1.83 Where Knowing Greek Makes a Difference: If you know Greek, you will therefore be aware that the punctuation in the printed text of the Greek New Testament reflects the judgement of the editors. Therefore at a number of points it is a matter of interpretation as to whether a particular phrase, clause, or sentence is a question or a statement. For example, are Romans 8:33b and 8:34b statements or questions? — the Greek itself does not indicate which it is, the only difference being one of punctuation. Romans 8:33-34 reads (NRSV), "Who will bring any charge against God's elect? It is God who justifies. Who is to condemn? It is Christ Jesus, who died, yes, who was raised, who is at the right hand of God, who indeed intercedes for us." But the second part of each verse could very well be taken as a question (the NRSV gives this possibility as a marginal reading for verse 34). Seeing these sentences as being questions is in line with the whole of the rest of the context of 8:31-35, all of the other sentences of which are taken as questions by translators. Taking these verses this way underlines the impossibility of the thought that the One who justifies, the One who saves and intercedes for us, would bring a charge against us or condemn us: "Who will bring any charge against God's elect? Will God do this, when he is the One who justifies? Who is to condemn? Is it Christ Jesus [who will do this when he is the One] who died, yes, who was raised, who is at the right hand of God, who indeed intercedes for us?"
1.84 DIRECT SPEECH: Greek has no quotation marks. How then can we know when someone's actual words are being quoted? The beginning of direct speech is usually indicated by the use of an initial capital (see #1.16). Additionally, to indicate the beginning of direct speech the author may use the word ὅτι (which is thus equivalent to English opening inverted commas). But this word also means "that" and "because"; when an author uses it to indicate the beginning of direct speech, we will recognize this because in our printed edition of the New Testament (and in this present book) the next word will begin with a capital letter. The end of direct speech is often indicated by the words which follow it being ὁ δὲ ..., which mean, "and he ..." (referring to the other person in the conversation); and similarly ἡ δὲ ... ("and she . ..") for the feminine and οἱ δὲ ... ("and they") for the plural. But in many places in the New Testament there remain uncertainties as to whether something is a quotation or direct speech, or not, and as to where direct speech ends. [Two examples from John 3: it is uncertain whether what Jesus is saying to Nicodemus concludes at verse 13 (as in the Good News Bible), or verse 15 (as in the RSV) or verse 21 (as in the NIV, NRSV, and others); it is also uncertain whether what John the Baptist is saying concludes at verse 30 (GNB, RSV, NRSV) or verse 36 (Phillips, Jerusalem, NW).]
1.9 GREEK WORDS
1.91 Greek words consist of two kinds, the "changing" and the "unchanging". The "unchanging" words remain the same every time they are used. These words have the grammatical names (which will be explained next Lesson) "conjunctions", "prepositions", "adverbs", "particles", "negatives", and "the infinitive". The "changing" words take different forms to indicate all the different kinds of grammatical information which the text is telling us. "Changing" words are "nouns", "pronouns", "adjectives", "verbs", "participles", and "the article" (these are all called "parts of speech", and these various terms will be explained next Lesson).
1.92 Many Greek words consist of two or more parts or segments, with each segment of the word conveying a particular "piece" or "unit" of information. Each such segment of a word is called a morph¹³, and a morph is described and named according to the information that it gives. Thus the "lexical part" of an inflected word (that is, the part that carries the lexical or dictionary meaning of the word) can be described as the lexical morph, or lexal¹⁴. The changes which take place in a word are called inflection. An inflected word consists of a lexal together with various "additional" morphs (technically known as affixes) which give the reader grammatical information. The lexal generally remains the same in the different forms of an inflected word, while the affixes change
ONE: THE GREEK LANGUAGE 23
from one use of the word to the next. A set of these inflected forms is a flexion¹⁵. An affix may be added in front of a lexal (a prefix), into a lexal (an infix) or at the end of a lexal (a suffix). A suffix will frequently be composed of several morphs, each of which conveys different information about a word's grammatical meaning. The last morph of a word is often called its "ending".
1.93 For example θεός (see #1.41) consists of the lexal θε-, which carries the word's lexical meaning of "God", and -ος its ending, which indicates its grammatical information (in this case, that this form is nominative singular, the form used when the word is the subject of a sentence). With a different ending the word will have a different grammatical meaning — thus the form θεοῦ means "of God" or "God's" (that is, the ending -ου indicates the grammatical information that is technically called genitive singular). "Christ" is Χριστός, so "of Christ" or "Christ's" is Χριστοῦ). Question: "world" is κόσμος; so what is the Greek for "world's"?
1.94 However, for feminine words such as ζωή, "life", the ending meaning "the subject of a sentence" is -η and the ending of the genitive singular is -ης. Similarly for other nouns such as γῆ, "earth"; φωνή, "voice"; ψυχή, "soul" (see #1.41). And being feminine, these will all take the feminine form of the word "the" with them. Question: what will be the meaning of ζωῆς?
1.95 Verbs can have even greater variety in their forms. The most frequently-occurring verb is *εἰμί (it is used almost 2,500 times in the Greek New Testament). This is the flexion for the verb εἰμί, together with the emphatic pronouns which can be used with these verb forms:
|Present Tense of the Verb "to be"||Emphatic Pronouns|
1.96 NOTE the two forms which have nu in brackets: this is movable nu (see #1.75), which may be found either included or omitted in the spelling when these forms are used in a sentence. The forms are to be learnt with the nu.
1.97 Using these forms and the Vocabulary which was introduced earlier (in #1.41 and #1.54) it is now possible for us to make up, or to translate, many Greek sentences. Thus "He is a man of God" will be ἐστὶν ἄνθρωπος θεοῦ. Similarly, "It is Christ's work" is ἐστὶν ἔργον Χριστοῦ (note that the genitive Χριστοῦ, "Christ's", will in Greek come after the word [ἔργον, "work"] that it refers to). And σὺ εἶ ὑποκριτής means You (singular, emphatic) are a hypocrite"; and ἡμεῖς ἐσμὲν οἶκος θεοῦ is "We (emphatic) are God's household"; εἰμὶ προφήτης θεοῦ is "I am God's prophet" or "I am a prophet of God"; ἐστὶν δύναμις Χριστοῦ is "It is Christ's power".
1.98 Much of the work of the next nine Lessons will consist of learning the different types of inflection that can occur in Greek, and which words take one kind of inflection or the other, and the difference that is made to the meaning of a word by inflecting it, and how the words are assembled into sentences to express the author's meaning. The various morphs will all be identified and their functions explained. But if you can see how these short sentences in #1.97 are to be translated from Greek into English (or vice versa), then you are ready to try your hand at translating some actual sentences from the Greek New Testament.
24 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
ASSIGNMENTS ON LESSON ONE
1.. APPENDIX: READ CAREFULLY through Appendix #A0 and #A1.
2.. ALPHABET AND DIPHTHONGS: (a) LEARN the Greek alphabet (#1.41): the names of the Greek letters, their order, their appearance, and their pronunciation. (The best way of doing this is to read down the column of the Greek names of the letters of the alphabet, saying them aloud, and then close your eyes and recite the names of the letters in order. Open your eyes to recheck any that you forget. Repeat this exercise, writing out the Greek letters. Spend five minutes each day going over them out loud, first of all reading them, and then saying them again with your eyes closed. Repeat until you can recite the whole alphabet without looking, and with confidence — and accuracy.) (b) LEARN the diphthongs (#1.54). (c) LEARN the keyword(s) (#1.41, #1.54) for the sound of each letter and diphthong.
3.. PRONUNCIATION: NOTE the Greek words in the columns "Greek examples" (#1.41 and #1.54) — PRACTISE reading them out aloud, using the keywords as necessary to confirm that you have the correct pronunciation. WORK OUT the pronunciation of Luke 14:27-28 (#1.59).
4.. WRITING: WRITE OUT in your Workbook, to hand in to your class teacher (to help you with your writing) the Greek words in the columns "Greek examples" (#1.41 and #1.54). (Ignore accents, but remember that you must put the correct smooth or rough breathing on initial vowels and diphthongs.)
5.. FLEXIONS FOR LEARNING: Your first flexion to learn is the Present Tense of the verb "to be", and the emphatic pronouns which can be used with these forms (#1.95). (The best way of doing this is to spend five minutes saying the forms each day. First of all read through the forms out loud, and then say them again aloud with your eyes closed. Repeat this pattern until you can say them without looking, and with confidence — and accuracy.)
6.. WORKBOOK: ANSWER THE QUESTIONS in your Workbook about what has been covered in Lesson One.
7.. VOCABULARY CARDS: Prepare a set of Vocabulary Cards for this Lesson. Purchase a packet of small system cards and write on the cards the words of the Greek Examples (#1.41 and #1.54), and the emphatic pronouns (#1.95). Write one word per card, the Greek word on one side, and the English meaning(s) on the other. In the top lefthand corner of each side of each card write 1 (meaning, a word introduced in Lesson One). Sort your cards into Greek alphabetical order. Use them whenever you need to check on a word you have not remem¬bered which is used in a Greek Sentence.
8. TRANSLATION EXERCISES: Translate the following Selections from the Greek New Testament, and the English-into-Greek sentences. (Some of these exercises can be done in class at the end of the Lesson, to assist students in seeing how to undertake translation, and the balance set for homework before next class. Or they can all be set for homework.)
To translate the following sentences you will need to use the forms of the verb "to be" (#1.95), together with the words on your Vocabulary Cards, from the "Greek Examples" in #1.41 and #1.54 and the emphatic pronouns (#1.95). Other words that will be needed are given below, next to the first sentence in which they are used: make out Vocabulary Cards for each of these new words as you come to them.
ONE: THE GREEK LANGUAGE 25
NOTE: προφήτης means either "prophet" or "a prophet"; more on this next Lesson (#2.32).
ALSO NOTE: the word "the" has these forms in these sentences:
A. SELECTIONS FROM THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
(NOTE: These are selected extracts from the Greek New Testament verses listed; only a part of the verse is being set for you to translate at this stage.)
|A1.||οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 1:34)||*οὗτος: this, this man;|
|A2.||ἐσμὲν τέκνα θεοῦ. (ΠΡΟΣ ΡΩΜΑΙΟΥΣ 8:16)||*τέκνα: children;|
|A3.||οὗτός ἐστιν ἀληθῶς ὁ σωτὴρ τοῦ κόσμου. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 4:42)||ἀληθῶς: truly; σωτήρ:saviour; *κόσμος: world;|
|A4.||Σὺ εἶ ὁ διδάσκαλος τοῦ Ἰσραήλ. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 3:10)||*διδάσκαλος: teacher; τοῦ Ἰσραήλ: of Israel;|
|A5.||Ῥαββί, σὺ εἶ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ, σὺ εἶ ὁ βασιλεὺς τοῦ Ἰσραήλ. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 1:49)||Ῥαββί: Rabbi; [ὁ] *βασιλεύς: [the] king;|
|A6.||Ὑμεῖς δέ ἐστε σῶμα χριστοῦ(ΠΡΟΣ ΚΟΡΙΝΘΙΟΥΣ Α 12:27)||*σῶμα: body; *χριστός: Christ;|
|A7.||Σὺ τίς εἶ; Οὐκ εἰμὶ ἐγὼ ὁ χριστός. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 1:19-20)||*τίς: who?; *οὐκ: not;|
|A8.||Ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ἄρτος τῆς ζωῆς . (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 6:48)||*ἄρτος: bread, loaf [of bread];|
|A9.||Ἀρχὴ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ, υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 1:1)||*ἀρχή: beginning, [the] beginning; *Ἰησοῦς: Jesus;|
B. TRANSLATION FROM ENGLISH INTO GREEK(Do not attempt to put accents on the Greek words; do NOT omit breathings.)
|B1.||I (emphatic) am the Christ. (Matthew 24:5)|
|B2.||Are you (emphatic) the king of the Jews? (Mt 27:11//Mk 15:2//Lk 23:3//Jn 18:33)||of the Jews: τῶν Ἰουδαίων|
|B3.||This is Jesus the king of the Jews. (Matthew 27:37)|
|B4.||I (emphatic) am the light of the world. (John 8:12)||the light: τὸ φῶς|
|B5.||You (plural, emphatic) are the light of the world. (Matthew 5:14)|
|B6.||You (plural, emphatic) are the salt of the earth. the salt: ra (Matthew 5:13)|
|B7.||I (emphatic) am the resurrection and the life. (John 11:25)||the resurrection: ἡ ἀνάστασις; and: *καί|
|BB8.||Truly you are God's son. (Matthew 14:33)|
|B9.||You (emphatic) are a prophet. (John 4:19)|
The Greek New Testament wording for these Sentences is set out in the Student Workbook, page 55. However, a different Greek word order would also be possible for most of them.
* Common Greek words — see #0.3.
THE ARTICLE; THE SECOND DECLENSION; THE PRESENT ACTIVE FLEXION
2.1 THE GREEK SENTENCE
2.11 A sentence is, in its simplest form, a statement about something; that is, a topic, and a comment about that topic. The topic, the "something" about which the statement is being made, is called the subject of the sentence. Usually, the subject will be a noun.
2.12 A NOUN is the name of a person, place, or thing (such as "Jesus", "Bethlehem", "Jordan", etc.), or the term used to refer to a person, place, or thing (such as "man", "town", "river", etc.).
2.13 Each noun in Greek is of a particular gender. As in English, there are three genders in Greek: masculine, feminine, and neuter — but many things that are neuter in English will be found to be masculine or feminine gender in Greek, and vice versa. That is to say, gender is a grammatical category, and does not always correspond with the category of biological sex.
2.14 A noun can be either singular or plural ("man"/"men"; "town"/"towns") — this feature is called its number. Greek indicates whether a noun is singular or plural by the kind of ending or suffix which is added to the noun's lexal (sometimes called its stem). In addition to gender and number, a noun has a third grammatical feature, case, to be discussed in the next section.
2.15 A PRONOUN is a word which can be used in the place of a noun (hence the term "pro-noun"), as in "Jesus calls his own sheep by name, and they follow him." (The words in italics are pronouns.) Pronouns are of various kinds, which we will meet in due course. Some other examples are: "he", "she", "it", "you", "my", "this", "who". (See further: #D6, Pronouns.)
2.16 THE VERB: In a sentence, the comment about the subject will be made by means of a verb, which states what is happening. A verb can be a lexical verb (one that has "dictionary meaning", like "made" or "states"), or an auxiliary verb such as "will", "be" and "is" in the previous sentence, or "did" in the sentence "Did you not sow good seed in your field?". A lexical verb is a word of "being" or "doing". (See further: #D6, Pronouns.)
2.17 By the rule of verb agreement, a verb will agree with its subject in number, so that if the subject is plural, the form of the verb will also be plural. Thus, the subject selects or determines the number of the verb. There are two exceptions to this normal rule of verb agreement:
(a) the neuter plural subject rule is that in Greek grammar a neuter plural subject takes a singular verb (a small number of exceptions to this rule are found in the New Testament); and
(b) the multiple subject rule is that when the verb has a multiple subject (such as "Jesus and his disciples") the verb agrees in number with that part of the multiple subject to which it is closest. We will be considering examples of these exceptions in due course.
2.18 OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH: (a) A complete sentence can consist of just two words, a subject and a verb: "Jesus wept" (John 11:35). Usually, however, a sentence will contain additional words which give further information about either the subject or the verb. These may be additional nouns or pronouns. Or they may be other "parts of speech" such as the following.
(b) Adjectives: words which further describe or identify the noun. For example, in the sentence "You are my beloved son", "my" and "beloved", are adjectives; and in "Did you not sow good seed in your field?", "good" and "your" are adjectives.
TWO: THE ARTICLE; 2ND DECLENSION; PRESENT ACTIVE FLEXION 27
(c) Prepositions are words which show the relationship of a noun to the rest of the sentence: Examples are "in" in "in your field" and "before" in "before your face".
(d) Adverbs are words which give more details about the action of the verb (which is why they are called adverbs — they add something to the meaning of the verb).
(e) A conjunction can join two short sentences together, combining them into one sentence, each part of which is then called a clause, with its own verb and subject. Thus the two sentences "You have faith" and "I have works" can be combined together into one sentence with the conjunction "and": "You have faith and I have works" (James 2:18, L2/B3). In Greek it is common for sentences to commence with a conjunction.
(f) Other "parts of speech" include negatives ("no", "not"), and exclamations ("Look!", "Behold").
2.19 EXAMPLES: In these sentences, can you identify what part of speech each word is?
"You are my beloved son."
"Did you not sow good seed in your field?"
"Behold, I send my messenger before your face."
2.2 INFLECTED FORMS FOR NOUNS, PRONOUNS, AND ADJECTIVES
2.21 A noun or pronoun can have different types of relationships to its sentence. Its relationship in a particular sentence will be shown by a preposition or by its case, or by the two together. The case of a noun (that is, its relationship to the rest of the sentence) is indicated by the particular ending which is added to the noun's lexal or stem: in general, each case uses a different ending.
2.22 There are four main cases in Greek. Thus there are eight possible forms that a noun can have, four for the singular and four for the plural. (Sometimes two forms will in fact have the same ending.) There is also an additional, vocative, form for some words. Thus a noun is made up of a lexal or stem, giving its lexical meaning, and a suffix called the numbercase morph, which carries the grammatical information of the word's number and case. Pronouns and adjectives, similarly, have a set of different forms to indicate number and case, and can have additional sets of forms to differentiate gender as well.
2.23 "Case" exists in English as in Greek, but in English only the pronoun retains special forms to indicate what its case is. English nouns do have an ending to indicate one particular kind of relationship (the use of "-'s" to show possession), but apart from this they indicate relationship by means of position in a sentence or by the use of prepositions such as "of", "to", and "for".
2.24 The cases in Greek, and their English equivalents, are as set out in the following table.
2.25 Pronouns have an additional feature called person. Those pronouns that refer to or include the addressor (the person speaking) are said to be first person (that is, "I", "me", "us", "our", etc.); those relating to the addressee (the person/persons being spoken to or written to) are second person ("you", "your"); and those referring to a person or thing spoken or written about ("he", "her", "its", "them", etc.) are third person. Nouns will usually be third person.
28 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
2.26 The different cases can be seen in these sentences (John 2:16; 16:7): 1. You must not make my Father's house a house of merchandise subject verb possessive possessive direct object direct object possessive nominative verb genitive genitive accusative accusative genitive 2. But I speak the truth to you. conjunction subject verb direct object indirect object conjunction nominative verb accusative dative Sometimes the word "to" is not needed in English for the indirect object — the second sentence could also be written in English as, "But I tell you the truth." "You" is still the indirect object, and the Greek would be identical for both forms of the English sentence.
2.27 In addition to the four cases mentioned, there is also a fifth case, the vocative, the form of address. The word "sir" is in the vocative case in the sentence, "Sir, we would like to see Jesus" (John 12:21). In Greek the form of the vocative is the same as for the nominative (a small number of important exceptions — which have a special form for the vocative — will be treated separately, as we come to them).
2.28 As mentioned earlier (#1.92), Greek words show inflection by changes which are made to their endings. For nouns, pronouns, and adjectives these inflected endings, called numbercase endings, indicate the number and case of the word (and, sometimes, its gender also). The set of inflections for a word is called itsflexionls. Where the same pattern of flexion (that is, the same set of endings) is used by numbers of words, then that pattern is called a paradigm (pronounced "parrah-dime"), which means "showing the pattern" (of something). These two terms can be used for the inflections both of nouns (and pronouns and adjectives) and verbs.
2.29 Noun paradigms which resemble one another can be grouped together on the basis of their "family resemblances". These families of nouns are called declensions, and to set out the pattern of inflected forms for a particular noun is called declining it. There are three noun "families" or declensions in New Testament Greek, with different numbers of "family members" or paradigms in each: the First Declension (D1) with five paradigms ("members"); Second Declension (D2) with three paradigms; and Third Declension (D3) with twenty paradigms. D2.1 means Declension 2, Paradigm 1; and so on. The nouns in the lists of "Greek Examples" (#1.41 and #1.54), and their Declension and Paradigm group, are:
FIRST DECLENSION (Dl)
|D1.2 Feminine Consonant Stem||D1.1 Feminine ριε Stem||D1.5 Masc. Consonant Stem|
SECOND DECLENSION (D2)
THIRD DECLENSION (D3)
|D3.2 Feminine Vowel Stem|
|D3.9 Neuter Consonant Stem|
TWO: THE ARTICLE; 2ND DECLENSION; PRESENT ACTIVE FLEXION 29NOTE that all the words in each Paradigm (flexion group) have the same ending. If you are at all uncertain about what a "noun" is, look carefully at these examples and see (from their English meanings) what kind of words they are.
2.3 THE ARTICLE
2.31 When Greek wants to indicate that a noun is definite it places a special word, ὁ, in front of it. This word is called the definite article or, more simply, just the article. The closest English equivalent is the word "the". Thus ὁ ἄνθρωπος means "the man" (in the sense of "person", "human being"), a definite man, the particular man, where the addressor or the addressee (or both) know which man is being referred to. 2.32 In contrast ἄνθρωπος means simply "a man" or "man"; and similarly for other Greek nouns. Greek has no indefinite article (English "a" or "an"), though where the Greek wishes to stress the indefiniteness of something it may use 21; "a certain", as in ἄνθρωπος 21g, "a certain man" (Luke 10:30).
2.33 The article is an inflected word, changing its ending so that it always agrees with the noun to which it refers in number, gender and case. It therefore has a separate form for both singular and plural for each of the four cases, for each of the three genders — this means that it has twenty-four forms in all (see further, #A2.2). (Some of these forms are spelt the same as one another, but most of them are distinctive.)
2.34 Frequently the article will be used with a person's name (especially if that person has already been mentioned earlier) to indicate that it is the person known to addressor and addressee. Thus, ὁ Ἰωάννης βλέπει τὸν Ἰησοῦν, which is translated as "John sees Jesus"; the articles ὁ in front of "John" (Ἰωάννης) and τόν in front of "Jesus" (Ἰησοῦν) are not translated.
2.35 The feminine article is a paradigm for the First Declension (D1). This means that the pattern of endings for the feminine article is the same as for one large group of First Declension words, Paradigm D1.2, Feminine Consonant Stem words, a paradigm which includes five words from our lists in #2.29, γῆ, ζωή, φωνή, ψυχή and εἰρήνη. That is to say, the endings of these words decline exactly the same as the feminine article.
2.36 There is a close similarity between the masculine and neuter flexions of the article and the masculine and neuter paradigms of the Second Declension. These paradigms are given here for ὁ κύριος, "the lord", and τὸ ἔργον, "the work, deed, action", together with the flexion of ὁ Ἰησοῦς, "Jesus".
2.4 PARADIGMS OF THE ARTICLE AND SECOND DECLENSION NOUNS¹⁶
|SINGULAR||MASC.||FEM.||NEUT.||D2.1 MASCULINE||D2.2 NEUTER||D2.3 "JESUS"|
30 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
Features to note in these paradigms:
2.41 The neuter nominative and accusative forms are the same as each other. This is true for all Greek neuter nouns (and adjectives and participles), both in the singular and the plural.
2.42 The nominative and accusative neuter plurals end in -α, and all the genitive plurals end in -ων This is true for all neuter paradigms of all declensions.
2.43 The masculine and neuter paradigms differ from each other only in the nominative and accusative cases — in the genitive and dative they are identical.
2.44 The characteristic of the Greek dative case is the letter ι. NOTICE that in the singular of the First and Second Declensions it is written subscript (#1.56); but this subscript iota is still a part of the spelling of the word and must not be omitted.
2.45 The stem of the article is τ, except in the masculine and feminine nominative singular and plural, where it has become a rough breathing instead. 2.46 The Second Declension masculine singular has a separate, special form for the vocative. This is the first exception for us to note to the generalization that the vocative has the same form as the nominative (see #2.27).
2.47 The Second Declension (D2) is the most common noun group in the Greek New Testament, consisting of nouns which have their nominative singular ending in -ος and are masculine (372 New Testament words), or which end in -ον and are neuter (196 New Testament words).
2.5 INFLECTION OF ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS
2.51 INFLECTION OF ADJECTIVES: An adjective, like the article, agrees with the noun to which it refers in number, gender, and case. The adjectives that have been listed so far (ἴδιος, μόνος and ὅλος — see #1.41) each therefore also have twenty-four forms. These correspond with the eight forms each of the Second Declension masculine, the First Declension feminine, and the Second Declension neuter. Thus the Greek word for "whole" (which is the source of our English word) has the three nominative singular forms ὅλος (masculine; declines like κύριος), ὅλη (feminine; declines like the feminine article) and ὅλον (neuter; declines like ἔργον).
2.52 INFLECTION OF PRONOUNS: (a) Pronouns (#2.15) like αὐτός (#1.54) also have twenty-four forms, the three nominative singular forms being αὐτός (masculine, "he"), αὐτή (feminine, "she") and αὐτό (neuter, "it"). The possessive "his" is the genitive form, αὐτοῦ).
(b) The Nominative and Genitive first and second person pronouns are:
|First Person||Second Person|
(c) The genitive of a pronoun is placed after the word to which it refers: ὁ υἱός μου, "my son"; ὁ βασιλεὺς ὑμῶν, "your king".
2.53 VOCABULARY LISTING: Adjectives and pronouns, like nouns, are listed in lexicons and vocabularies in their nominative singular form. Adjectives will normally be shown in the masculine, followed by the feminine and neuter endings, thus: ὅλος -η -ον (either with or
TWO: THE ARTICLE; 2ND DECLENSION; PRESENT ACTIVE FLEXION 31
without a hyphen in front of the endings). Pronouns are usually listed similarly. A noun is always listed in the nominative singular followed by either the full form of its genitive singular or just the ending of its genitive singular, as this allows the identification of its declension. This in turn is then followed by the indication of the noun's gender, either by "m", "f" or "n" respectively, or by giving the article that it takes. Thus the entry will appear as: κύριος, -ου, ὁ, or καρδία, -ας, ἡ
2.61 Many sentences contain nouns which are not the subject or object of the verb or related by the idea of "of" (genitive case) or "to" or "for" (dative case). For these nouns, their relationship to the rest of the sentence is usually shown through a preposition. A preposition is always located in front of the noun (or of the noun's article, if it has one) — hence the name, "pre-position", i.e. in the position in front of its noun.
2.62 When a noun is used after a preposition in this way, it can never be nominative or vocative, but it can be either accusative, genitive or dative. These three cases which are used with prep-ositions are called the oblique cases as they are capable of being related obliquely (indirectly, that is, through the preposition) to the rest of the sentence; this is in contrast to the nominative case, which is called the direct case.
2.63 Each Greek preposition takes or selects or governs either one particular case, or two cases, or all three oblique cases. The preposition has a different meaning with each of its different cases, if it can take more than one. Therefore it is the preposition together with the case it governs which gives the meaning in a particular sentence. This is the concept of collocation. Collocation means literally "located together". It refers to a group of two or more words which work together with each other to give the meaning, and are therefore taken together as a single unit of meaning in a sentence.
2.64 Most prepositions have a central or core meaning (which is the usual one), and a number of extended meanings, which are all part of its total area of meaning (see #0.2).
2.65 New prepositions will be introduced in each Lesson. They must always be learnt together with the case (or cases) that they take. The following three prepositions, and the case that each takes, should be learnt this lesson:
(a) ἐν: Takes the dative. Used 2,713 times in the New Testament. Core meaning: "in". Extended meanings: "within, among, at, by means of, with".
(b) ἐκ/ἐξ (see #1.75): Takes the genitive. Used 915 times in the New Testament. Core meaning: "out of" (indicating source or origin, or previous position). Extended meanings: "from amongst, away from, belonging to, a member of".
(c) πρό: Takes the genitive. Used 47 times in the New Testament. Core meaning: "before"; used both of time (= "prior to") and place (= "in front of").
2.66 Thus when a word that is declined (noun, pronoun, adjective, or participle) is found in an oblique case (#2.62), it will be in that case for one of two reasons: either
(a) it has the inherent meaning of that case (see #2.24; #2.26): in which circumstance you must give it that meaning in translating it; or
(b) it is following a preposition which has selected the case it is in (see #2.63): in which circumstance the meaning will be the meaning which the preposition has when used with that particular case.
(cᵃᵈᵈᵉᵈ ˢᵘᵇˢᵉᶜᵗᶦᵒⁿ ˢᴳᴴ)or, it conventionally acts as the object of a verb - usually this applies to the accusativeforthe direct object, and the dative for the indirect object, but for some verbs the genitive or dative acts as what will be translated as the object.
2.67 Thus: σοι is the dative singular of "you" and therefore has the meaning "to you" or "for you" (#2.24). However, the preposition ἐν, "in", takes or selects the dative case: so ἔν σοι means "in
32 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
you" and DOES NOT mean "in to you" or "in for you" — in this circumstance the dative case is not being used to mean "to" or "for" because the dative case is selected by the preposition ἐν for whatever word ἐν governs. This is what is meant by saying (#2.65) that ἐν "takes the dative".
2.68 To find out which of these two possibilities (#2.66) applies when you come across an oblique case: look in front of the word(s) in the oblique case to see if there is a preposition there which governs that case. If so, then that preposition is the reason for the use of the oblique case, and the meaning of the words is the meaning of that preposition in conjunction with that case. If there is no preposition in front of the oblique case, then the word in the oblique case will have the inherent meaning of that case (ᵃᵈᵈᵉᵈ ˢᴳᴴ or it should be read with the verb in the phrase as a single unit).
2.69 PREPOSITION COLLOCATION RULE Because a preposition has a different meaning with each of the different cases which it can take, you can only know what that preposition means in a given sentence if you take it in conjunction with the word(s) that it governs in the oblique case. That is, a preposition is taken in collocation (#2.63) with what it governs. Therefore the preposition collocation rule is: Always read a preposition in conjunction with what it governs in a sentence, and translate the preposition and what it governs as a single unit of meaning in that sentence.
2.7 THE VERB
2.71 The verb is the word in a sentence which makes a statement about the subject or which transfers an idea or an action from the subject to an object (some other person or thing). In English it can consist of more than one word; in Greek it usually is a single word.
2.72 (a) In its usual type of mode or mood¹⁷ — the indicative — the verb can make an affirmation ("Jesus wept"), or ask a question ("Are you the Christ?"). It has these other modes also: (b) Make a request or give a command (imperative mode: "Lord, save us"; "Take and eat this"); (c) Make a statement about possibilities (subjunctive mode: "If anyone would be my disciple . ."). (d) The infinitive is also treated as a mode ("I will make you to become fishers of men . ."). These four — indicative, imperative, subjunctive and infinitive — are the ones normally used. (e) We meet the rare optative mode in #10.5.
2.73 Like a pronoun (see #2.25), a verb indicates person (first, second or third) and we have noted earlier (#2.17) that it agrees with the number (singular or plural) of its subject (apart from some specific exceptions).
2.74 Like other inflected words, a verb consists of a lexal (see #1.92) and affixes, that is, morphs added to the lexal to indicate the grammatical information about a word in a particular sentence. An affix added at the beginning of a lexal is a prefix, within a lexal is an infix, and at the end of a lexal is a suffix. Most grammatical morphs are suffixes. By means of these morphs, a verb indicates its five features: person, number, tense (including time and/or aspect), mode, and voice. To parse a verb form is to state each of these features about it, in the order given here, followed by the lexical form (the form of the word which is given in a lexicon) and the word's meaning. Thus, λύομεν: first person plural present (durative) indicative active of λύω, "I loose".
2.75 The inflected forms of a verb that indicate person and number are grouped together into a flexion and (as for a noun) a pattern flexion is called a paradigm. Related paradigms for verbs are known as a conjugation, and setting out the pattern of inflected forms for a particular verb is called conjugating it.
TWO: THE ARTICLE; 2ND DECLENSION; PRESENT ACTIVE FLEXION 33
2.76 The endings of a Greek verb which indicate the person and number of its subject had their origin long ago in the attachment of an unemphatic personal pronoun as a suffix to the stem of the verb (see historical grammarian A. T. Robertson, page 149: listed, Appendix F). This suffix can be referred to as a pronoun suffix. For example: stem φα- or φη- means "say", and the pronoun suffix -μι means "I", so (φημί means "I say". Similarly the stem of the verb "be" is ἐσ- and λυ- means "loose", while the pronoun suffix -μεν means "we". Thus ἐσμεν means "we are" and λύομεν means "we loose".
2.77 Notice that in λύομεν a "joining vowel", -ο-, has been placed between λυ- and -μεν. In some other forms in a flexion this "joining vowel" is -ε-. Later on [#4.44(b)] we shall be learning about the role of this vowel in the verb; for the present, in the forms we are now learning, this vowel is a morph which has a "neutral" influence in a word; that is, it does not affect the word's meaning. It can therefore be called the neutral morph. For the time being it is convenient to take the neutral morph together with the pronoun morph as the "ending" of the verb.
2.78 As the Greek language evolved over the centuries prior to the "classical era" (600-300 BC), there developed two basic paradigm patterns (that is to say, conjugations) for Greek verbs in the present tense. The older of these has retained the original -,ut pronoun ending of its form for the first person singular present indicative active (which is the lexical form of a verb, the form by which it is listed in a lexicon), and is therefore often referred to as the -ΜΙ Conjugation. In the evolution of the later, Omega Conjugation, the -μι has been lost and in the first person singular its -ο- vowel, the neutral morph, has lengthened into omega, this lengthening itself indicating the pronoun "I".
2.79 We meet the -μι conjugation in due course (#7.7). The omega conjugation, which we shall look at now, is by far the more common conjugation in New Testament Greek.
2.8 PARADIGMS OF THE PRESENT INDICATIVE ACTIVE
2.81 The verb λύω "I loose" is the pattern verb for many hundreds of other New Testament verbs. Adding these endings to other verb lexals:
|Lexal/Ending||Meaning||"I see"||"I speak/say"|
|SINGULAR||1||λύω||I loose/I am loosing||βλέπ-ω||λέγ-ω|
|2||λύεις||you loose/you are loosing||βλέπ-εις||λέγ-εις|
|3||λύει||he/she/it looses/he/she/it is loosing||βλέπ-ει||λέγ-ει|
|PLURAL||1||λύομεν||we loose/we are loosing||βλέπ-ομεν||λέγ-ομεν|
|2||λύετε||you loose/you are loosing||βλέπ-ετε||λέγ-ετε|
|3||λύουσι(ν)||they loose/they are loosing||βλέπ-ουσι(ν)||λέγ-ουσι(ν)|
2.82 POINTS TO NOTE: (a) NOTE that the ending for each form of the verb consists of the neutral morph (-ο- or -ε-) plus the pronoun suffix. For the first person singular, the pronoun suffix is not an additive morph (something added to the word), but the fact of the lengthening of the neutral morph -ο- into -ω. This is called a process morph": the morph consists of what is being done to something that is already there in a word form; that is, the morph is a process of change applied to a morph that is already part of the word form. (b) NOTE that the -ει ending of the third person singular does not differentiate gender but can mean "he" or "she" or "it" — it is necessary to decide which pronoun to use according to the context. (If in doubt, translate as "he".) (c) NOTE that the third person plural form, λύουσι(ν), has movable nu (see #1.75).
34 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
(d) NOTE that to find the lexal of an omega verb, you simply remove the -ω. To this lexal you then add whichever ending is needed. You can thus take the endings of λύω and add them to the lexal of any other omega verb, as in the examples of βλέπω and λέγω, above. Translate into Greek: "We see"; "They are saying", "You (singular) speak".
See the further comments on these forms to be found in #A2.34 to #A2.39.
2.83 INTERNAL SUBJECT: We have seen (#2.76) that each verb form already contains its own subject, which is an unemphatic personal pronoun. Thus the subject of λέγομεν, "we are saying", is -μεν, "we". That is to say, each verb form already has, as part of it, an internal subject. If the verb is first or second person then that internal subject will be "I" or "we", or "you" singular or plural, as the case may be. If the verb is third person singular, then as the pronoun suffix does not indicate gender, the subject can be translated "he", "she", or "it", as the context requires; if the verb is third person plural, its internal subject is "they". Thus in the sentence (Luke 7:33) Δαιμόνιον ἔχει, the third person singular verb ἔχει will be translated "he has".
2.84 EXTERNAL SUBJECT: When the verb is third person (singular or plural) it will frequently have with it a separate word as the subject (the topic about which the verb is making a comment —see #2.11). This separate word will be in the nominative case: this is how you will recognize it as the subject of the verb. There may well also be an article and/or adjective with the subject word, all of them in the nominative case (that will be how you know they collocate together, that is, belong together as one unit of the sentence). This subject (consisting of one, two, or more words) is an external subject — it is external to the verb. When an external subject occurs in a clause, it takes over the role of subject from the internal subject, and therefore the internal subject is NOT TRANSLATED. Consider the sentence (John 18:38), Λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Πιλάτος: the verb form λέγει is third person singular of λέγω, and therefore means "he/she/it says"; but there is an external subject (after the verb, in the nominative case), ὁ Πιλάτος. Thus the correct translation is "Pilate says to him" (and NOT: "Pilate he says to him").
2.85 "EMERGENCY USE ONLY": As there is frequently an external subject in the clause, we can see that the internal subject will not very often need to be translated. We should look on the internal subject as being "for emergency use only" — that is, only to be used when there is no external subject in the clause. We start by searching for the external subject, and only use the internal subject if there is no other. Consider the sentence (John 19:14), καὶ λέγει τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις: again the verb form is λέγει"he/she/it says". But there is no external subject for this verb, so the internal subject will be needed. The context shows that out of "he/she/it" the right subject is "he", giving us the translation "and he says to the Jews".
2.86 EMPHATIC PRONOUNS: We have seen (#2.83) that there is no separate word actually needed with a Greek verb for "I", "we", or "you", because these pronouns are part of the verb form as an internal subject. But there are emphatic pronouns for use with the first and second person (and third person) forms of the verb (#1.95). NOTE: These emphatic pronouns can be used with any verb. So when one of these pronouns occurs, it is an external subject, and is used as a way of indicating emphasis. Compare the shade of difference in meaning between simply saying, Εἶ ὁ Χριστός, "You are the Christ" (without any special emphasis), and Σὺ εἶ ὁ Χριστός, "You are the Christ" (emphasis on the "you"). Can you see the difference in meaning between these two sentences? Thus in the sentence (John 18:37) Σὺ λέγεις , ὅτι βασιλεύς εἰμι [ἐγώ], "You say that I am a king", there is an emphatic pronoun for "you" (σύ), but the emphatic pronoun for "I" (ἐγώ) is not used. So the "you" is emphasized, but not the "I". When translating, always indicate this emphasis by underlining each emphatic pronoun in your translation.
TWO: THE ARTICLE; 2ND DECLENSION; PRESENT ACTIVE FLEXION 35
2.87 Where Knowing Greek Makes a Difference: The degree of emphasis intended by the author will vary from one context to another, but sometimes the shades of meaning from emphatic pronouns can be quite significant. If you know Greek, you will recognize the emphatic pronouns, and pick up on these shades of meaning. An example of this is the emphatic I in the great "I am" statements by the Lord in the Gospels and Revelation (see L2/B2 [Sentence B2 of this Lesson]). Then, note the contrast in emphasis in "You have faith, and I have works" (L2/B3), and in "You are a disciple of that fellow, but we are disciples of Moses" (L3/B15). There is similar contrast in emphasis in the conversation between John (ἐγώ, I) and the priests and Levites, who refer to him as σύ (John 1:21-23; L3/1330). And note the significance of the emphatic "I" in Matthew 10:16 (L3/1323): "You are being sent out as sheep in the midst of wolves, but I am the one who is sending you" [and that will make all the difference!].
2.88 A SECOND ACCENT TO NOTE: Once before (see #A1.37) we needed to note an accent. In this Lesson we have a second instance where an accent is important. In the verb εἰμί, the second person singular form is εἶ. Note the use of the circumflex over the smooth breathing on the iota. The accent distinguishes this verb form from εἰ, with a smooth breathing but no accent, which means "if".
2.89 ASKING A QUESTION: The paradigms given for εἰμί (#1.95) and λύω (#2.81) are paradigms for the Indicative Mode, that is, where a verb is stating something as a fact. The Indicative also includes the Interrogative, that is, when a verb is asking a question. Often the Greek wording of a statement and a question will be the same. How then will you know that a question is being asked? In this book, and in your edition of the Greek New Testament, this is shown by the use of the question mark (;) at the end of a sentence. NOTE: The first step in understanding the meaning of a Greek sentence is to check whether or not it is a question.
2.9 WORD ORDER
2.91 Greek sentence order can differ considerably from that of English. Word order is used in English to indicate the relationship of the words in the sentence: consider the difference in meaning, indicated solely by word order, between "The man ate a large fish" and "A large fish ate the man". In contrast, Greek indicates case (subject, object, and other relationships) by its word endings, and the position of a word in a clause or sentence is frequently used to indicate emphasis.
2.92 EMPHATIC POSITIONS: The beginning of a sentence is an emphatic position, and the most important word in a sentence may be placed first to give it emphasis. At times in English also we may put a word first in a sentence, out of its usual order, so as to place emphasis upon it. Consider these two examples from the NIV where the object of the verb has been placed first: "The poor you will always have with you" (Matthew 26:11); "This command I received from my Father" (John 10:14). Similarly, other words can be placed first for emphasis: "Never man spoke like this man" (see John 7:46, AV). Indeed, in Greek a noun in this emphatic position can be considered definite enough not to be given the article. Thus in Ἀρχὴ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου [see L 1/A9 (Lesson One, Selection A9)], 'Aprj is translated in English as "The beginning". Again, a word can also be emphasized in Greek by being held back to the end of a clause or sentence.
2.93 NOUN SUBJECT: When the subject is a noun, it is normal for it to be placed after the verb to which it refers — it will be recognized as being the subject as it is nominative case, and will usually have the article, also in the nominative case. (NOTE: a pronoun subject may be found placed anywhere in a clause, and frequently comes in front of the verb.)
2.94 THE GREEK NEGATIVE: The negative "not" in Greek is οὐ before a consonant, οὐκ before a vowel or diphthong with a smooth breathing, and οὐχ before a vowel or diphthong with a
36 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
rough breathing (compare English use of "a"/"an"). In Greek the negative usually functions very closely together with the verb, and indeed they can be regarded as filling the one (verb) slot in the sentence. The negative comes in front of the verb to which it refers, whereas in English it will be placed after an auxiliary verb ("have", "do", etc.). Compare the order of ἐγὼ οὐκ εἰμί, with the English word order, "I am not". Greek normally puts the negative with the verb, whereas English style most frequently would take it with the noun: thus Greek will say, Ἄρτους οὐκ ἔχομεν (note how the negative collocates with or goes with the verb), while the English translation will be, "We have no bread" (the negative going with the noun, rather than "We do not have bread").
2.95 COMPLEMENT: The word (or words) coming after the verb "to be" to complete the thought is called the complement (that is to say, the "completement"). Its customary position in Greek is prior to the verb. Thus Kijptog kowtv 6 viol roc) dtvepa57wv means "the son of man is lord". Note: (a) that the complement has no article (it is usual for the complement not to have an article), and (b) that the complement is in the nominative case (because Etui is a verb of equivalence — that is, the complement equates with [is the same person/thing as] the subject).
2.96 CONJUNCTIONS WHICH ARE NEVER FIRST: Most Greek sentences commence with a conjunction, a "joining word" (#2.18), such as καί, "and", ἀλλά, "but", εἰ, "if", ὅτι, "because, that", πόθεν, "whence? where from?", ὡς, "like, as", καθώς*, "just as"; and so on. However, there are a small number of conjunctions which can never be placed first in a Greek clause or sentence. The most common of these are the conjunctions δέ ("and", "but"), τέ, ("and [so]"), γάρ ("for"), and οὖν ("then", "therefore"). The translation of δέ, τέ and γάρ needs to be placed first in their clause or sentence when rendering them into English.
2.97 GENITIVES AND ADJECTIVES:
(a) A genitive regularly comes after the noun to which it refers. Thus οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ πονηροῦ, "the sons of the Evil One". This applies also to the Greek possessive pronouns such as "my" and "your": in translation into English these will need to be placed in front of their noun. Thus: ὁ βασιλεὺς ὑμῶν, to be translated as, "your king". (If a Greek genitive is placed in front of what it refers to, this would be a change of word order indicating emphasis — #2.91.)
(b) An adjective can come between the article and its noun. Note the position of the dative σῷ of the adjective σός, "your" (singular), ἐν τῷ σῷ ἀγρῷ, "in your field" (L2/B25). It can also come after the noun: but in that case the noun's article must be repeated in front of the adjective. Thus, in L2/B14: ὁ υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπητός, "my beloved son" — more literally, "my son, the beloved one".
(c) An adjectival prepositional phrase can be used in the same way, after the noun it refers to, with the noun's article repeated. Thus, in L2/B5: ὁ ἄρτος ὁ ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, "the bread out of the heaven" (the repeated article is not translated).
2.98 INDECLINABLE WORDS: Some words (mostly foreign names) are indeclinable, and will be recognized as genitive (or one of the other cases) only by their position, and the sense of the sentence. Thus: ὁ θεὸς Ἰακώβ, "the God of Jacob" (L2/B20). Ἰακώβ, "Jacob", is in the normal genitive position, after the noun to which it refers, and therefore is translated here as "of Jacob". (When an article is used with an indeclinable name — see #2.33 — this will enable its case to be known: for example, John 4:5, ὃ ἔδωκεν Ἰακὼβ [τῷ] Ἰωσὴφ, "which Jacob gave to Joseph".)
2.99 NORMAL GREEK WORD ORDER: For fuller detail, see #A2.6. In summary: Some Greek sentences, especially when the subject is a pronoun, can have a word order quite close to that of English. And at times normal Greek word order will be altered, especially to indicate emphasis. But for many Greek clauses and sentences we can recognize a basic pattern of normal Greek word order. This basic pattern for Greek is: conjunction, complement/direct object, verb, subject. Moreover, as we have seen, a genitive will regularly follow the noun to which it refers.
TWO: THE ARTICLE; 2ND DECLENSION; PRESENT ACTIVE FLEXION 37
Other words and phrases will be fitted into this basic pattern. Now, the basic word order pattern for English is: conjunction, subject, verb, complement/direct object, indirect object. Note then: In translating from Greek, you must locate each grammatical unit in the Greek sentence, and place it in its right position for English order. That is: Be sure that you translate not only Greek words into English words, but also Greek order into English order.
ASSIGNMENTS ON LESSON TWOIt is important to use your study time to learn the paradigms set for the Lesson, to read the relevant section of Appendix A for each Lesson, and to use your Workbook to see that you have understood the grammar that you need to know. But: spend most of your available study time for each Lesson working on translating the Selections from the Greek New Testament — these are the practical examples, from the New Testament, of the grammar covered in the Lesson.
1. PARADIGMS FOR LEARNING: The paradigms which now need to be learnt by heart are: 2. The Article (#2.40) 3. The Present Indicative Active of λύω (#2.81). LEARN these paradigms down the columns. Write them out from memory. (Use the Practice Sheet in your Workbook to assist you with this.) Check your work against this book and make sure that you have all the forms word perfect, and correctly spelt. NOTE: you should spend five minutes daily in learning the set paradigms for each Lesson. Read a paradigm aloud once or twice, then close your eyes and say it aloud again. Follow this procedure a second time. Then go on to the next paradigm. Go through one or two paradigms each day in this way, then review all of them together at the end of each week.
2. LEARNING THE SECOND DECLENSION: Compare the masculine and neuter flexion of the article with the paradigms for the Second Declension, κύριος and ἔργον. Learn to recognize the forms of the Second Declension by noting similarities and differences between their endings and the article.
3. APPENDIX: READ CAREFULLY the comments and guidelines which are set out in the Appendix, #A2. Note in particular the Principles of Translation (#A2.4) and Translation Techniques (#A2.5), and be guided by these in your work.
4. WORKBOOK: ANSWER THE QUESTIONS in your Workbook about this Lesson.
5. TRANSLATION EXERCISES A AND B: Do the Translation Exercises which follow. NOTE: To translate these sentences you will need to use the prepositions (#2.65) and the paradigms set for learning this Lesson, together with Eipi and the words on your Vocabulary Cards from Lesson One. The meanings of all other words that will be needed are given below, next to the first sentence in which each new word is used. (Some alternative meanings for these words are given in brackets.)
6. VOCABULARY CARDS: Write out Vocabulary Cards for all the new words as you are introduced to them this Lesson, in the top lefthand corner of each side of each Card writing 2 (for a word introduced in Lesson Two). Add these cards to your collection, and place them all in Greek alphabetical order. You will also be able to add extra information to some existing Cards. Put different meanings for the same Greek word on the one Card. On Cards for prepositions, be sure to put the case taken as well as the meaning. Look words up on your Vocabulary Cards as you need them. Seek to remember each word as you look it up and use it.
38 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
A. TRANSLATION FROM ENGLISH INTO GREEK
(This may be done as an exercise in class at the end of the Lesson, or set as an assignment.)
|A1.||Jesus is the tree of life.||"of life": see #1.94|
|A2.||It is the voice of a prophet.||"prophet", genitive singular: προφήτου|
|A3.||I (emphatic) am a teacher of the Jews.|
|A4.||This is God's work.||"this", neuter singular: τοῦτο|
|A5.||Is this the place?||"this", masculine singular: *οὗτος|
|A6.||The prophet sees earth and heaven.||re accusative of "earth": see #2.35|
|A7.||God sees the soul of a man.|
|A8.||Jesus speaks the words of life.||"word": *λόγος|
|A9.||The hypocrite does not speak.|
|A10.||This is a message out of heaven.|
|A11.||You (plural, emphatic) are breaking the law of God.||"breaking": loosing, *λύω|
|A12.||Men are saying, "Jesus is the Christ."|
|A13.||God says to the Christ, "You (emphatic) are my Son."||"my": μου (after the noun it refers to)|
|A14.||The Son speaks words out of the heart.|
|A15.||We (emphatic) say, "This is the gospel of the Lord."|
B. SELECTIONS FROM THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
(NOTE: These are selections from the verses listed; only a part of the verse is being set for you to read at this stage.)
|SELECTION||NOTES AND NEW WORDS|
|B1.||Ἡμεῖς νόμον ἔχομεν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 19:7)||*ἔχω: I have|
|B2.||Ἐγώ εἰμι τὸ Ἄλφα καὶ τὸ Ὦ, λέγει Κύριος ὁ θεός. (ΑΠΟΚΑΛΥΨΙΣ ΙΩΑΝΝΟΥ 1:8)||*καί: and (also, even); *λέγω: I say/speak/tell|
|B3.||Σὺ πίστιν ἔχεις, κἀγὼ ἔργα ἔχω· (ΙΑΚΩΒΟΥ 2:18)||*πίστις, -εως, ἡ: faith [see #A2.57]; *κἀγώ = καὶ ἐγώ|
|B4.||Ἄρτους οὐκ ἔχομεν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 8:16, margin)||[See #2.94.]|
|B5.||Οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ ἄρτος ὁ ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καταβαίνων (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 6:50)||*ἐκ: out of (+gen) [See #2.65; #2.97(c)]; καταβαίνων: coming down|
|B6.||καὶ λέγετε, Δαιμόνιον ἔχει· (ΚΑΤΑ ΛΟΥΚΑΝ 7:33)||*δαιμόνιον, -ου, τό: demon|
|B7.||Σὺ λέγεις , ὅτι βασιλεύς εἰμι ἐγώ. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 18:37)||*ὅτι: that (because; " [#1.84])|
|B8.||ὁ Πιλάτος λέγει τῷ Ἰησοῦ, Πόθεν εἶ σύ; (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 19:8-9)||Πιλᾶτος, -ου, ὁ: Pilate; πόθεν: whence, where from?|
|B9.||ὁ Πέτρος λέγει αὐτῷ, Σὺ εἶ ὁ χριστός. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 8:29)||Πέτρος, -ου, ὁ: Peter; αὐτῷ: to him|
|B10.||Ἀκούεις τί οὗτοι λέγουσιν; (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΤΘΑΙΟΝ 21:16)||*ἀκούω: I hear; τί: what? (why?) οὗτοι: these (men, people)|
TWO: THE ARTICLE; 2ND DECLENSION; PRESENT ACTIVE FLEXION 39
|SELECTION||NOTES AND NEW WORDS|
|B11.||Σαμαρείτης εἶ σύ, καὶ δαιμόνιον ἔχεις;
Ἐγὼ δαιμόνιον οὐκ ἔχω. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 8:48-49)
|Σαμαρείτης, -ου, ὁ: a Samaritan|
|B12.||Σὺ εἶ Σίμων ὁ υἱὸς Ἰωνᾶ. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 1:42)||Σίμων: Simon; Ἰωνᾶς, -ᾶ, ὁ: Jonas|
|B13.||Λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Πιλάτος, Τί ἐστιν ἀλήθεια; (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 18:38)||*ἀλήθεια, -ας, ἡ: truth|
|B14.||καὶ φωνὴ ἐγένετο ἐκ τῶν οὐρανῶν, Σὺ εἶ ὁ υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπητός. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 1:11)||ἐγένετο: [there] came, became; μου: my; *ἀγαπητός -ή -όν: beloved|
|B15.||Κἀγὼ δέ σοι λέγω, ὅτι σὺ εἶ Πέτρος. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 16:18)||*καί: also (and); *δέ: and (but) [#2.96]; σοι: to you (singular)|
|B16.||Λέγει αὐτῷ ἡ γυνή, Κύριε, θεωρῶ ὅτι προφήτης εἶ σύ. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 4:19)||*γυνή, -αικος, ἡ: woman; κύριε: Sir; θεωρῶ: I perceive, observe|
|B17.||καὶ λέγει τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις, Ἴδε, ὁ βασιλεὺς ὑμῶν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 19:14)||Ἰουδαῖος -αία -ον: a Jew; ἴδε: behold|
|B18.||ὁ Ἰωάννης ... βλέπει τὸν Ἰησοῦν ... καὶ λέγει, Ἴδε ὁ ἀμνὸς τοῦ θεοῦ. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 1:29)||*βλέπω: I see; ἀμνός, -οῦ, ὁ: lamb|
|B19.||Καὶ ἰδού, φωνὴ ἐκ τῶν οὐρανῶν, λέγουσα, Οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπητός. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 3:17)||*ἰδού: behold; λέγουσα: saying (participle)|
|B20.||Ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ θεὸς Ἀβραάμ, καὶ ὁ θεὸς Ἰσαάκ, καὶ ὁ θεὸς Ἰακώβ. Οὐκ ἔστιν ὁ θεὸς θεὸς νεκρῶν, ἀλλὰ ζώντων. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 22:32)||Ἀβραάμ: Abraham; Ἰσαάκ: Isaac; Ἰακώβ: Jacob; νεκρῶν: of those who are dead; *ἀλλά: but; ζώντων: of those who are living|
|B21.||ἔργα τῶν χειρῶν σού εἰσιν οἱ οὐρανοί· (ΠΡΟΣ ΕΒΡΑΙΟΥΣ 1:10)||*χείρ, χειρός, ἡ: hand; σου: your (singular)|
|B22.||Ἰδού, ἐγὼ ἀποστέλλω τὸν ἄγγελόν μου πρὸ προσώπου σου. (KATA MAPKON 1:2)||*ἀποστέλλω: I send; *ἄγγελος, -ου, ὁ: messenger (angel); *πρό (+gen): before; *πρόσωπον, -ου, τό: face|
|B23.||καὶ ἰδού, φωνὴ ἐκ τῆς νεφέλης, λέγουσα, Οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπητός. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 17:5)||νεφέλη, ἡ: cloud|
|B24.||κύριός ἐστιν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ τοῦ σαββάτου. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 2:28)||*κύριος, -ου, ὁ: lord; *καί: also, even (and)|
|B25.||Κύριε, οὐχὶ καλὸν σπέρμα ἔσπειρας ἐν τῷ σῷ ἀγρῷ; Πόθεν οὖν ἔχει ζιζάνια; (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 13:27)||*οὐχί: not; *καλός -ή -όν: good; σπέρμα, -ατος, τό: seed; ἔσπειρας: you (sg) sowed; *ἐν (+dat): in; σός σή σόν: your (sing); ἀγρός, -οῦ, ὁ: field; *οὖν: then, so; ζιζάνιον, -ου, τό: darnel (weed resembling wheat)|
|B26.||Ὁ σπείρων τὸ καλὸν σπέρμα ἐστὶν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου· ὁ δὲ ἀγρός ἐστιν ὁ κόσμος· τὸ δὲ καλὸν σπέρμα, οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ υἱοὶ τῆς βασιλείας· τὰ δὲ ζιζάνιά εἰσιν οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ πονηροῦ· (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 13:37-38)||ὁ σπείρων: the one who sows; *βασιλεία, -ας, ἡ: kingdom (reign); *πονηρός -ά -όν: evil, the Evil One|
|B27.||Καὶ φωνὴ ἐγένετο ἐκ τῆς νεφέλης, λέγουσα, Οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ υἱός μου ὁ ἀγαπητός (var. ἐκλελεγμένος). (ΚΑΤΑ ΛΟΥΚΑΝ 9:35)||ἐκλελεγμένος: chosen [one]|
FIRST DECLENSION AND SECOND AORIST ACTIVE
3.1 COMPLETE PARADIGMS FOR THE FIRST DECLENSION (D1)
3.11 In Lesson Two, the feminine form of the article introduced us to the First Declension (D1). The pattern of the article is in fact only one of four basic paradigms for this declension — the endings differ slightly according to the nature of the last letter of the stem to which they are being added, and according to whether the word is masculine or feminine gender (there are no neuter words of the First Declension). There is also a mixed or hybrid feminine paradigm, which changes from one to another of the two basic feminine patterns. These five First Declension paradigms are set out here:
|FEMININE NOUNS||MASCULINE NOUNS|
3.12 It is necessary for you to be able to recognize the forms of these paradigms, not by learning them off by heart, but by understanding how their flexions compare with and differ from that for the feminine article.
3.13 FEMININE CONSONANT STEM PARADIGM (D1.2): If the stem of a feminine word ends in a phoneme (#1.42) other than -ρ, -ι, ε, or a sibilant, then the flexion for that word is identical with that for the feminine article ἡ, #2.40, taking -η throughout all its singular endings (like φωνή). This is Paradigm D1.2 (the abbreviation for Declension 1, Paradigm 2), referred to as the "Feminine Consonant Stem Paradigm", because almost all the words which follow this paradigm have consonant stems — it is followed by 191 New Testament words, 185 with consonant stems, four ending in -οη one in -ωη, and one in -ευη (these words are listed in #D1.64). NOTE: If you know the feminine article, then you already know how to decline φωνή, for it follows the article exactly.
3.14 FEMININE pie STEM PARADIGM (D1.1): If the stem of a word ends in one of the three phonemes -ρ, -ι, or -ε, then that word has -α throughout all its singular endings (like καρδία). This is Paradigm D1.1, referred to as the "ριε" Paradigm because the stem of all but one of the words which follow this paradigm — there are 310 of them in the New Testament — ends in a p, / or a (The one exception is στοά, "porch", which is also an exception to the expectation — see #3.13 — that an -ο stem would end in -οη.³⁸) NOTE: If you know the paradigm for φωνή, you can immediately see how καρδία, will decline: simply change each -η in the flexion of φωνή into -α, and you have the endings for καρδία.
THREE: FIRST DECLENSION AND SECOND AORIST ACTIVE 41
3.15 FEMININE SIGMA STEM PARADIGM (D1.3): If the stem of a word ends in a sibilant (ζ, σ, or a double letter containing σ), then that word follows the mixed pattern of δόξα, Paradigm D1.3, referred to as the "Sigma Stem Paradigm". In addition, the Sigma Stem Paradigm is also followed by four New Testament words ending in -ρ, eight in -ν, and one each in -λ and -θ. As there are eight New Testament nouns with sibilant stems, there are thus a total of 22 New Testament nouns which follow Paradigm D1.3. These nouns, and the number of times each occurs in the New Testament, are set out in #D1.65. Paradigm D1.3 is also followed by numerous pronouns and participles which have a sibilant stem in their feminine flexions. NOTE: If you know the paradigms for καρδία and φωνή, you can immediately see how to decline δόξα: the endings of the first two forms (nominative and accusative singular) follow καρδία, and the next two (genitive and dative singular) follow φωνή: hence the description of the paradigm of δόξα as "the mixed pattern".
3.16 MASCULINE CONSONANT STEM PARADIGM (D1.5): Most words of the First Declension are feminine, belonging to one or other of the above three paradigms. There are also, in the New Testament, 112 masculine common nouns of the First Declension, 111 of which have their stem ending in a consonant (usually -τ), and which all follow Paradigm D1.5, μαθητής. There are three differences between this paradigm and D1.2, the corresponding Feminine Consonant Stem Paradigm:
(a) in the nominative singular, masculine words are distinguished by taking an additional -ς as their final letter;
(b) this paradigm has a vocative case ending in -α (this is the second exception for us to note to the generalization that the vocative has the same form as the nominative [#2.27; see also #2.46]); and
(c) in the genitive singular, masculine First Declension words switch to the pattern of the Second Declension (see #2.40) and take -ου as their ending — which has the effect of making a difference between the forms of the nominative and genitive singular of this paradigm. NOTE: If you know the paradigm for φωνή, you can immediately see how μαθητής will decline: simply make the three "First Declension masculine" changes to the flexion of φωνή, and you have the paradigm for μαθητής.
3.17 MASCULINE ριε STEM PARADIGM (D1.4): There is only one masculine common noun of the First Declension with a "ριε" stem: νεανίας. However, there are twenty-four names (for example, Ἀνδρεας, "Andrew") which follow Paradigm D1.4. This paradigm differs from that of μαθητής (Paradigm D1.5) in the same way that καρδία differs from φωνή where μαθητής has -η, νεανίας has -α. NOTE: If you know the paradigm for καρδία, you can immediately see how veaviag will decline: simply make the three "First Declension masculine" changes (see #3.16) to the flexion of καρδία, and you have the paradigm for νεανίας. There is also a sixth First Declension paradigm — D1.6, the "long α" paradigm, followed by three rare words and thirty-two names such as Θωμᾶς, "Thomas". This differs from veaviag only in one form: the genitive singular ending is -α, not -ου.
3.18 PLURALS ALL THE SAME: In all cases in the plural, the First Declension nouns, both masculine and feminine, follow the endings of the feminine article.
3.19 AGREEMENT IN GENDER: As the article always agrees in gender with its noun, "the disciple" will be ὁ μαθητής, and "the disciples" will be οἱ μαθηταί. TEST: Translate: "of the young man".
3.2 FEMININE NOUNS OF THE SECOND DECLENSION
3.21 In #2.40 we met the masculine and neuter paradigms of the Second Declension, the most common noun group in the Greek New Testament. In the New Testament there are also fifty Second Declension nouns which are (or can be) feminine in gender. All these feminine nouns have their nominative singular in -ος and follow the paradigm of κύριος exactly. But when they take the article, it will be feminine gender, because the article always agrees with the noun to which it refers in number, gender and case (#2.33).
42 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
3.22 Twenty-eight such feminine Second Declension nouns occur in the Greek New Testament (listed, #D2.44), but most of them are used only a small number of times each. There are only five which are each used ten times or more in the Greek New Testament, and the two most common words of these five are used in the Selections in the Assignments for this Lesson.
3.23 Twenty-two of the masculine Second Declension words can also be feminine gender. Thus ἡ θεός is "the goddess" (as in Acts 19:37); παρθένος "a virgin", can refer either to a male or a female as indicated by the gender of the article (or the context, as in Revelation 14:4); and similarly διάκονος, "servant, deacon", can be used with either masculine or feminine article (or personal name, as in Romans 16:1) to refer respectively to a male or female servant or deacon. (These twenty-two words are listed in #D2.45.)
3.31 Pronouns that refer to people or things, like "I", "me", "us" "you", "her", "it", are called personal pronouns. You will recognize, below, a few forms which we have met already.
3.32 LEARN NOW the flexions of the 1st and 2nd person pronouns. As usual, learn them down the columns, for the 1st person (singular and plural) and then the 2nd person.
|SINGULAR||1st||2nd||3rd m.||3rd f.||3rd n.||m.||f.||n.|
3.33 Notice the alternative forms which are found for the 1st person singular accusative, genitive and dative pronouns. In the style of some writers, the longer form is more emphatic than the shorter form; at other times the alternatives appear to be used without any distinction of meaning. Learn both forms of these pronouns together, as being alternatives. NOTE in #A3.13 how to distinguish ἡμεῖς and ὑμεῖς.
3.34 The third person personal pronoun is αὐτός and means "he/she/it/they", etc., depending upon number, gender, and case. (It has some other meanings as well, to be introduced in later Lessons.) Notice in its paradigm that αὐτός has endings identical with those of the article (plus the standard Second Declension "-ς" ending in the masculine nominative singular which is lacking in the article). The paradigm of αὐτός is provided here for convenient reference. NOTE THAT if you know the article, you already know how to decline αὐτός: just add the endings of the twenty-four forms of the article to the stem αὐτ-, and also the -ς to the masculine nominative singular form, and there you have it!
3.35 Words like "this/these" and "that/those" are called demonstratives. When a demonstrative is referring to something else (as in "this voice", "these words", "that hour", "those days"), it is a demonstrative adjective. It stands in what is called the "predicative position", in front of the article, as in οὗτος ὁ υἱός "this son" (John 12:34), or after the noun without the usual repetition of the article, ἡ φωνὴ αὕτη, "this voice" (John 12:30). (When used with a demonstrative the article is
THREE: FIRST DECLENSION AND SECOND AORIST ACTIVE 43not translated into English.) Like all other adjectives, a demonstrative adjective will agree with what it is referring to in number, gender, and case: notice the feminine form αὕτη used with "voice", a feminine noun.
3.36 When a demonstrative is used without reference to any other person or thing, it is a demonstrative pronoun, and it means, according to gender, "this man" (οὗτος), "this woman" (αὕτη) or "this thing" (τοῦτο). Thus Luke 22:56, Καὶ οὗτος σὺν αὐτῷ ἦν, "This man was also with him"; Acts 9:36, αὕτη ἦν πλήρης ἀγαθῶν ἔργων, "This woman was full of good works"; 1 Timothy 2:3, τοῦτο καλόν, "This thing [is] good". Similarly for the plurals: οὗτοι means "these men" (or "these people", both men and women); αὗται, "these women"; and ταῦτα, "these things".
3.37 From looking at the paradigm of οὗτος, you can see how very similar it is to αὐτός, and to the article. Like the article, it begins with a "τ" in all cases except the nominatives of the masculine and feminine singular and plural, where instead of the "τ" there is a rough breathing. οὗτος though, has the unique feature that there are two forms of the stem, one with the diphthong ου- and the other with αυ-: can you discern the pattern for when one or the other of these diph-thongs occurs in a word form? (If you cannot see the pattern, the answer is in #A3.16.) NOTE that only the breathing and accent differentiate αὐτή (feminine nominative singular of αὐτός) and αὕτη (feminine nominative singular of οὗτος); and αὐταί (feminine nominative plural of αὐτός) and αὕτη (feminine nominative plural of οὗτος): the letters of the words are the same. Care needs to be taken, therefore, to identify these forms correctly. This is the third occasion when the breathing/accent on a word needs particularly to be noted (see also #A1.37 and #2.88).
3.38 ἐκεῖνος is the demonstrative pronoun/adjective meaning "that/that one". It is declined with the same endings as οὗτος but without any change in the stem of the word. Like οὗτος, it takes the predicative position when used with a noun (#3.35).
3.4 CLUES FROM THE AGREEMENT OF THE ARTICLE AND ADJECTIVES
3.41 Because the article and adjectives always agree with their noun in number, gender, and case, they often provide valuable clues to the identification of the number, gender, and case of nouns in a sentence when these might otherwise not be known to you.
3.42 Thus when you first see the word μισθόν, it is not possible for you to know whether it is:
(a) μισθός (masculine, D2.1), in the accusative singular (like κύριον), or
(b) μισθόν (neuter, D2.2) (like ἔργον), in the nominative or accusative singular. This query is resolved when you see it with its article: τὸν μισθόν: if it were neuter, the form of the article would be "τό".
Similarly, for βασιλείας: is this
(a) βασιλείας (masculine, D1.4), i.e., the nominative singular of a First Declension masculine noun (like νεανίας), or
(b) the genitive singular of βασιλεία (feminine, D1.1), i.e. a First Declension feminine (like καρδίας), or
(c) the accusative plural of such a First Declension feminine? The article τῆς with βασιλείας resolves the question. Again, there are many word forms ending in "-α": ὄνομα, πνεῦμα, πρόβατα, θύρα, and so on. These forms can be clarified and deciphered when we take note of the form of the articles (and/or adjectives) used with them: τὸ ἐμὸν ὄνομα, τὸ πνεῦαμ, τὰ πρόβατα, ἡ θύρα.
3.5 THE PRESENT IMPERATIVE, SECOND PERSON PLURAL
3.51 In Lesson Two we noted the paradigm of λύω for the present indicative and interrogative active. We saw that the form λύετε could mean "you are loosing" or "are you loosing?" This particular form of the verb also happens to be the same for a command or request (that is, the imperative mode). So it can also mean, "Loose!" as an order to two or more people. Usually the context makes it plain whether the meaning is indicative, interrogative, or imperative.
44 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
3.52 Where Knowing Greek Makes a Difference: In fact, a number of ambiguous sentences do exist in the Greek New Testament.
(a) For example, Jesus said, πιστεύετε εἰς τὸν θεόν, καὶ εἰς ἐμὲ πιστεύετε (John 14:1). Is he making a statement, asking a question, or telling his disciples something that they are to do? Or could it be that the first πιστεύετε, "believe", is indicative and the second is imperative? This would give the meaning as, "You believe in God; believe also in me."
(b) The most theologically significant of these places of uncertainty is 1 Corinthians 12:31a. In this verse Paul speaks of the Corinthians earnestly desiring the higher gifts. But the Greek of this verse can either be translated, "But eagerly desire the greater gifts" (NIV text), taking the verb ζηλοῦτε as an imperative, or, "But you are eagerly desiring the greater gifts" (NIV margin), taking the alternative possible meaning of ζηλοῦτε as an indicative, a statement of fact. The interpretation of the verb as an imperative (that is, an instruction) would be that the Corinthians (and Christians in general) must eagerly desire the greater gifts — and these gifts would then be seen as certain ones selected from the catalogue in 1 Corinthians 12:7 to 10 and/or 27 to 30. On the other hand, the verb can be taken as indicative. Then the interpretation is that Paul is stating that what they are doing is eagerly desiring the (in their opinion) greater gifts, whereas the right concern that they should have, which he is now setting before them, is somewhat different: first of all, that all gifts are important for the functioning of the church, the body of Christ (12:7, 12-27); secondly, that the Christian does not choose his/her gifts but the Lord allocates them (12:11, 18, 28); and thirdly, that he (Paul) will now show them the most excellent way (chapter 13). Knowing Greek will not automatically solve ambiguities of this kind — but it certainly can enable us to be aware of them, should prevent us from building doctrinal structures on such ambiguous passages, and will (hopefully) encourage us to read them more carefully in their total context, and check them out in commentaries on the Greek text of the New Testament.
3.6 TIME, ASPECT, AND CONJUGATION
3.61 PAST TIME IN GREEK: Unlike English, Greek does not have a "past tense" as such. Instead, past time is indicated in Greek by prefixing the past time morph (called an augment) to the beginning of the verb lexal. There are two kinds of past time morph, one for verb lexals beginning with a consonant, and another for those beginning with a vowel.
3.62 SYLLABIC AUGMENT: If the verb lexal begins with a consonant, the augment is an additive morph, the addition of ε-. This is called the syllabic augment because it adds a syllable to the word. For example: with the syllabic augment added, the verb lexal βαλ- becomes ἐβαλ-.
3.63 TEMPORAL AUGMENT: If the verb lexal begins with a vowel, the augment consists instead of the lengthening of this vowel. Thus this augment is a process morph: a process of change which is applied to something that is already part of the verb form.¹⁸ (For an earlier instance, see #2.82.) This process of lengthening to indicate past time is called the temporal augment. The temporal augment lengthens: α- into η-, ε- into η-, and ο- into ω-. (For example, the verb lexal ἐλθ- becomes ἠλθ-.) If the short vowel which is being lengthened is part of a diphthong with iota, the iota goes subscript on the lengthened vowel (#1.56). (For example, the lexal of αἰτέω, αἰτε-, becomes ᾐτε-: see further, #4.51.)
3.64 GREEK ASPECT: There are three tenses in Greek which take the augment, i.e. which indicate past time: the aorist (pronounced air-rist, rhyming with "fairest"), the imperfect, and the pluperfect. When they have the augment they all refer to the past; the difference between them is the kind of action which they indicate. This feature is called the verb's aspect. The aorist tense indicates punctiliar aspect¹⁹: the whole aspect of the verb is regarded as a point — hence the name "punctiliar". The imperfect tense is durative aspect¹⁹: the emphasis of this aspect is upon the
THREE: FIRST DECLENSION AND SECOND AORIST ACTIVE 45
duration of the activity, which is being shown to be of an ongoing, repeated, or incomplete nature — action still in progress at the time being spoken of. The pluperfect tense is perfective aspect¹⁹: the action has been brought to a completion, with consequences that have been continuing. (Further details about aspect will be given in the next Lesson.)
3.65 THREE AORIST PATTERNS: In Greek there are three different patterns of the formation of the aorist tense. All three have exactly the same meaning. (This is similar in principle to the different ways which English has of forming a past tense: consider for example the English past tense forms of "bake" ["baked"], "make" ["made"], "take" ["took"], and "wake" ["woke"].) These three aorist patterns are called first aorist, second aorist, and third aorist. The "first aorist" pattern will be set out in Lesson Four, and the "third aorist" pattern in Lesson Seven.
3.66 THE SECOND AORIST: The "second aorist" pattern prefixes the augment to the verb lexal, and adds a special set of pronoun endings which are somewhat different from the set for the present tense. The second aorist flexions are given in #3.81 for the lexals βαλ- (the verb stem of βάλλω, "I throw") and ἐλθ- (which has no durative [present] form — it has to make use of the durative flexions of another verb, ἔρχομαι, "I come"; see #3.69).
3.67 THREE CONJUGATIONS: Families of verbs are called conjugations. There are three verb "families" or conjugations in New Testament Greek. Verbs which possess second aorist forms comprise the Second Conjugation (C2); verbs which have third aorist forms and/or a lexical form ending in -μι comprise the Third Conjugation (C3); all other verbs have first aorist forms, conjugate their flexions like λύω, and comprise the First Conjugation (C1).
3.68 INHERENT ASPECT: A verb lexal possesses inherent aspect — that is, a lexal always is, in itself, either durative or punctiliar aspect. First Conjugation verbs have durative lexals; Second and Third Conjugation verbs have punctiliar lexals.
3.69 SUPPLETIVE VERBS: Seven verbs which are Second Conjugation (and whose lexals therefore are inherently punctiliar) are defective and are incapable of forming a present tense (durative) form, and instead have to utilize the durative forms from another defective verb. These are known as suppletive verbs. Three of these verbs are to be noted this Lesson, all of which are very common in the Greek New Testament:
|Lexal||Second Aorist||Associated Present Tense|
NOTE: Make out vocabulary cards for these words.
3.7 COMPOUND VERBS
3.71 A very large number of verbs in the Greek New Testament are compound verbs, that is, verbs compounded of a simple or simplex verb and a preposition that has been added to the beginning of it. The meaning of the simplex verb is then affected by the preposition.
3.72 Sometimes compound verbs have meanings that are a compound of the meanings of the simplex verb and the preposition. Examples: ἐκ/ἐξ, "out [of]"; βάλλω, "I throw"; ἐκβάλλω, "I throw out, drive out, send away"; ἦλθον, "I came"; ἐξῆλθον, "I came out, departed". In contrast, numerous other compound verbs have meanings that are quite different from those of the preposition plus original simplex verbs. Thus: ἀπό, "from"; ἔχω, "I have"; ἀπέχω, "I have in full".
46 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
3.73 NOTE: When a compound verb is augmented, the augment goes between the preposition and the simplex verb. Thus: the second aorist form ἐξέβαλον, from ἐκβάλλω. (NOTE ALSO that the preposition in front of the augment is ἐξ not ἐκ, because in this form of the word it is followed by a vowel — see #1.75.)
3.8 PARADIGMS FOR THE IMPERFECT OF EIMI AND THE SECOND AORIST ACTIVE
|3.81||IMPERFECT OF εἰμί||SECOND AORIST ACTIVE|
3.82 The area of meaning for ἦλθον includes "I went" as well as "I came".
3.83 Notice that the second aorist forms for the first person singular and for the third person plural are identical. When one of these forms is encountered, it is therefore necessary to examine the context carefully for clues that indicate which of these two possibilities is in fact the right one. Usually such indications will be available — otherwise the sentence will be ambiguous in Greek.
3.9 THE VERB MORPH SLOTS
3.91 All the information about the total meaning of a particular verb form is conveyed through the morphs of which it is made up. These morphs can be thought of in various ways (READ #A3.3). It is important to be able to recognize each morph swiftly, and thus to "read" the information that it contains.
3.92 There are altogether nine categories of morph which can occur in a verb (though no more than six will be found in any given verb form). The places where these morphs can occur in a verb are called morph slots.
3.93 The morphs of a verb can be set out so as to show which slot each occupies. Identifying the morphs of a verb form in this way is called morphological analysis" or morphologizing. The neutral morph is placed in the aspect slot (Slot 7). The verbs that we have met in Lessons Two and Three have morphs which occupy either two, three, four or five of the nine available slots. They can be shown as follows (using as an example the first person plural forms of εἰμί, λύω, βάλλω, ἐκβάλλω):
3.94 Where a morph consists of the lengthening of a phoneme, this is indicated by a capital L in the column for that morph. Thus:
THREE: FIRST DECLENSION AND SECOND AORIST ACTIVE 47
ASSIGNMENTS ON LESSON THREE
1. PARADIGMS FOR LEARNING: The paradigms which now need to be learnt by heart are:
4. The first and second person personal pronouns (ἐγώ and σύ, #3.32);
5. The imperfect of εἰμί (#3.81);
6. The paradigm of the second aorist (either ἔβαλον or ἦλθον, #3.81).
NOTE: Follow the same learning pattern as for previous Lessons, and make use of the Practice Sheet in your Workbook.
2. LEARNING THE FIRST DECLENSION: Compare the feminine flexion of the article with the five paradigms of the First Declension. Learn to recognize the forms of the First Declension by noting similarities and differences between their endings and the article.
3. APPENDIX: READ CAREFULLY the additional information set out in Appendix #A3.
4. WORKBOOK: ANSWER THE QUESTIONS in your Workbook about this Lesson.
5. TRANSLATION EXERCISES A AND B: Do the English into Greek exercises, and then read and translate literally the thirty Selections from the Greek New Testament. NOTE: To do this work you will need to use the paradigms set for learning this Lesson, together with the paradigms and vocabulary of the previous Lessons. The new prepositions given below, and the case(s) which they take, should be carefully noted. Most of the Selections introduce new vocabulary which is then used again in the Selections which follow. LEARN each unknown word as you use it.
6. VOCABULARY CARDS: Write out Vocabulary Cards for the new words introduced in this Lesson, putting 3 (for -Lesson Three") in the top lefthand corner of each side of each Card. Add these Cards to your collection, and place them all in alphabetical order. [Don't forget to put on your Preposition Cards the case(s) taken by each preposition.]
A. TRANSLATION FROM ENGLISH INTO GREEK
(This may be done as an exercise in class at the end of the Lesson, or set as an assignment.)
For needed vocabulary, check through the English side of your Vocabulary Cards.
|A1.||"We (emphatic) have the peace of God in our hearts."|
|A2.||Concerning John, Jesus said to his disciples,|
|A3.||"I say to you, he (emphatic) is a prophet of God."|
|A4.||"O Lord, you are sending your prophets to us."|
|A5.||God sends his son into our world, and we see his glory.|
|A6.||Jesus, you came to us out of heaven, and you spoke to me.|
|A7.||The teacher said, "I (emphatic) tell you, the law is good."|
|A8.||"I perceive that this is the word of truth from God."|
|A9.||The king sees Jesus but does not hear his voice.|
|A10.||They threw the lamb into the field. This was not good.|
48 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
|A11.||Jesus said to the man, "You (emphatic) have a demon."|
|A12.||The Lord came into the field with his disciples.|
|A13.||The woman saw Jesus and said, "I see him beside my house."|
|A14.||She came into her house and Jesus hears her voice.|
|A15.||She (emphatic) says, "Does he see me and is he speaking to me?"|
|A16.||Jesus said to her, "I saw that you were in that place."|
B. SELECTIONS FROM THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
(NOTE: These are Selections from the verses listed; only a part of the verse is being set for you to read at this stage.)
|SELECTION||NOTES AND NEW WORDS|
|B1.||Τίς ἐστιν οὗτος ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου; (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 12:34)||Σαμαρείτης, -ου, ὁ: a Samaritan|
|B2.||Ἰδοὺ γάρ, ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ ἐντὸς ὑμῶν ἐστίν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΛΟΥΚΑΝ 17:21)||Σίμων: Simon; Ἰωνᾶς, -ᾶ, ὁ: Jonas|
|B3.||Καὶ σὺ ἦσθα μετὰ Ἰησοῦ τοῦ Γαλιλαίου. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 26:69)||Γαλιλαῖος -α -ον: Galilean|
|B4.||Ὁ πατὴρ ἡμῶν Ἀβραάμ ἐστιν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 8:39)||*πατήρ, -τρός, ὁ: father|
|B5.||εἶπον, Υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ εἰμι; (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 10:36)||*εἶπον: I said [#3.69]|
|B6.||πιστεύετε εἰς τὸν θεόν, καὶ εἰς ἐμὲ πιστεύετε. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 14:1)||*πιστεύω: I believe|
|B7.||Ταῦτα δὲ ὑμῖν ἐξ ἀρχῆς οὐκ εἶπον, ὅτι μεθ’ ὑμῶν ἤμην. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 16:4)||*ἀρχή, -ῆς, ἡ: beginning (ruler); *ὅτι: because (that)|
|B8.||Θωμᾶς … εἶπεν αὐτῷ, Ὁ κύριός μου καὶ ὁ θεός μου. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 20:28)||Θωμᾶς, -ᾶ, ὁ: Thomas|
|B9.||Ἡ γὰρ καρδία σου οὐκ ἔστιν εὐθεῖα ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ. (ΠΡΑΞΕΙΣ ΑΠΟΣΤΟΛΩΝ 8:21)||εὐθεῖα: right, upright (fem. adj.)|
|B10.||ἔσται ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ τῆς γῆς τρεῖς ἡμέρας καὶ τρεῖς νύκτας. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 12:40)||ἔσται: [he] will be; *τρεῖς: three; *νύξ, -υκτός, ἡ night|
|B11.||ἦλθεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἰς τὴν Γαλιλαίαν, κηρύσσων τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς βασιλείας τοῦ θεοῦ, … πιστεύετε ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 1:14-15)||*ἦλθον: I came [#3.69]; Γαλιλαία, -ας, ἡ: Galilee; *κηρύσσων: preaching (participle)|
|B12.||Κύριε, κύριε, οὐ τῷ σῷ ὀνόματι … δαιμόνια ἐξεβάλομεν (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 7:22)||*ὄνομα, -ατος, τό: name; *ἐκβάλλω: I drive out, cast out|
|B13.||Τὸ βάπτισμα Ἰωάννου ἐξ οὐρανοῦ ἦν, ἢ ἐξ ἀνθρώπων; (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 11:30)||βάπτισμα, -ατος, τό: baptism; *ἤ: or (than)|
|B14.||Καὶ ὁ Ἰησοῦς … εἶπεν αὐτῷ, Οὐ μακρὰν εἶ ἀπὸ τῆς βασιλείας τοῦ θεοῦ. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 12:34)||μακράν: far [adverb]|
|B15.||Σὺ εἶ μαθητὴς ἐκείνου· ἡμεῖς δὲ τοῦ Μωσέως ἐσμὲν μαθηταί. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 9:28)||*μαθητής, -οῦ, ὁ: disciple; *ἐκεῖνος -η -ο: that, that one; Μωϋσεύς, -έως, ὁ: Moses|
THREE: FIRST DECLENSION AND SECOND AORIST ACTIVE 49
|SELECTION||NOTES AND NEW WORDS|
|B16.||Ἄγουσιν οὖν τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἀπὸ τοῦ Καϊάφα εἰς τὸ πραιτώριον· (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 18:28)||*ἄγω: I lead, bring; Καϊάφας: Caiaphas; πραιτώριον, -ου, τό: governor's residence|
|B17.||Ἐξῆλθεν οὖν πάλιν ἔξω ὁ Πιλάτος, καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, Ἴδε, ἄγω ὑμῖν αὐτὸν ἔξω (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 19:4)||*ἐξῆλθον: I came out; *πάλιν: again, once again; *ἔξω: outside|
|B18.||Οἱ ... μαθηταὶ ... οὐκ ... ἦσαν μακρὰν ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 21:8)|
|B19.||καὶ τὰ πρόβατα τῆς φωνῆς αὐτοῦ ἀκούει ... Εἶπεν οὖν πάλιν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ θύρα τῶν προβάτων. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 10:3, 7)||πρόβατον, -ου, τό: sheep; *ἀκούω: I hear (takes genitive: #A3.42); *ἀμήν: truly; θύρα, -ας, ἡ; door|
|B20.||Καὶ λέγουσιν αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ, Πόθεν ἡμῖν ἐν ἐρημίᾳ ἄρτοι; (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 15:33)||ἐρημία, -ας, ἡ: a desert, deserted place|
|B21.||ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀπέχουσιν τὸν μισθὸν αὐτῶν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 6:2)||ἀπέχω: I receive (have) in full; μισθός, -ου, ὁ: reward (pay, wages)|
|B22.||Μετὰ ταῦτα εἶδον, καὶ ἰδού, θύρα ἀνεῳγμένη ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ (ΑΠΟΚΑΛΥΨΙΣ ΙΩΑΝΝΟΥ 4:1)||*εἶδον: I saw, looked [#3.69]; ἀνεῳγμένη: standing open (participle)|
|B23.||Ἰδού, ἐγὼ ἀποστέλλω ὑμᾶς ὡς πρόβατα ἐν μέσῳ λύκων· (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 10:16)||*ὡς: as, like; *μέσος, -η, -ον: the midst; λύκος, -ου, ὁ: wolf|
|B24.||Ἔσεσθε οὖν ὑμεῖς τέλειοι, ὥσπερ ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς τέλειός ἐστιν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 5:48)||ἔσεσθε: you shall be (plural); τέλειος, -α, -ον: mature, perfect; οὐράνιος, -ον: heavenly|
|B25.||Ταῦτα εἶπεν Ἠσαΐας, ὅτε εἶδεν τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 12:41)||Ἠσαΐας, -ου, ὁ: Isaiah; *δόξα, -ης, ἡ: glory|
|B26.||Περιπατῶν δὲ παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν τῆς Γαλιλαίας εἶδεν δύο ἀδελφούς, Σίμωνα τὸν λεγόμενον Πέτρον, καὶ Ἀνδρέαν τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 4:18)||*περιπατῶν: walking; *θάλασσα, -ης, ἡ: sea; *δύο: two; *ἀδελφός, -οῦ, ὁ: brother; λεγόμενον: called (participle); Ἀνδρέας, -ου, ὁ: Andrew|
|B27.||Φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ, Ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν κυρίου· (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 1:3)||βοῶντος: of one crying aloud (gen ptc); ἐρῆμος, -ου, ἡ: deserted place, desert; ἑτοιμάσατε: prepare; *ὁδός, -οῦ, ἡ: way|
|B28.||Οὗ γάρ εἰσιν δύο ἢ τρεῖς συνηγμένοι εἰς τὸ ἐμὸν ὄνομα, ἐκεῖ εἰμὶ ἐν μέσῳ αὐτῶν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 18:20)||οὗ: where; συνηγμένοι: gathered together; *ἐμός, -ή, -όν: my (adjective); *ἐκεῖ: there|
|B29.||Καὶ εὐθὺς τὸ πνεῦμα αὐτὸν ἐκβάλλει εἰς τὴν ἔρημον. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 1:12)||*εὐθύς: immediately; *πνεῦμα, -ατος, τό: Spirit (spirit), breath, wind|
|B30.||Τί οὖν; Ἠλίας εἶ σύ; Καὶ λέγει, Οὐκ εἰμί. Ὁ προφήτης εἶ σύ; ... Οὔ. Εἶπον οὖν αὐτῷ, Τίς εἶ; ... Τί λέγεις περὶ σεαυτοῦ; Ἔφη, Ἐγὼ φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ, Εὐθύνατε τὴν ὁδὸν κυρίου, καθὼς εἶπεν Ἠσαΐας ὁ προφήτης. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 1:21-23)||Ἠλίας, -ου, ὁ: Elijah; σεαυτοῦ: yourself (gen.); *ἔφη: he said; εὐθύνατε: make straight (imperative); *καθώς: just as|
THE RELATIVE PRONOUN AND THE ACTIVE VOICE4.1 THE RELATIVE PRONOUN
4.11 The relative pronoun is "who", "whose", "what", "which", etc. The paradigm for this is very similar to that for the article (see #2.4) except (a) that it always has an accent (the article does not have an accent in the forms ὁ, ἡ, οἱ and αἱ); (b) that it always commences with a rough breathing and never with a "τ"; and (c) that the masculine nominative singular has the standard ending "ς" (the corresponding form of the article is ὁ).
4.12 NOTE that the relative pronoun consists in fact solely of the endings for οὗτος (see #3,32), and its stem is simply the rough breathing.
|Dative||ᾧ||to/for whom||ᾗ||ᾧ||to/for which/what|
|Dative||οἷς||to/for whom||αἷς||οἷς||to/for which/what|
4.14 NOTE the accent: always an acute on the nominative and accusative forms (and under the rules of accentuation this usually changes to a grave before following words - see #E6); always a circumflex on the genitive and dative forms.
4.15 NOTE also that there are several forms of the relative pronoun which are differentiated from other words only by their accent and/or breathing: (a) the only difference between the forms ὅ, ἥ, οἵ and αἵ and forms for the article is that the relative pronoun has an accent (either an acute or a grave) while the article does not have an accent; (b) the word ἤ, which means "or" (L3/B13) or "than" (#7.48), differs in accent and breathing, and in breathing, respectively from the nominative singular feminine article ἡ and the nominative singular feminine relative ἥ; (c) compare similarly the accusative singular feminine relative ἥν with ἦν, the third person singular imperfect "he/she/it was" form from εἰμί (#3.81), and the genitive ἧς with ἦς, "you (singular) were" form from εἰμί; (d) the word "where", οὗ (see L3/B28) is identical with the masculine/neuter genitive singular relative οὗ, and differs in accent and breathing from οὐ, "not" (#2.94). (For other important accents, see #A4.23.)
4.16 The relative pronoun takes the gender and number of the word to which it refers (called its antecedent), and the case that is appropriate for its function in its own clause. However, in some sentences the writer will be found to have put the relative into the case of its antecedent. This is referred to as the "attraction of the relative".
4.17 The translation of the relative (for both singular and plural) is usually "who" etc. if personal gender (that is, masculine or feminine), or "what" or "which" etc. if neuter. Examples: "The Lord whom you seek will suddenly come ..."; "The body of which you all are members ..."; "You are my friends if you do what I command you." It needs to be remembered that "who", "what" and "which" are used according to the gender of the antecedent in English - the gender in Greek may be different (#2.13). in many cases the relative may be best translated "that": "The words that I have spoken to you ...".
FOUR: THE RELATIVE PRONOUN AND THE ACTIVE VOICE 51
4.2 THE REST OF THE ACTIVE VERB
4.21 So far we have met the present and second aorist of the indicative active verb (#2.81 and #3.81). Here now are the flexions for the remaining tenses and modes of the active of λύω:
|Singular||2||loose! (singular)||λῦε||λῦσον||(No forms|
|3||let him loose (something)||λυέτω||λυσάτω||occur in|
|Plural||2||loose! (plural)||λύετε||λύσατε||the New|
|3||let them loose (something)||λυέτωσαν||λυσάτωσαν||Testament)|
|INFINITIVE||to loose||λύειν||λῦσαι||λελυκέναι||to have loosed|
4.22 Greek indicates future time by adding the future time morph, -σ-, to the end of the verb lexal, in front of the present tense endings. Thus we can notice that the only difference between the forms of the present tense (#2.81) and the future tense is that the future tense forms contain the future time morph, -σ-. So λύσω means, "I will loose" (see further, #A4.12). The future tense forms thus have four morphs (seen best in, say, a form like λύσομεν): the lexal, future morph, neutral morph (#2.77), and pronoun morph. (Can you identify which they each are in λύσομεν?)
4.23 As we saw last Lesson (#3.61), Greek indicates past time by adding the past time morph, ε-, to the beginning of a verb lexal. Two of the above tenses, the imperfect and the first aorist, have ε-prefixed to their forms in the Indicative Mode, and this thus indicates that these are past time flexions. λύω is the model verb for the First Conjugation; that is, its aorist active indicative flexion follows, and thus shows us, the first aorist pattern.)
4.31 In Greek, the most important aspect of tense is the kind of action that is being referred to. This is called aspect, and it is where the major distinction between the different tenses lies. There are three aspects which a Greek verb can have: a verb denotes either:
(a) Durative, that is, linear or progressive action (where the emphasis is upon the duration or continuation of the action, so that it refers to an ongoing, repeated or incomplete action). Durative aspect is expressed by the present and imperfect tenses.
(b) Punctiliar, that is, point-of-time action (where the reference is to a specific, completed or once-for-all action, or where an action is viewed in its totality no matter how long it lasted, or the point of commencing or completing an action is being stressed). Punctiliar aspect is expressed by the aorist tense.
(c) Perfective, that is, accomplished action (where the present state resulting from, and/or present consequence of, a prior action are being stressed; "the meaning of the perfect is I am in the position of having done").²⁰ Perfective aspect is expressed by the present perfect and pluperfect tenses. (There is also a rare future perfect: See #C0.33.)
52 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
4.32 These aspects can be shown diagrammatically as:
|(a)||Durative Aspect (Present and Imperfect Tenses):|
| ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ or ••••••••••••• |
ongoing action or repeated action
|(b)||Punctiliar Aspect (Aorist Tense):|
| • or ⚪ |
action viewed in its totality
|(c)||Perfective Aspect (Present Perfect and Pluperfect Tenses):|
| •⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯ |
action leading to a state
4.33 The present and imperfect tenses are always durative in aspect; the aorist is always punctiliar, and the present perfect (sometimes referred to simply as "the perfect") and pluperfect (the past tense of the perfect) are always perfective. The future tense stands outside the aspect system of the verb. and does not have any inherent aspect. Sometimes its meaning is durative (that is, referring to an ongoing action in the future); in some usages it may have punctiliar significance; and often the kind of action in the future is not indicated in the context. But in any case, if a future verb does have any such significance, this is only because of the lexical meaning of a given verb or because of the way a verb is being used in a particular context.²¹
4.34 The pluperfect tense is quite rare in the Greek New Testament (it occurs only 86 times²²), and therefore is not set out here; but it is a part of the verb system available for the use of the Greek speaker/writer, and it will be introduced in #7.8 — it is set out in Appendix C, #C1.1.
4.35 THE VERB'S ASPECT MORPH SLOT: How is aspect indicated in a verb? This differs to some extent depending upon whether the verb is First, Second, or Third Conjugation (#3.67). In First Conjugation verbs, aspect is indicated by the morph which is used in the verb's Aspect Morph Slot. We have seen (#3.93) that the structure of a verb consists of nine morph slots one of which — Slot 7 — is the Aspect Morph Slot. A different morph is placed in this slot to indicate forms of the durative, punctiliar, and perfective flexions of a verb.
4.36 INDICATING DURATIVE ASPECT: The lexal of every First Conjugation verb is inherently durative (#3.68), and therefore these verbs do not require to take any additional morph to make them durative: they already are durative. So when a durative form of a verb is being used, it has the neutral morph (-ε- or -ο-: see #2,77) in the aspect slot. The neutral morph has a "neutral" effect on the verb's aspect; the use of the neutral morph is indicating, "In this verb form, aspect is not being changed — the verb's inherent aspect still applies," Putting it round the other way: seeing that a First Conjugation verb is inherently durative, when such a verb form has the neutral morph in its Aspect Morph Slot that verb form must be either present or imperfect (the two durative tenses). It is worth noting at this point that the neutral morph is also found in the future tense (#4.22) and in the Second Aorist tense (that is, the aorist tense of the Second Conjugation; #3.81), again with the meaning that aspect is not being affected (the future tense stands outside the aspect system [#4.33], and the lexal of Second Conjugation verbs is inherently punctiliar [#3.68]).
4.37 INDICATING PUNCTILIAR ASPECT: A First Conjugation verb indicates punctiliar aspect by taking the punctiliar morph -σα- in the aspect slot (Slot 7) instead of the neutral morph. The effect of putting the punctiliar morph in the aspect slot is to change the verb form to punctiliar aspect. This morph is an elision morph, which means that whenever it is followed by a vowel in the verb's next morph the punctiliar morph -σα- elides its vowel, -α-, to become simply -σ-. The situation can be summed up thus: the punctiliar morph is
(a) -σα- before consonants and form final (that is, when it is at the end of the word form); and
(b) -σ- before vowels. There are one complete flexion (the subjunctive) and three individual forms in the above λύω paradigm (#4.21) where the next morphs commence with a vowel: 3rd person singular indicative, -ε-; 2nd person singular imperative, -ον; and the infinitive, -αι (note that the -α- here is part of the infinitive morph, or else under this elision rule it would have elided in front of the -ι). Therefore in all these cases the punctiliar morph consists of just -σ-, as a result of the elision of the -α-.
FOUR: THE RELATIVE PRONOUN AND THE ACTIVE VOICE 53
NOTE VERY CAREFULLY that the -σ- of the punctiliar morph will always by followed by a vowel: either the -α- of its own morph, or else the vowel that has caused that -α- to elide; therefore a -σ- followed by a consonant could NEVER be the punctiliar morph. The aorist, ἔλυσα, means "I loosed" [see #A4.13(a)].
4.38 INDICATING PERFECTIVE ASPECT: Perfective aspect is indicated by the perfective morph -κα- in the aspect slot (Slot 7). The effect of putting the perfective morph in the aspect slot is to change the verb form to perfective aspect. Like the other aspect morphs, the perfective morph, -κα- is an elision morph, the -α- eliding before a following vowel.
NOTICE that this -κα- becomes -κε- in one particular form, in front of the infinitive ending -ναι.
4.39 REDUPLICATION: There is a second distinguishing feature of the perfective aspect, called reduplication, which means taking the first letter of the lexal, if it is a single consonant, and doubling it, and then separating the two letters with the vowel -ε-. Thus λυ- becomes first λλυ- and then λελυ. This creates the reduplication morph (for λύω, λε-), which occupies Slot 3 of the verb's nine morph slots. The perfect, λέλυκα, means "I have loosed". [See #A4.13(b) and A4.14.]
4.41 THE CONCEPT OF MODE: In #2.72 we were introduced to the concept of the verb's mode. This feature of the verb is referred to by some grammarians as "mood", but as it deals with the type of statement being made about an action and not with overtones of feelings, "mode" (the term used by Robertson, Davis, and others) is a more appropriate and much preferable designation. A. T. Robertson says, "Mode (Latin, modus) deals with the manner of the affirmation. Voice and tense deal with the action, not the affirmation ... The modes, like the tenses, deal with the statement, not with the facts in the case."174.42 INDICATIVE MODE: So far we have been learning about flexions of the verb's indicative mode. The indicative mode "indicates" something; i.e. it is used for making a statement (or asking a question) about what is: the actual circumstances of whatever is being considered. From the flexions of λύω given in #4.21, notice that the aorist tense only has the augment in the indicative mode, for only in the indicative does the aorist refer to past time. In contrast, the aorist does not have the augment in the subjunctive, imperative, infinitive, or participle (or optative), because these do NOT refer to past time. They refer to punctiliar aspect, in contrast with the present tense, which designates durative aspect. The reduplication in the perfect tense is a perfective aspect morph, and quite unrelated to past time, and so is kept in all modes.
4.43 SUBJUNCTIVE MODE: The next mode for us to learn is the subjunctive mode. This mode is used when making a statement (or asking a question) about what might be: the conditional, the potential, the possible, the hypothetical, etc. It is therefore translated by words such as "may", "might", "could", "would", "should", "[if he] were to", "[if it] happens to", and similarly. Your translation of a subjunctive should aim to bring out the uncertainty which is being indicated by the use of this mode.
4.44 TENSES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE:
(a) Tenses and Meanings: There are flexions of the subjunctive mode for each of the three aspects, durative, punctiliar, and perfective. But although a perfect subjunctive existed, it was rarely used — the only two tenses of the subjunctive in common use were the present and aorist. The difference between them is solely one of aspect, that is, type of action (#4.31, #4.32).
(b) Subjunctive Morph: The subjunctive morph is a process morph¹⁸ not an additive morph - it is a process of change, something done to a word form, not something added to it. The subjunctive morph is the lengthening of the neutral morph. Thus the neutral morph is the carrier for the subjunctive process morph.
54 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
(c) Present Subjunctive: A comparison of the present subjunctive with the present indicative (#4,21 with #2.81) will reveal the nature of the subjunctive process morph: the lengthening of the neutral morph in each form. Note that it cannot lengthen further when it is already long (thus, indicative first person singular form λύω remains λύω in the subjunctive). Where the neutral morph is part of a diphthong with ι the ι goes subscript to the lengthened neutral morph (thus, λύεις ⟶ λύῃς, λύει ⟶ λύῃ); where the neutral morph is part of a diphthong with υ the -υ- is lost from the word altogether (thus, λύουσιν ⟶ λύωσιν).
(d) Aorist Subjunctive: The aorist subjunctive flexion is formed from the present subjunc-tive by adding the punctiliar morph -σα- in front of the lengthened neutral morph. But notice that this means: (a) that the punctiliar morph will always come in front of a vowel (the lengthened neutral morph) and therefore it always elides to -σ-, and is never -σα- (#4.37); and (b) that the aorist subjunctive takes the present tense form of the pronoun endings rather than the pronoun endings used for the aorist indicative.
4.45 WORDS REQUIRING THE SUBJUNCTIVE: The words ἵνα ("in order that") and ἄν ("ever" as in the word "whoever", indicating indefiniteness) and any words compounded with ἄν (such as ἐάν, "if ever", from εἰ, "if") always take the subjunctive after them. [There are two constructions with ἄν that do not take the subjunctive, dealt with in #4.76(d) and #10.82.] These words therefore act as indicators that a subjunctive is coming. (See further, #A4.2.)
4.46 IMPERATIVE MODE: The imperative mode is used for any form of requesting: begging, entreating, praying, exhorting, commanding. NOTE (#4.21) that Greek has a third person imperative, for which there is no equivalent form in English. We can approximate the meaning as "let (him/her/it/them) carry out the action of the verb". In the imperative, once again (as in the subjunctive), the difference between the three tenses (present, aorist, and perfect) is one of aspect, and has nothing to do with time. The present imperative indicates that the action expressed in the verb is ongoing, continued or repeated; the aorist imperative implies that the action is not ongoing, continued or repeated. The aorist imperative is the one that is normally used unless there is some reason to indicate durative action. With the negative (μή — see #4.49), the present imperative expresses the prohibition of an act already begun: "Do not continue doing, that is, stop doing, (the action of the verb)". The prohibition of an act not yet begun — "Do not begin doing (the action of the verb)" — is expressed by μή with the aorist subjunctive.
4.47 INFINITIVE MODE: The infinitive is used: to complete the thought or the action of the main verb; in the place of a noun (in which case it will usually have the definite article, and is referred to as the articular infinitive, #9.86); in indirect speech; to express purpose or result. The infinitive can have a subject (which is put in the accusative case, not the nominative [#9.43(c)]), and it can also govern an object. (The infinitive is discussed more fully in #10.7.)
4.48 THE PARTICIPLE: The participle is given here (#4.21) for the masculine, feminine and neuter nominative singular, and the masculine/neuter genitive singular. These are the only forms needed for the moment, and (as will be explained in #8.15) they enable the whole of a participle's flexions to be known.
NOTE that the second aorist participle, infinitive, imperative forms take the neutral morph and therefore have the same endings as the present participle and infinitive, not those of the first aorist. As the aorist does not take an augment outside the indicative mode (#4.42), the second aorist form for the infinitive and participle will be without the augment.
For ἦλθον this gives ἐλθεῖν and ἐλθών, -ουσα, -ον;
and for εἶδον this gives ἰδεῖν and ἰδών, -ουσα, -ον;
but for εἶπον we find εἰπεῖν and εἰπών, -ουσα, -ον.
NOTE (a) that the second aorist infinitive ends in -ειν, as does the present infinitive, rather than -σαι, like the first aorist infinitive;
(b) that the second aorist imperative endings are also similar to the present imperative of λύω.
FOUR: THE RELATIVE PRONOUN AND THE ACTIVE VOICE 55
4.49 THE NEGATIVE: The word οὐ/οὐκ/οὐχ/οὐχί (#2.94) is used as the negative with verbs in the indicative mode. A completely different word, μή, is used as the negative with all other modes. Both negatives go in front of the word to which they refer. The two words can be used together, in the order οὐ μή, as an emphatic negative, which is normally then followed by the subjunctive [sometimes by the subjunctival future, #4.76(d)].
4.5 LINGUISTIC MODIFICATION RULES
4.50Most verbs modify their lexals in taking the augment when the lexal begins with a vowel, and in adding a morph which is, or which begins with, a consonant. The rules are:
4.51 THE TEMPORAL AUGMENT RULE: Remember, those verbs with lexals which begin with a short vowel take the temporal augment (#3.63) to indicate past time. That is, for these verbs the augment is not an additive morph but a process morph: the changing of the short vowel to the corresponding long vowel.
|If a lexal begins with α, it lengthens this to η.||Example:||ἀκούω||ἤκουον|
|If a lexal begins with ε, it lengthens this to η.||Example:||ἐλπίζω||ἤλπιζον|
|If a lexal begins with ο, it lengthens this to ω.||Example:||ὀφείλω||ὤφειλον|
If the short vowel is part of a diphthong with iota, the short vowel lengthens in accordance with this rule and the iota becomes subscript.
|If a lexal begins with αι, this diphthong becomes ῃ.||Example:||αἰτέω||ἤτουν|
|If a lexal begins with ει, this diphthong becomes ῃ.||Example:||εἰκάζω||ᾔκαζον†|
|If a lexal begins with οι, this diphthong becomes ῳ.||Example:||οἰκοδομέω||ᾠκοδόμουν|
|There are a small number of verbs beginning with ε- which, for particular linguistic reasons (to be explained in #C8.7) lengthen the ε- to ει- instead of η-.||Example:||ἔχω||εἶχον|
† There is no New Testament example from a verb commencing with ει-; for the sake of completeness of the pattern, this example has been drawn from a Greek verb used outside the New Testament, εἰκάζω, "I liken, compare, conjecture, imagine". The root εἰπ- does not lengthen its epsilon, but forms its aorist as εἶπον (#4.48).
4.52 ADDING PREPOSITIONS: A preposition occupies the first of the verb's nine morph slots. When prepositions ending in a vowel (except πρό and περί) are added to a simplex verb to make a compound verb (see #3.7), the final vowel elides completely before a vowel (including the augment). The nine prepositions which elide their final vowel in this way (called the eliding prepositions) are: ἀνά, ἀντί, ἀπό, διά, ἐπί, κατά, μετά, παρά and ὑπό. When adding the preposition ἐκ/ἐξ, to a verb form beginning with a vowel (including the augment, which occupies Slot 3), it is ἐξ (#1 .75).
4.53 SHORT VOWEL LENGTHENING RULE: Where a verb lexal ends in a short vowel, this vowel regularly lengthens when followed by a morph beginning with a consonant:
|If a lexal ends with α, it lengthens this to η.||Example:||τιμάω||τιμήσω|
|If a lexal ends with ε, it lengthens this to η.||Example:||λαλέω||λαλήσω|
|If a lexal ends with ο, it lengthens this to ω.||Example:||πληρόω||πληρώσω|
This is "the Short Vowel Lengthening Rule".
4.54 AMALGAMATION RULES FOR LABIALS AND PALATALS:
(a) LABIAL AMALGAMATION RULE: When a verb lexal ends in a labial (π, β, φ, ψ: see #1.69), the labial combines with a following σ into ψ. Example: γράφω, future γράψω).
(b) PALATAL AMALGAMATION RULE: When a verb lexal ends in a palatal (κ, γ, χ, ξ, σσ: see #1.69), the palatal combines with a following σ into ξ. Example: ἄγω, future ἄξω.
56 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
4.55 DENTAL DROP-OUT RULE:
|When a verb lexal ends in a dental (τ, δ, θ, ζ), the dental drops out before a following consonant.||Example: δοξάζω, perfect δεδόξακα.|
|When a verb lexal ends in -πτ-, the -τ- drops out under this rule, and the -π- then combines with a following -σ- to give -ψ- in accordance with #4.54(a).||Example: καλύπτω, future καλύψω.|
4.56 FUTURE OF LIQUID VERBS: When a verb lexal ends in a liquid (see #1.69), either oral (-λ-, -ρ-) or nasal (-μ-, -ν-), that verb (called a liquid verb after the final phoneme of its lexal) cannot add -σ- to the liquid: these phonemes — liquids and sigma — are not compatible in Greek. The liquid verbs form their future differently:
(a) A liquid verb adds -ε- as its future time morph instead of -σ-. The added -ε- then contracts with the vowel of the ending into a long vowel or diphthong. (See further, #A4.23. This contraction occurs in accordance with linguistic rules to be introduced later [#6.8].)
(b) If the lexal of the present tense ends in double -λ-, then outside the present and imperfect tenses the verb also drops the final lambda.
(c) If the lexal of the present tense has a diphthong in -ι- before the liquid, then outside the present and imperfect tenses it drops the iota. For examples of such verbs, see #4.59.
4.57 AORIST OF LIQUID VERBS: The fact that a liquid verb cannot add sigma to its lexal also affects the formation of the aorist tense, which non-liquid verbs form by adding the morph -σα-.
(a) To form the aorist of a liquid verb: replace the future morph and neutral morph of the future tense with the aorist morph -α-, and prefix the augment. But then, because liquids and sigma are not compatible in Greek, the sigma of the -σα- slides off the liquid, leaving just the -a-as the aorist morph in such a word. However, if the lexal ends in -ε- plus ρ, λ, or ν, then in compensation for the loss of this -σ- it lengthens -ε- to -ει- before the liquid. The end result for these verbs is that their punctiliar morph (that is, what marks the punctiliar aspect, aorist tense) is the iota before the liquid plus the alpha after it [which can be written as ι.α, where the dot between -ι- and -α- represents the liquid]. For examples of such verbs, see #4.59.
(b) Note that when a verb lexal ends in a liquid, the third person singular form of the aorist will have no visible punctiliar morph: because it is a liquid, the -σ- of the punctiliar morph will have slid off, and because the ending added for the third person singular is a vowel, the -α- will have elided. Thus there is nothing in Slot 7 (between the lexal and the pronoun morph), where you would otherwise have expected an aspect morph. When there is nothing (zero) in a slot where some-thing was expected, that "zero" is itself informative. This is called the zero morph, written by the symbol Ø. Thus when a verb lexal ends in a liquid, and there is nothing (zero) in Slot 7, followed by the third person singular pronoun ending, this data informs you that the verb form is aorist.
4.58 PERFECT OF LIQUID VERBS: If the lexal of a liquid verb in the future tense:
(a) is a monosyllable (that is, not counting prepositions in a compound verb), and ends in -ε- plus the liquid, then that lexal changes the -ε- into -α- in forming its perfect.
(b) ends in -ιν-, then the -ν- is dropped before the endings of the perfect.
4.59 EXAMPLES: The following verbs illustrate these various linguistic modifications:
FOUR: THE RELATIVE PRONOUN AND THE ACTIVE VOICE 57
The -έω of the future forms then contracts in each instance into -ῶ. Fuller information about forming liquid verbs is given in #C1.81—C1.89.
Some verbs exhibit various irregularities. For the present, these verbs are used only in forms which will be recognizable by these rules.
4.6 DOUBLE MORPHS
4.61 DOUBLE FUTURE MORPH: The verb θέλω ("I wish, want") adds a double future morph. In accordance with the rule for the future of liquid verbs, it adds -ε- to become "θελέω", and next it adds the usual -σ- (#4.22) as well, and then follows the Short Vowel Lengthening Rule (#4.53) to make its future θελήσω. (Several other liquid verbs also take this double future morph; they are listed in #C1.88.)
4.62 DOUBLE AUGMENT: A small number of verbs take a double augment. Thus θέλω takes the syllabic augment (#3.62), giving "ἔθελον", and then takes the temporal augment (#3.63) to form its imperfect of ἤθελον. Similarly its aorist is ἠθέλησα (not "ἐθέλησα"). Other verbs taking a double augment are δύναμαι, "I am able", μέλλω, "I intend", and ὁράω, "I see".
4.63 TRIPLE AUGMENT: ἀνοίγω ("I open") is a compound of ἀνά with οἴγω, and is double augmented in the aorist to ἀνέῳξα. Some writers have applied the temporal augment to the preposition, giving the form ἤνοιξα (which strictly speaking is grammatically incorrect, but shows that they thought of it not as a compound but as a simplex verb). These augmentations are also found combined together, so that the form ἠνέῳξα (triple augment!) also occurs in the New Testament.
4.7 GUIDELINES ON HOW TO DECIPHER A VERB
4.71 First, locate the verb. If it is not one you recognize at once, it can be identified (a) by its ending, which you know from your memorized paradigms (even if you don't know the rest of it); (b) because of a negative in front of it; or (c) by a process of elimination, because you recognize the words around it as nouns or other parts of speech.
4.72 Does it have a reduplication in -ε-, on the model of λέλυκα? Then it is a present perfect (or a pluperfect if it also has an augment and/or the morph -ει- in its Slot 8).
4.73 Does it have an augment? Remember (a) to look for the augment between the preposition and the verb lexal in compound words, and (b) that the augment may be contained in an initial long vowel or diphthong. If it has an augment, does it also have -σα- (or -σ- before a vowel) between the verb lexal and the ending? If so, it is a first aorist indicative. If not, then it is either a second or third aorist or an imperfect. Strip off the augment and ending, substitute -ω, and if it is an imperfect you should find your word now in the lexicon. If not, check it out as a second aorist: try it with the augment and the first person singular second aorist ending and see if that form is in the lexicon. If it is, it will tell you the corresponding first person singular of the present active. If you have no success with these efforts, go on to #4.74.
4.74 Does it have -σα- (or -σ- before a vowel) between the lexal and the ending? If so, and it also has an augment, then it is a first aorist indicative. If it has -σ- but no augment, then it is either a future or a first aorist in a mode other than the indicative. Check to see if the endings are those of the future indicative or those of the aorist subjunctive, imperative, or infinitive. (Remember: that the future and the aorist subjunctive have the same form for the first person singular; that a future -σ- will always be followed by a neutral morph; that -σα- always indicates a first aorist.) But what verb does it come from? Strip off the -σα- or -σ- and the ending (and the augment, if any), substitute -w, and you should be able to find your word in the lexicon. If not, the probability is that this word is a dental lexal verb and the dental has dropped out before the -σ-, in accordance with
58 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
#4.55. So, restore the dental. Try each dental in turn until you find a word that is listed in your lexicon. Start with ζ first (there are 211 Greek New Testament verbs with present lexals ending in ζ; eight in δ; six in θ; and one in τ).
4.75 It is important for deciphering a verb to be able to recognize and identify all the morphs of which it is composed. We can now add two extra morph slots — for the reduplication (Slot 3) and the future morph (Slot 6) — to the five we have already met in Lesson Three (#3.93). We should also NOTE (a) that the neutral morph (-ο/ε-), the punctiliar morph (-σα-) and the perfective active morph (-κα-) are alternatives in the aspect slot (Slot 7) — one or other of them will occur; (b) that when the neutral morph is lengthened this indicates subjunctive mode; and (c) that the aorist subjunctive thus requires both the punctiliar morph (which will not be -σα- but -σ- because it comes in front of a vowel) and the lengthened neutral morph. (This is the only circumstance in which two affix aspect morphs will occur together in Slot 7.) Moreover, the infinitive ending is an alternative to the pronoun ending: a verb will have one or the other.
4.76 TRANSLATING THE FUTURE: The unifying idea of the future tense is that of expectation. Four types of future (identical in form) can be recognized from their context:
(a) Predictive Future (the most common kind): Translate as -will". The speaker is predicting what is going to happen. This may be a statement of the speaker's own intention ("Teacher, I will follow you" [Mt 8:19]), or of the speaker's expectation ("One of you will say to me ..." [Rom 9:19]).
(b) Prophetic Future: This is a promise made by the Lord or his prophet. The NRSV at times translates this as "shall": "Look, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son" (Matthew 1:23; similarly Matthew 2:6, etc.).
(c) Imperatival Future: a future form which has the force of an imperative (see #4.46). Translate "shall" ("You shall call his name Jesus" [Mt 1:21]; "You shall not steal ... You shall love your neighbour as yourself [Mt 19:18-19, NRSV]; "he shall be your servant" [Mk 10:43, L9/B9]).
(d)Subjunctival Future: occasionally a future will be used where you would expect a subjunctive (see #4.43-45; #4.49), and with subjunctive meaning. Translate "may", "might", "would", "should", or similarly. This use of the future can occur in constructions that normally require a subjunctive: after ἵνα (Gal 2:4; 1 Pet 3:1; Rev 3:9; 6:4; 6:11; 14:13; 22:14); and after ἐάν, μή, or μήποτε (Mt 7:6; Acts 8:31; Col 2:8; Heb 3:12); and with οὐ μή as an emphatic negating of the future (Mt 15:6; 16:22; 26:35; Mark 13:31; 14:31; Luke 21:33; John 4:14; 6:35; 10:5; 20:25; Gal 4:30; Heb 10:17; Rev 3:5; 9:6; 18:14). Example: Βλέπετε, ἀδελφοί, μήποτε ἔσται ἔν τινι ὑμῶν, "Watch out, brothers, lest there should be in any one of you ..." (Heb 3:12).
4.77 Here is the morphological analysis of a selection of forms from λύω (#4.21) and one from the compound ἀπολύω. Examine each form, identify what it is, and work out its meaning:
FOUR: THE RELATIVE PRONOUN AND THE ACTIVE VOICE 59
4.78Slots 1, 4, 7 and 9 can be likened to multiposition switches (see #A3.37) — you can have any preposition in Slot 1, any lexal in Slot 4, one of the aspect morphs (neutral, punctiliar or perfective) in Slot 7, and a pronoun or infinitive ending in Slot 9. Slots 2, 3 and 6 are like simple on/off switches — when the morph is there, that switch is "on", and it switches the word to "past time", "perfect", or "future time" respectively.
4.8 USING THE GUIDELINES TO UNDERSTAND SOME VERBS IN THE SELECTIONS
4.81 ἀνῆλθεν: The first part of the word is the preposition ἀνά, which has elided its final vowel when prefixed to a lexal commencing with a vowel (see #4.52). The main verb is then seen to be -ῆλθεν, which will be recognized as a form from the paradigm of ἦλθον (#3.81). (Selection B 14.)
4.82 δεδουλεύκαμεν: The reduplication indicates that this is present perfect, confirmed by the -κα- between lexal and ending. The ending shows that the verb form is first person plural. Remove reduplication, perfective aspect morph, and ending, add -ω, and you have the lexical form, δουλεύω. (Selection B 10.)
4.83 μὴ νομίσητε: The μή alerts you that the following word is likely to be a verb, and if so it will not be indicative mode (#4.49). The -σ- of νομίσητε indicates either the future or the aorist, the -η- after the -σ- shows it to be subjunctive. As there is no such tense as a future subjunctive, you check your paradigm pattern and confirm that it is first aorist subjunctive, the -τε ending identifying it as the second person plural. But of what verb? The lexal before the sigma is νομι-, so the verb could be νομίω. You check your wordlist and find that there is no such word. So it is either a dental lexal verb, with the dental having dropped out before sigma, or it is some irregular form. You check out the dental possibilities and discover that the verb is: νομίζω. You can now see that it is a negative second person plural aorist subjunctive, which (as per #4.46) is "The prohibition of an act not yet begun." Thus μὴ νομίσητε means, "Do not have the thought ...", "Do not imagine for a single moment ...". (Selection B 18.)
4.84 Where Knowing Greek Makes a Difference: Always take careful note of the aspect of a verb, and take it into account in your translation, and for your understanding of a passage: sometimes the aspect chosen by the author can make a significant difference to the meaning of what he is saying. Thus in 1 John 3:9 we read, "Whoever has been born of God does not sin, for his seed remains in him; and he cannot sin, because he has been born of God." [NKJV.] This passage has caused considerable concern to many Christians who know they have been born again, and yet are aware that they have fallen into sin. If you know Greek, you will recognize that John here is using durative aspect, referring to an ongoing situation: "No one who is born of God will continue To sin, because God's seed remains in him; he cannot go on sinning, because he has been born of God." [NIV.] The passage is not speaking of an isolated act of sin, but of a continuing to live in sin: it is this which is incompatible with Christian profession. Again: in Ephesians 5:18 Paul instructs, "Be filled with the Spirit". He could have chosen to use punctiliar aspect (the aorist imperative), hich would have emphasized the fact of the filling, and could have been taken to refer to a once-for-all experience of Spirit-filling. Instead, Paul chose to use durative aspect (the present imperative), thus speaking of a repeated and ongoing filling: "Be continuously being filled with the Spirit."
4.9 NOTES FOR THE SELECTIONS
4.91 Verbs with lexals ending in -ε- (a) absorb this -ε- into a following long vowel or diphthong ending, and (b) contract this -ε- with a following -ε- into the diphthong -ει-. (Other types of contraction will be explained in #6.8.)
60 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
4.92 The infinitive after ἐν τῷ expresses the time at or during which the action occurred; it can be translated "when ..." or "while ..." (verb action). (Selection B20.)
4.93 The article plus δέ can be used on its own as the subject of a sentence, referring to someone previously mentioned. Thus ὁ δὲ ..., "and he ...". (See #1.83.) (Selection B20.)
4.94 NOTE another pair of words differentiated by their accent. We have met ἀλλά, "but", in L2/B20; ἄλλος (introduced in L4/B15) has the nominative/accusative neuter plural form ἄλλα, differing from ἀλλά only in its accent.
4.95 There will be occasions when the aorist is best rendered into English by the present perfect, where Greek focusses on the act and English on the consequence. For example: Ἐχθρὸς ἄνθρωπος τοῦτο ἐποίησεν — "some enemy has done this". (ἐχθρὸς ἄνθρωπος = a hostile man, an enemy.) (Selection B20.)
ASSIGNMENTS ON LESSON FOUR
1. PARADIGMS FOR LEARNING: The paradigms to be learnt by heart this Lesson are: 7. The first aorist indicative active of λύω (ἔλυσα, #4.21); 8. The forms of the present active imperative, infinitive and participle of λύω (#4.21). 9. The forms of the first aorist active imperative, infinitive and participle of λύω (#4.21).
2. LEARNING THE OTHER FLEXIONS OF THE ACTIVE VERB: Compare the flexion of λύσω (future) with the present tense (#2.81); the flexion of the perfect, λέλυκα, with the first aorist, ἔλυσα; the imperfect, ἔλυον, with the second aorist, ἔβαλον (#3.81), and the flexions of the present and aorist subjunctive with each other and with the present indicative, λύω (#2.81). Learn these various flexions of λύω by noting the similarities and differences seen in your comparisons, and the significance of the differences.
3. APPENDIX: READ CAREFULLY the additional information set out in the Appendix, #A4.
4. WORKBOOK: ANSWER THE QUESTIONS in your Workbook about this Lesson.
5. TRANSLATION EXERCISES A AND B: Do the English into Greek exercises, and then read and translate literally all the Selections from the Greek New Testament. Make sure that you continue to read each Selection aloud before translating it, to help cultivate your "feel" for the Greek.
NOTE: To do this work you will need to use the paradigms set for learning this Lesson, together with the paradigms and vocabulary of the previous Lessons. The new prepositions given below, and the cases they take, should be carefully noted. Most of the Selections introduce new vocabulary which is then used again in the Selections which follow. LEARN each unknown word as you use it.
6. VOCABULARY CARDS: Continue the practice of writing out Vocabulary Cards for the new words introduced in this Lesson, putting 4 (for "Lesson 4") in the top lefthand corner of each side of the Card. Make out the card for each new word as you come to it in the Sentences below; you will need some words for several Sentences. Add these Cards to your collection, and place them all in alphabetical order. (Don't forget to put on your Card the case(s) taken by each preposition.)
7. ABBREVIATIONS IN THE NOTES (BELOW): see page 12.
FOUR: THE RELATIVE PRONOUN AND THE ACTIVE VOICE 61
|ἐγγύς (+gen) near, close by (also used as an adverb, not governing a noun)|
A. TRANSLATION FROM ENGLISH INTO GREEK
(This may be done as an exercise in class at the end of the Lesson, or set as an assignment.)
|SENTENCES||NOTES AND NEW WORDS|
|A1.||"Release Barabbas for us." (Luke 23:18)||release: *ἀπολύω; Barabbas: Βαραββᾶς|
|A2.||And they said to him, "Believe upon the Lord Jesus, and you (sg emphatic) will be saved." (Acts 16:31)||you (sg) will be saved: σωθήσῃ|
|A3.||Pilate then says to him, "I have authority to release you." (John 19:10)||authority: * ἐξουσία, -ας, ἡ|
|A4.||Jesus says to them, "Do you believe that I am able to do this thing?" (Matthew 9:28)||I am able: *δύναμαι; do, make, carry out, practise: *ποιέω|
|A5.||They say to him, "Yes, Lord." (Matt 9:28)||yes: ναί|
|A6.||"Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting me?" (Acts 26:14)||Saul: Σαούλ; persecute: διώκω|
|A7.||"Who are you, Lord?" (Acts 26:15)|
|A8.||"I (emphatic) am Jesus whom you (emphatic) are persecuting." (Acts 26:15)|
|A9.||For not even his brothers believed in him. (John 7:5)||not even (neither, nor): *οὐδέ; in: *εἰς|
|A10.||"Lord, Lord, open up for us." (Matt 25:11)||open, open up: *ἀνοίγω|
|A11.||"Sir, we wish to see Jesus." (John 12:21)||wish, want: *θέλω; see: *εἶδον (aorist²)|
|A12.||The man believed the word which Jesus said to him. (John 4:50)||believe: *πιστεύω (takes dative); which: relative pronoun (see #4.13-4.17)|
B. SELECTIONS FROM THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
|B1.||Κύριε, σῶσόν με. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 14:30)||*σῴζω: save, rescue, deliver, cure|
|B2.||Ἦν δὲ ἐγγὺς τὸ Πάσχα τῶν Ἰουδαίων· (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 11:55)||πάσχα, τό (indecl.): the passover|
|B3.||εἰρήνην τὴν ἐμὴν δίδωμι ὑμῖν· (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 14:27)||*δίδωμι: I give|
|B4.||καὶ ἦλθον εἰς Βηθσφαγὴ πρὸς τὸ ὄρος τῶν Ἐλαιῶν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 21:1)||Βηθσφαγή, ἡ (indecl.): Bethphage; *ὄρος, -ους, τό: mountain; ἐλαία, -ας, ἡ: olive (tree)|
|B5.||Καὶ ἦν κηρύσσων ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς αὐτῶν εἰς ὅλην τὴν Γαλιλαίαν, καὶ τὰ δαιμόνια ἐκβάλλων. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 1:39)||κηρύσσων: preaching; *συναγωγή, synagogue; ἐκβάλλων: driving out|
|B6.||καὶ σύ ποτε ἐπιστρέψας στήριξον τοὺς ἀδελφούς σου. (ΚΑΤΑ ΛΟΥΚΑΝ 22:32)||ἐπιστρέφω: return, turn around; ποτε: once; στηρίζω: strengthen|
|B7.||Καὶ ἐγγὺς ἦν τὸ Πάσχα τῶν Ἰουδαίων, καὶ ἀνέβη εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα ὁ Ἰησοῦς. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 2:13)||ἀνέβη: (he) went up; Ἱεροσόλυμα, -ων, τά: Jerusalem|
62 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
|B8.||τὰ ῥήματα ἃ ἐγὼ λαλῶ ὑμῖν, πνεῦμά ἐστιν καὶ ζωή ἐστιν. Ἀλλ’ εἰσὶν ἐξ ὑμῶν τινες οἳ οὐ πιστεύουσιν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 6:63-64)||Re ῥήματα: see #3.4; *λαλέω: speak; Re ἐστιν: see #2.17(a); ἀλλ’=ἀλλά [see #1.81(e)]; τινες some (people)|
|B9.||Ἐγὼ δὲ ὅτι τὴν ἀλήθειαν λέγω, οὐ πιστεύετέ μοι. Τίς ἐξ ὑμῶν ἐλέγχει με περὶ ἁμαρτίας; Εἰ δὲ ἀλήθειαν λέγω, διὰ τί ὑμεῖς οὐ πιστεύετέ μοι; (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 8:45-46)||*εἰ: if; διὰ τί why?|
|B10.||Σπέρμα Ἀβραάμ ἐσμεν, καὶ οὐδενὶ δεδουλεύκαμεν πώποτε· (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 8:33)||οὐδενί: to no one; δουλεύω: be a slave, enslaved; πώποτε: at any time|
|B11.||Ἦν δὲ ἡ Βηθανία ἐγγὺς τῶν Ἱεροσολύμων· (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 11:18)||Βηθανία, ἡ: Bethany|
|B12.||Εἶπεν αὐτῇ ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ἀνάστασις καὶ ἡ ζωή· ... Πιστεύεις τοῦτο; Λέγει αὐτῷ, Ναί, Κύριε· ἐγὼ πεπίστευκα, ὅτι σὺ εἶ ὁ χριστός, ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 11:25-27)|
|B13.||Ἄγουσιν αὐτὸν πρὸς τοὺς Φαρισαίους, τόν ποτε τυφλόν. Ἦν δὲ σάββατον ὅτε τὸν πηλὸν ἐποίησεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς, καὶ ἀνέῳξεν αὐτοῦ τοὺς ὀφθαλμούς. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 9:13-14)||Φαρισαῖος, -ου, ὁ: a Pharisee; *τυφλός -ή -όν: blind (person); πηλός, -οῦ, ὁ: clay, mud; *ὀφθαλμός, -οῦ, ὁ: eye|
|B14.||Ἀνῆλθεν δὲ εἰς τὸ ὄρος ὁ Ἰησοῦς, καὶ ἐκεῖ ἐκάθητο μετὰ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ. Ἦν δὲ ἐγγὺς τὸ Πάσχα, ἡ ἑορτὴ τῶν Ἰουδαίων. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 6:3-4)||ἀνῆλθεν: I went up; ἐκάθητο: (he) sat/was sitting (down); ἑορτή, -ῆς, ἡ, feast|
|B15.||Ἔλεγον δὲ πολλοὶ ἐξ αὐτῶν, Δαιμόνιον ἔχει καὶ μαίνεται· τί αὐτοῦ ἀκούετε; Ἄλλοι ἔλεγον , Ταῦτα τὰ ῥήματα οὐκ ἔστιν δαιμονιζομένου · μὴ δαιμόνιον δύναται τυφλῶν ὀφθαλμοὺς ἀνοίγειν; (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 10:20-21)||πολλοί: many; μαίνεται: he is raving mad; *ἄλλος -η -ο: (an)other; δαιμονιζόμενος: a demon-possessed man; δύναται: he is able|
|B16.||ἦλθεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς καὶ ἔστη εἰς τὸ μέσον, καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, Εἰρήνη ὑμῖν. ... Εἶπεν οὖν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς πάλιν, Εἰρήνη ὑμῖν· (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 20:19, 21)||ἔστη: (he) stood|
|B17.||Πιστὸς δέ ἐστιν ὁ κύριος, ὃς στηρίξει ὑμᾶς καὶ φυλάξει ἀπὸ τοῦ πονηροῦ. (ΠΡΟΣ ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΕΙΣ Β, 3:3)||*πιστός -ή -όν: faithful, reliable, trustworthy; στηρίζω: future ⟶ στηρίξω); φυλάσσω: guard, keep|
|B18.||Μὴ νομίσητε ὅτι ἦλθον καταλῦσαι τὸν νόμον ἢ τοὺς προφήτας· οὐκ ἦλθον καταλῦσαι ἀλλὰ πληρῶσαι. Ἀμὴν γὰρ λέγω ὑμῖν, ἕως ἂν παρέλθῃ ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ, ἰῶτα ἓν ἢ μία κεραία οὐ μὴ παρέλθῃ ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου, ἕως ἂν πάντα γένηται. Ὃς ἐὰν οὖν λύσῃ μίαν τῶν ἐντολῶν τούτων τῶν ἐλαχίστων, καὶ διδάξῃ οὕτως τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, ἐλάχιστος κληθήσεται ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τῶν οὐρανῶν· ὃς δ’ ἂν ποιήσῃ καὶ διδάξῃ, οὗτος μέγας κληθήσεται ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τῶν οὐρανῶν. Λέγω γὰρ ὑμῖν ὅτι ἐὰν μὴ περισσεύσῃ ἡ δικαιοσύνη ὑμῶν πλεῖον τῶν γραμματέων καὶ Φαρισαίων, οὐ μὴ εἰσέλθητε εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τῶν οὐρανῶν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 5:17-20)||νομίζω: think, suppose; καταλύω: do away with, destroy; *πληρόω: accomplish, fulfil; *γάρ: for; *ἕως: until; *ἄν: ever (indicating indefiniteness); παρῆλθον: I passed away; ἰῶτα, τό (indecl): iota, jot, smallest letter; *εἷς, μία, ἕν, one (the number); κεραία, -ας, ἡ: stroke of a letter; πάντα all, everything; γένηται: happens, is accomplished; *ἐάν: ever, if (ever); *ἐντολή, -ῆς, ἡ: commandment; ἐλάχιστος -ίστη -ον: least; *διδάσκω (aorist ἐδίδαξα): teach; *οὕτως: thus, so; κληθήσεται: (he) shall be called; δ’ = δέ [see #1.81(e)]; *μέγας, μεγάλη, μέγα: great; ἐάν μή: except, unless; περισσεύω: exceed, overflow; *δικαιοσύνη, -ης, ἡ: righteousness; *πλείων, πλεῖον (+gen): more (than); *γραμματεύς, -έως, ὁ: scribe; *εἰσῆλθον: I entered (aor²)|
FOUR: THE RELATIVE PRONOUN AND THE ACTIVE VOICE 63
|B19.||καὶ ἠκολούθησαν αὐτῷ ὄχλοι πολλοί, καὶ ἐθεράπευσεν αὐτοὺς πάντας, καὶ ἐπετίμησεν αὐτοῖς, ἵνα μὴ φανερὸν αὐτὸν ποιήσωσιν· ὅπως πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ Ἠσαΐου τοῦ προφήτου, λέγοντος, Ἰδού, ὁ παῖς μου ὃν ᾑρέτισα· ὁ ἀγαπητός μου εἰς ὃν εὐδόκησεν ἡ ψυχή μου ·(ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 12:15-18)||*ἀκολουθέω: follow; θεραπεύω: heal, cure; ἐπιτιμάω: command, order; *ἵνα: in order that, that; φανερός -ά -όν: known; πληρωθῇ: (it) might be fulfilled; τὸ ῥηθέν: what was said/spoken; παῖς, παιδός, ὁ/ἡ: servant, child; αἱρετίζω: choose, appoint; εὐδοκέω: take delight in|
|B20.||Ὡμοιώθη ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν ἀνθρώπῳ σπείροντι καλὸν σπέρμα ἐν τῷ ἀγρῷ αὐτοῦ· ἐν δὲ τῷ καθεύδειν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, ἦλθεν αὐτοῦ ὁ ἐχθρὸς καὶ ἔσπειρεν ζιζάνια ἀνὰ μέσον τοῦ σίτου, καὶ ἀπῆλθεν. Ὅτε δὲ ἐβλάστησεν ὁ χόρτος καὶ καρπὸν ἐποίησεν, τότε ἐφάνη καὶ τὰ ζιζάνια. Προσελθόντες δὲ οἱ δοῦλοι τοῦ οἰκοδεσπότου εἶπον αὐτῷ, Κύριε, οὐχὶ καλὸν σπέρμα ἔσπειρας ἐν τῷ σῷ ἀγρῷ; Πόθεν οὖν ἔχει ζιζάνια; Ὁ δὲ ἔφη αὐτοῖς, Ἐχθρὸς ἄνθρωπος τοῦτο ἐποίησεν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 13:24-28)||ὡμοιώθη: may be compared; σπείροντι: sowing; καθεύδω: sleep; ἐχθρός -ά -όν: enemy, hated; ἐπισπείρω: sow over, resow; ἀνὰ μέσον: up the middle (= amongst); σῖτος, -ου, ὁ: wheat; ἀπῆλθον: I went away, departed; *ὅτε: when; βλαστάω: sprout; χόρτος, -ου, ὁ: plant, grass; *καρπός, -οῦ, ὁ: fruit; *τότε: then; ἐφάνη: (it) appeared; προσῆλθον: I approached; *δοῦλος, -ου, ὁ: slave; οἰκοδεσπότης, -ου, ὁ: master; *σπείρω: sow|
|B21.||υἱὸς Τιμαίου Βαρτίμαιος ὁ τυφλὸς ἐκάθητο παρὰ τὴν ὁδὸν προσαιτῶν. Καὶ ἀκούσας ὅτι Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζωραῖός ἐστιν, ἤρξατο κράζειν καὶ λέγειν, Ὁ υἱὸς Δαυίδ, Ἰησοῦ, ἐλέησόν με. Καὶ ἐπετίμων αὐτῷ πολλοί, ἵνα σιωπήσῃ· ὁ δὲ πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἔκραζεν, Υἱὲ Δαυίδ, ἐλέησόν με. Καὶ στὰς ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτὸν φωνηθῆναι· καὶ φωνοῦσιν τὸν τυφλόν, λέγοντες αὐτῷ, Θάρσει· ἔγειραι, φωνεῖ σε. Ὁ δὲ ἀποβαλὼν τὸ ἱμάτιον αὐτοῦ ἀναστὰς ἦλθεν πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν. Καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Τί θέλεις ποιήσω σοί; Ὁ δὲ τυφλὸς εἶπεν αὐτῷ, Ῥαββουνί, ἵνα ἀναβλέψω. Ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτῷ , Ὕπαγε · ἡ πίστις σου σέσωκέν σε. Καὶ εὐθέως ἀνέβλεψεν, καὶ ἠκολούθει τῷ Ἰησοῦ ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ . Καὶ ὅτε ἐγγίζουσιν εἰς Ἱερουσαλήμ, εἰς Βηθσφαγὴ καὶ Βηθανίαν, πρὸς τὸ ὄρος τῶν Ἐλαιῶν, ἀποστέλλει δύο τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ, καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, Ὑπάγετε εἰς τὴν κώμην τὴν κατέναντι ὑμῶν· καὶ εὐθέως εἰσπορευόμενοι εἰς αὐτὴν εὑρήσετε πῶλον δεδεμένον, ἐφ’ ὃν οὐδεὶς ἀνθρώπων κεκάθικεν· λύσαντες αὐτὸν ἀγάγετε. Καὶ ἐάν τις ὑμῖν εἴπῃ, Τί ποιεῖτε τοῦτο; Εἴπατε, ὅτι Ὁ κύριος αὐτοῦ χρείαν ἔχει· καὶ εὐθέως αὐτὸν ἀποστέλλει ὧδε. Ἀπῆλθον δὲ καὶ εὗρον πῶλον δεδεμένον πρὸς τὴν θύραν ἔξω ἐπὶ τοῦ ἀμφόδου, καὶ λύουσιν αὐτόν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 10:46-11:4)||ἐλεάω: be merciful (to); φωνέω: call, call out; ἀποκριθείς: answering; ῥαββουνί: Rabbi; ἀναβλέπω: see again; *ὑπάγω: I go (one's way); ἐγγίζω: come near; κώμη, -ης, ἡ: village; *εὑρίσκω: find; πῶλος, -ου, ὁ: colt; *φέρω: bring; *ἐάν: if (ever); * τις (without accent): anyone, someone, a certain; χρεία, -ας, ἡ: need; *ὧδε: here|
THE THIRD DECLENSION
5.1 HOW TO FIND YOUR WAY THROUGH THE THIRD DECLENSION (D3)
5.11 Many students find the Third Declension (D3) to be the hardest part of Greek to be mastered. There are so many Third Declension words and they decline so differently from each other that this Declension seems to look like a grabbag of whatever is left over from the First and Second Declensions rather than an orderly pattern. The forms of many words are unexpected and their behaviour is sometimes quite unpredictable. Twenty different standard paradigms exist, and many of them are followed by only two or three words in the New Testament — or maybe by just one word. In addition, there are a large number of common irregular words. To master the Third Declension seems like a great deal of work.
5.12 It is: but only if the aim is to be able to write in New Testament Greek. Even the Greeks themselves got lost in the Third Declension at times, and in the general Greek literature (and on occasions in the New Testament too) various alternatives are found for some of the normal case forms of some D3 words.
5.13 However, our aim is a more modest one: to be able to recognize and identify words of the Third Declension when we come across them in reading the Greek New Testament. It is much easier to identify forms when we encounter them than to be able to predict what a particular case will be.
5.14 Third Declension paradigms divide up into those for words with vowel stems, and those for words with consonant stems. Each of these subdivides again into masculine/feminine paradigms, and neuter paradigms. There are four basic paradigms for Third Declension words:
5.15 The other paradigms (there are twenty altogether) differ from these four mainly as a result of the changes which occur because of the phoneme(s) with which their stems end — these changes can be explained on the basis of six descriptive rules. Some sample paradigms are given here to illustrate these rules; the full twenty are set out in the Appendix, #D3.
5.2 THIRD DECLENSION VOWEL STEMS
5.20 Third Declension nouns with vowel stems vary in behaviour depending upon the vowel itself, and how it reacts with the endings that are added. There are five standard paradigm patterns — four for masculine/feminine nouns, and the other for neuter nouns. These are set out here, together with a listing of the endings, and of the Second Declension paradigm for comparison:
FIVE: THE THIRD DECLENSION 65
|SECOND||THIRD DECLENSION VOWEL STEMS|
POINTS TO BE NOTED concerning these paradigms:
5.21 The Second and Third Declensions have a separate form for the vocative singular. For the Third Declension, this is usually the word stem (frequently minus the final consonant of a consonant stem when this is other than "ρ" or "ν"). (If a dash, — , is put for the vocative in any of these paradigms it does not mean that that type of word can have no vocative, but that the nominative form is used as the vocative.)
5.22 The dative plural ending is -σι(ν), with a movable nu.
5.23 NOTE: The stem of a Third Declension noun is usually found by removing -og from the genitive singular. The endings are then added to this stem. The ἰχθύς paradigm retains the vowel of its stem unchanged throughout, and simply adds the endings. LEARN this paradigm. In the other vowel stem paradigms the basic endings have become modified through amalgamation with the vowel of the stem ("contraction") – an explanation of what has happened will be given later (#D3); it is sufficient to note these other paradigms at this stage.
5.24 The βασιλεύς paradigm takes the ending "-α" for the accusative singular, which (as we shall see in #5.30) is the ending for Third Declension consonant stem words. In the accusative plural, nouns of this group can also be found with the ending "-ας" (like ἰχθύας) as an alternative to the normal "-εις" (like πόλεις).
5.25 The γένος paradigm follows the invariable pattern of all neuters in having the same form for nominative and accusative. At first sight it may appear to depart from the pattern that neuters always end in "-α" in nominative and accusative plural. In fact the "-α" is there, but disguised, having contracted with the "-ε" of the stem to produce "-η".
5.26 Sometimes nouns of the yevog paradigm will have genitive plural forms in "-έων", but usually they are contracted to "-ῶν", e.g. γενῶν.
5.27 Compare and contrast the Second and Third Declension forms. One potential source of confusion for students is to misread a Third Declension neuter as a Second Declension masculine and thus to take a noun in "-ους" as being accusative plural (like the form κυρίους) rather than genitive singular. Again, it is necessary to distinguish carefully the neuter plural form in "-η" from the First Declension nominative singular of words of the φωνή paradigm.
66 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
5.3 THIRD DECLENSION MASCULINE AND FEMININE CONSONANT STEMS
5.30 Third Declension nouns with consonant stems have the same pattern of endings as those v, vowel stems, except for the one difference that the masculine/feminine accusative singular ending is "-α", not "-ν". The final consonant of the stem interacts with the endings and this gives the different subgroups of masculine and feminine nouns. There is one main paradigm for neuter nouns with consonant stems. In all these paradigms the stem of the word shows up clearly in the genitive singular, which is always given in a lexicon together with the nominative singular. The masculine/feminine paradigms are:
|Endings||D3.6 flesh||D3.8 child||D3.11 saviour||D3.12 star||D3.16|
|ἡ σάρξ||ὁ/ἡ παῖς||ὁ σωτήρ||ὁ ἀστήρ|
5.31No separate form for the vocative is given, as occurrences of this are rare. When it does occur, it usually conforms to the principle set out in #5.21 (e.g. in Attic Greek, παῖ, σῶτερ — note the short -ε-). The forms in square brackets are uncertain — see #D3.11 and #D3.12. 5.32 The paradigms of this Declension arise when stems and endings combine according to linguistic rules (see #4.5). Examples of how the different paradigms arise from the application of these rules are given here — for the other paradigms referred to, see Appendix D, #D3.
5.33 RULE ONE: SIGMA AMALGAMATES WITH PALATALS AND LABIALS: A sigma ending amalgamates with a palatal (#1.69) stem into ξ (example: Paradigm D3.6, σάρκ plus -ς --> σάρξ); and with a labial (#1.69) stem into ψ (example: Paradigm D3.7, λίβ- plus -ς --> λίψ)
5.34 RULE TWO: DENTALS DROP OUT BEFORE SIGMA: When the stem ends in a dental (#1.69), this dental drops out when a sigma ending is added. (Example: Paradigm D3.8, παῖδ- plus -ς --> παῖς).
5.35 RULE THREE: SIGMA ALONE SLIDES OFF A RHO: When a noun stem ends in the oral liquid -ρ, the -ς ending for the nominative singular slides off the rho and disappears. (Example: Paradigm D3.11, σωτήρ- plus -ς --> σωτήρ). On the other hand, the dative plural ending is not sigma alone but -σι(ν), and this ending is added to the stem in the usual way. (Example: Paradigm D3.11, σωτῆρσι(ν) ). (Some irregular forms of the dative plural are found in practice.)
5.36 RULE FOUR: COMPENSATORY LENGTHENING FOR STEM CONSONANT LOSS: When as a result of any of these rules one or more stem consonants have been lost from a nominative singular form, or two stem consonants have been lost from a dative plural form, then there is compensatory lengthening of the preceding vowel: -ε- lengthens to -ει-, and -ο- lengthens to -ου-. (Example: Paradigm D3.8, ποδ- plus -ς —> first of all "πος" by Rule Two, and then πούς, by this Rule.) NOTE that this Rule does not apply when sigma slides off a liquid (in accordance with Rule Three or Rule Five), because sigma is an ending not a stem consonant, and therefore does not fill the requirement; and similarly this Rule does not apply when only one stem consonant has been lost from the dative plural.
FIVE: THE THIRD DECLENSION 67
5.37 RULE FIVE: NU AND SIGMA INCOMPATIBILITY RULE:
(a) The phonemes nu and sigma are incompatible in Greek, so that the sequence -νσ- or -νς does not occur in a Greek word. When the ending -ς is to be added to a stem which ends in -ν-, they cannot occur together and therefore one or the other of them is forced out of the word.
(b) Where a sigma alone is being added to a nu stem, usually the sigma slides off and disappears, in the same way as for rho stem words (#5.35). (Example: Paradigm D3.15, μην- plus -ς ⟶ μήν, because the sigma ending slides off and disappears.)
(c) In some words the sigma wins out and it is the nu which is lost from the word. (Example: Paradigm D3.20, ἱμαντ- plus -ς ⟶ first of all " ἱμαντς" and then by Rule Two "ἱμανς", and then ἱμάς.) If the preceding vowel is -ε- or -ο-, then when the stem letter nu is lost, this vowel will lengthen in accordance with Rule Four. (Examples: Paradigm D6.7, ἑν- plus becomes "ἑνς" and in this word it is the nu which is forced out, giving "ἑς"; and then under Rule Four this will become εἷς; Paradigm D3.19, ὀδοντ- plus -ς becomes "ὀδοντς" and then under Rule Two "ὀδονς" and when the stem letter nu is lost, "ὀδος", and finally under Rule Four ὀδούς.) NOTE: it is unusual for the added -ς to dislodge the -ν like this in a noun; but it is common in adjectives, participles and pronouns, allowing the masculine gender to be differentiated from the neuter (e.g., εἷς and ἕν; πᾶς and πᾶν).
(d) When the dative plural ending -σι(ν) is added to a nu stem, this morph wins out every time, and the nu is lost. (Example: Paradigm D3.16, ἡγεμον- plus -σι(ν) becomes ἡγεμόσι(ν) under this rule.) NOTE that in this word the preceding vowel -ο- does not lengthen by compensation under Rule Four because only one stem letter has been lost; but when two stem letters are lost from a dative plural form then there will be compensatory lengthening. (Example: Paradigm D3.18, ἀρχοντ- plus -σι(ν) first of all becomes "ἀρχοντσι(ν)" and then by Rule Two "ἀρχονσι(ν)", then by this Rule "ἀρχοσι(ν)", and finally by Rule Four, ἄρχουσι(ν). (NOTE the resemblance of this dative plural, with its movable nu, to the third person plural verb ending — beware of confusing these two forms.) This paradigm is the pattern followed by participles in -ων (set out in #D5.11).
5.38 RULE SIX: THE SHORT VOWEL LENGTHENING RULE: If in the final syllable of the nominative singular of a noun form -ε- or -ο- is followed by a single consonant, and the form is not neuter, then that vowel lengthens to -η- and -ω- respectively. (Examples: Paradigm D3.12, ἀστέρ- plus -ς —> first of all "ἀστερς" and then by Rule Three the sigma slides off, leaving "ἀστερ"; which then by this Rule becomes ἀστήρ; Paradigm D3.13, ἀλεκτορ- plus -ς --> first of all "ἀλεκτορς" and then by Rule Three the sigma slides off, leaving "ἀλέκτορ"; which then by this Rule becomes ἀλέκτωρ.) NOTE: this rule also applies when the vowel -ε- is followed by a double consonant (thus, ἀλώπηξ, genitive singular ἀλώπεκος); it does not apply when the vowel -ο- is followed by a double consonant (for example, φλόξ, σκόλοψ) or when the form is neuter (for example, Paradigm D6.7, ἕν)
5.39 CLASS EXERCISE: APPLYING THESE RULES: (a) The genitive singular of the word for "night" is νυκτός (feminine); applying these Rules, write out what the entire flexion of this word will be. (b) The masculine/neuter genitive singular of the aorist participle from τίθημι is θέντος.; write out what the entire masculine and neuter flexions for this word will be. (For checking your work, see #A5.2 and #D5.32.)
5.4 IRREGULAR THIRD DECLENSION MASCULINE AND FEMININE NOUNS
5.41 Quite a large number of Third Declension masculine and feminine nouns are slightly irregular — they form their nominative singular (and at times, their dative plural) in a way that varies to a small extent (usually by only a single letter) from what would have been expected under the rules of linguistic modification given above. The "irregular" form is still so close to expectation that usually you would have no more than a slight hesitation in recognizing the word. The more common of these have been set out in the Vocabulary for this Lesson; you can see the irregularity by comparing the other forms with the genitive singular, which shows the stem.
68 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
5.42 Five other irregulars form what can be called "the family group": "father", -mother-. "daughter", "husband", and "wife" — all of them words that are so common that they are set out in full here (Paradigms D3.26 and D3.32) for ease of identification. (Only three paradigms are needed, as "mother", μήτηρ, and "daughter", θυγάτηρ, exactly follow "father", πατήρ.)
5.43 πατήρ, πατρός follows ἀστήρ, ἀστέρος (D3.12, #5.30), but is irregular in dropping the "-ε-" of its stem in the genitive and dative singular and in having an unexpected dative plural. "Husband, man", ἀνήρ, ἀνδρός, replaces the "-δ-" of its stem with an "-ε-" for nominative and vocative singular, and conforms then to the pattern of Karrjp in these forms and in the dative plural. "Wife, woman", γυνή, γυναικός is irregular in its nominative singular, but in all other forms it conforms to the regular pattern of σάρξ, σαρκός (D3.6, #5.31).
|5.44||D3.18 ruler||D3.32 father||D3.32 husband/man||D3.26 wife/woman||D3.9 body|
|ὁ ἄρχων||ὁ πατήρ||ὁ ἀνήρ||ἡ γυνή||τὸ σῶμα|
5.45 Where Knowing Greek Makes a Difference: It is important to know the difference between ἀνήρ, which means "man" in the sense of "mature male", "husband", and ἄνθρωπος (introduced in #1.41), which is "man" as a person, a human being. In the New Testament ἄνθρωπος is used in reference to people in general, both men and women (in Matthew, for example, Matthew 4:4; 5:16; 5:19; 6:1; 6:5; 6:14-16; 7:12; 8:27; 12:12; 12:35; 12:43-45; 13:24-25; 16:26; 18:7; 23:4; and similarly in Paul's writings: for example, Romans 1:18; 1:23; 3:4; 3:28; 5:12; 5:18; 9:20; 14:18-20; 1 Corinthians 2:14; 3:3-4; 4:9; 11:28; 15:39; 2 Corinthians 5:11; 8:21; Galatians 1:10; 2:16; 6:7; Ephesians 4:8; 1 Thessalonians 2:6; 2:15; 1 Timothy 2:4-5; 4:10; 6:9; 2 Timothy 3:13; Titus 2:11; 3:2). In the NRSV ἄνθρωπος is usually translated as "mankind", "person", "human being", "people", "others" or the like. devrip is used in specific reference to a male human being, particularly in relation to that person's male roles; it is frequently used in contradistinction from γυνή, "wife, woman" (for example, by Paul in Romans 7:1-3; 1 Corinthians 7:1-16; 11:1-16; 14:35; Ephesians 5:22-33; Colossians 3:18-19; 1 Timothy 2:8-12; 3:2; 5:9; Titus 1:6). Now then: in 2 Timothy 2:2 Paul writes, "The things you have heard me say in the presence of many witnesses entrust to reliable men who will also be qualified to teach others." (NIV.) Which word does Paul use here for "men", who are also to be qualified to teach others? The word which means "males, husbands"? Or the word which means "human beings, persons of both sexes", who shall in turn teach others (of both sexes)? If you know Greek, you will recognize the word Paul chooses to use in 2 Timothy 2:2, and its significance for us in our understanding of Paul's overall teaching: Paul uses ἄνθρωπος, not ἀνήρ.
5.5 THIRD DECLENSION NEUTER CONSONANT STEMS
5.51 The Third Declension neuter nouns with consonant stems all conform exactly to the dental stem pattern of παῖς, παιδός (see Paradigm D3.8, #5.31), but they have the three characteristics of the neuter:
FIVE: THE THIRD DECLENSION 69
5.52 Firstly, the neuter nominative singular does not add the -ς that one finds in the masculine and feminine forms. Thus from the genitive singular σώματος one derives the stem σώματ-; no -ς is added for the nominative singular, but cannot stand as final letter of a word, and therefore is dropped (see the Word Endings Rule, #1.74). So the nominative singular is σῶμα.
5.53 Secondly, the nominative plural is formed by adding "-α" to the stem, σώματ-, giving σώματα.
5.54 Thirdly, the accusative (both singular and plural) is always identical with the nominative.
5.55 Of the 140 words that follow this paradigm, a dozen or so occur very frequently in the New Testament. In addition, there are three common words which do not have their stem in the "-ματ-" that is characteristic of this paradigm, and which have irregular nominative singular forms, but which in all other ways follow σῶμα. These words are: γόνυ, γόνατος, "knee" (#D3.29); οὖς, ὠτός, "ear" (#D3.30); and ὕδωρ, ὕδατος, water (#D3.13). Also neuter is πῦρ, -ρός, "fire", which follows σωτήρ (Paradigm D3.11, #5.30) but with the neuter characteristic that the accusative form is identical with the nominative (paradigm set out in full in Appendix, #D3.11).
5.6 LEARNING THE THIRD DECLENSION ???
5.61 It is not really necessary to learn all the Third Declension paradigms — they are not given here for that purpose. There are two which you do need to learn: ἰχθύς (Paradigm D3.1, #5.20), which will give you the endings, and then σάρξ (Paradigm D3.6, #5.30) for the consonant stem paradigms. Look carefully through the remainder of the paradigms set out in this Lesson to see how stems and endings are modified when the different types of each are added together. Aim to be sufficiently familiar with the Linguistic Modification Rules and the overall pattern so that you can expect to have a good likelihood of recognizing the number and case of a Third Declension word when you encounter one. Remember, when you need to, you can always refer back to these paradigms, here and in Appendix D, #D3.
5.62 If you have the time and the desire, other paradigms which it would be helpful for you to learn in addition would be βασιλεύς, γένος, and σῶμα.
5.7 LDECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES: FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSION PATTERN
5.71 TWO PATTERNS OF DECLENSION: Adjectives follow two basic patterns of leclension, with two subgroups in each. There are adjectives which follow the First and Second Declension Pattern, and there are others which follow the First and Third Declension Pattern.
5.72 THE TWO SUB-GROUPS: Adjectives which follow the First and Second Declension pattern will normally have three flexions, for the three genders, and they are therefore referred to ls -three-termination adjectives of the First and Second Declensions". However, there are some which belong to this group but which do not have a separate feminine flexion; these are known as "two-termination adjectives of the Second Declension".
5.73 THREE-TERMINATION ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS (#D4.1, #D4.2): In this pattern, the feminine form of the adjective will follow the First Declension paradigms (D1.1 and D1.2, #3.11). The masculine and neuter forms of the adjective declined exactly the same as the nouns, masculine and neuter respectively, of the Second Declension (D2.1 and D2.2, #2.40). Thus, indicating the declensions of the masculine, feminine
70 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
and neuter flexions respectively, these can be referred to as 2-1-2 adjectives. These adjectives are cited in a lexicon in the masculine form followed by the feminine and neuter endings (#2.5 ). Paradigms for these are set out in Appendix D, #D4.1 and #D4.2.
5.74 TWO-TERMINATION ADJECTIVES OF THE SECOND DECLENSION: Some adjectives have only the Second Declension terminations and do not use a distinctive feminine form - the masculine form does duty as the feminine also. In this circumstance the masculine flexion is known as personal gender, as it functions for both masculine and feminine. (These are thus 2-2 adjectives.) Words of this kind are for the most part adjectives that are compound. including those beginning with -α-, meaning "not" or "un-", such as ἄδικος -ον, -unjust". ἀδύνατος -ον, "incapable, impossible". Some adjectives vary between being used as two-termination and three-termination adjectives, and in these cases there are frequently variant readings in the manuscripts of the Greek, as ancient editors "corrected" the text in one direction or the other.
5.8 DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES: FIRST AND THIRD DECLENSION PATTERN
5.81 THE TWO SUB-GROUPS: Adjectives which follow the First and Third Declension pattern will normally have three flexions, for the three genders, and they are therefore referred to as "three-termination adjectives of the First and Third Declensions" (these are 3-1-3 adjectives). However, there are some which belong to this group but which do not have a separate feminine flexion; these are known as "two-termination adjectives of the Third Declension" (these are 3-3 adjectives).
5.82 THREE TERMINATION ADJECTIVES: FEMININES ARE FIRST DECLENSION: In the pattern for three-termination adjectives of the First and Third Declensions, the stem of the feminine form of the adjective will usually end in ρ, ι, or ε, and therefore will take "-α-" and follow the First Declension paradigm of καρδία (D1.1, #3.11). For example, βαρεῖα, from βαρύς, "hard/heavy" (Paradigm D4.4). Alternatively, the stem of some adjectives ends in the phoneme sigma; such an adjective will decline like δόξα (D1.3, #3.11). Example: πᾶσα, from πᾶς, "all" (Paradigm D4.6). Those few adjectives which end in -η follow φωνή (D1.2, #3.11).
5.83 MASCULINES AND NEUTERS ARE THIRD DECLENSION: The masculine forms of βαρύς, #D4.4 (followed by 16 adjectives) are declined like πόλις (D3.2, #5.20), but with -υ-instead of -ι- in nominative (vocative) and accusative singular; the neuter forms have the regular neuter characteristics: identical with the masculine in genitive and dative, both singular and plural; nominative/accusative singular consists of the masculine word stem alone (βαρύ); nominative/ accusative plural forms take the ending -α- (βαρέα). The masculine of πᾶς (genitive παντός) follows the Linguistic Modification Rules exactly and is identical with Paradigm D3.20 (#5.37), while the neuter retains the -ν- of the stem in the nominative/accusative singular and adds the neuter -α- to the stem in the plural (the paradigm of πᾶς is given in full, #D4.6). All participles in "-ας" (such as λύσας, #4.21) follow πᾶς.
5.84 THE - ON PARTICIPLE PATTERN: The adjective "willing", ἑκών, ἑκόντος (#D4.5) follows Paradigm D3.18 (#5.44), ἄρχων, ἄρχοντος, with neuter nominative/accusative singular ἑκόν, and plural ἑκόντα. All participles in "-ων" (such as λύων, #4.21) decline like ἑκών (see #D5.1).
5.85 COMMON IRREGULARS, MIXED SECOND AND THIRD DECLENSION: Two very common adjectives are irregular and follow a mixed paradigm of Second and Third Declension forms. These are the flexions for the singular, with Third Declension forms underlined:
FIVE: THE THIRD DECLENSION 71
|πολύς, much, many, large||μέγας, great|
The masculine and neuter plural is Second Declension throughout.
NOTE THAT the nominative and accusative forms, masculine and neuter (but not feminine) are Third Declension, while the genitive and dative forms, and all plural forms of these words, are regular Second Declension, with stems πολλ- and μεγαλ- respectively. That is, in these flexions from the genitive singular onwards, their stems add a lambda, and all forms with these lengthened stems are Second Declension. These flexions are set out in full in #D4.42, #D4.43.
5.86 THE WORD FOR "ONE": The word for "one" has these forms: SN Erg- pia iv A va ,uiav NOTE: In the nature of the case, there is no plural. G evog- ineic evdc The feminine uses a completely different stem: D evi plc( evi The forms of Erg combine with of)(5e and ,ur76e to give o1)(5eig-, o1')6Epia, o1)6ev and ,uri8Eic, prikuia, ,u176ev, "no-one, nothing". The forms eic and V are distinguished from the prepositions eig ("into", #A4.3) and ev ("in", #2.65) by the accent and the rough breathing on each.
5.87 TWO-TERMINATION ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION (#D4.7, D4.8): Some adjectives have only the Third Declension terminations and no distinctive feminine form – the masculine form does duty as the feminine also; that is to say, the masculine form is personal gender. (These are thus 3-3 adjectives.) There are two main paradigms for these, shown by di0pcov (which follows Paradigm D3.16 [#5.30], reiyE,uil)v, r)yeydvo;) and allelic (which follows Paradigm D3.5, [#5.20], yevog-, yevovg). All positive adjectives in "-WV" (except kialw and Coccov: for which, see #5.84) and all comparative adjectives in "-coy" follow dOpcov.
5.88 The pronoun 21g, 2/ (genitive Ttvoc) also has only two terminations and apart from the nominative singular follows fiye,ucav, rjyE,uovoc, Paradigm D3.16 (#5.30). NOTE that when accented on the iota (Tic, 2i, etc.), this is the interrogative pronoun "who?, what?", and when unaccented or accented on its second syllable it is the indefinite pronoun, "someone, a certain, something". (It is given in full in the Appendix, #D6.5, #D6.6.) (This is the eighth accent which needs to be noted: see #A4.23 and #5.86.)
5.89 Because of the extent to which these various adjectives, pronouns and participles have the same endings and follow the same general patterns as the nouns of the First, Second, and Third Declensions, their case, number and gender will usually be easily recognizable, and so it is not necessary to give paradigms for them all here. Any unusual or difficult forms will always be explained in the textual notes on the passage of the Greek New Testament that you are reading. All the paradigms, however, for adjectives, pronouns and participles are given in Appendix D.
5.9 NOTES RE THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT SELECTIONS
5.91 INSTRUMENTAL DATIVE: The dative case can be used to indicate the means with which something was done or the instrument that was used. This is called the instrumental dative. It is usu-ally best translated into English as "by means of ..." or "with ...". Thus in L5/B4, i36a-rt means "with water" – what is under consideration is what was used, not where it took place. Similarly in L5/B6 iDONlj yEycat3 means "with a loud voice", referring to "the instrument used" or "the means used".
72 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
5.92 Sometimes Lv (plus dative) is used with this same "instrumental" sense, the instrumental ev. Thus ev Irve15,uaTt ayicp (L5/B4) means "with the Holy Spirit" in this context, not "in the Holy Spirit". That is, the meaning of ev here is not positional, where the baptism takes place, but instrumental, what the baptism is with. Similarly kv nveopart doca0aprcp (L5/B6) means "with an unclean spirit).
5.93 Whether a particular use of the dative or the dative-plus-ev is instrumental or has some other meaning must be decided from the context in each particular case.
5.94 RECOGNIZING AORIST FORMS: Note the difference between Ocvcrav and .1')cray. Both forms contain the punctiliar morph -o-a- and are therefore first aorist tense. The k- in Avaav is the past time morph and this factor in itself indicates indicative mode (because the aorist only takes the past time morph in the indicative — #4.42). The form is thus to be recognized as 3rd person plural aorist indicative. However, .2.15(3-ay is an aorist participle: the neuter nominative singular of ,a'ocag and means "loosing" or "having loosed", or "after loosing", with reference to a word that is neuter. This should be kept in mind in tackling L5/B6.
ASSIGNMENTS ON LESSON FIVE
1. PARADIGMS FOR LEARNING: The paradigms to be learnt by heart this Lesson are: 10. ixatjg (Paradigm D3.1, #5.20) 11. oyip (Paradigm D3.6, #5.30)
2. LEARNING THE OTHER MAJOR PARADIGMS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION: Aim to understand the Linguistic Modification Rules which produce the different paradigms of the Third Declension (#5.3), and to recognize the forms of the paradigms which result from these rules. That is, seek to learn these other paradigms by understanding rather than by rote.
3. APPENDIX: READ CAREFULLY the additional information set out in Appendix #A5.
4. WORKBOOK: ANSWER THE QUESTIONS in your Workbook about this Lesson.
5. TRANSLATION EXERCISES A AND B: Do the English into Greek exercises, and then read and translate literally all the Selections from the Greek New Testament. Make sure that you continue the pattern of reading each Selection aloud before translating it, to help cultivate your "feel" for the Greek. NOTE: To do this work you will need to use the paradigms set for learning this Lesson, together with the paradigms and vocabulary of the previous Lessons. The new prepositions given below, and the cases they take, should be carefully noted. Most of the Selections introduce new vocabulary which is then used again in the Selections which follow. LEARN each unknown word as you use it.
6. VOCABULARY CARDS: Continue the practice of writing out Vocabulary Cards for the new words introduced in this Lesson, putting 5 (for "Lesson 5") in the top lefthand corner of each side of the Card. Make out the card for each new word as you come to it in the Sentences below; some of the words will be needed for several Sentences. When you are given a word form and what it comes from, put the word it comes from at the top of your Card, and the information about that word form lower on the Card. Add these Cards to your collection, and place them all in alphabetical order. When additional information is provided about a word which you have had in a previous Lesson, add that information to your existing Vocabulary Card for that word. (Don't forget to put on your Card the case(s) taken by each preposition.)
7. ABBREVIATIONS IN THE NOTES (BELOW): see page 12.
FIVE: THE THIRD DECLENSION 73
PREPOSITIONS*kgi, kg, kcif (+acc) for, to, concerning, across VE10EV (+gen) because of (+gen) over, upon *157-rep (+acc) beyond, more than (+dat) at, by, on, in (+gen) for, concerning, for the sake of
A. TRANSLATION FROM ENGLISH INTO GREEK
(This may be done as an exercise in class at the end of the Lesson, or set as an assignment.) NOTE: A word in square brackets, like [am], is omitted in the Greek.
|SENTENCES||NOTES AND NEW WORDS|
|A1.||This is truly the saviour of the world. (JOHN 4:42)||saviour: σωτήρ, -ῆρος, ὁ|
|A2.||"Say to the daughter of Zion, 'Behold, your king comes to you.— (MATTHEW 21:5)||daughter: Ovycirrip, Ovyarpoc, r); Zion: Itd)v (indecl.; 6 or to)|
|A3.||Grace and peace from God [the] father, and Christ Jesus our Saviour. (TITUS 1:4)||grace: *xdpic, xdptroc|
|A4.||and we (emphatic) have [the] mind of Christ. (1 CORINTHIANS 2:16)||and: *6e; mind: vac, voog, 6 (D3.3, #5.20)|
|A5.||Believe me that I (emphatic) [am] in the father and the father in me. (JOHN 14:11)||"believe" takes the dative|
|A6.||And the governor questioned him, saying, "Are you (emphatic) the king of the Jews?"||governor, leader: r,yeycov, -ovoc, 6 question, ask: *egepcoraco (MATTHEW 27:11)|
|A7.||They were saying, "He has an unclean spirit." (MARK 3:30)||unclean: docaeaproc, -ov|
|A8.||My spirit rejoiced in God my saviour. (LUKE 1:47)||rejoiced: r)yaalacev; in: *bri (plus the dative)|
|A9.||"Where is the one born king of the Jews? For we saw his star in the east, and we came to worship him." (MATTHEW 2:2)||where? Koi); the one born: 6 rexOeig; east: avararj, r); worship: *gpoo-Kvvew (takes the dative)|
B. SELECTIONS FROM THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
A superscript number (as in aor²) is used to indicate a Second or Third Conjugation verb (as the case may be).
|SELECTION||NOTES AND NEW WORDS|
|B1.||Λέγω γὰρ ὑμῖν, ὅτι πολλοὶ προφῆται καὶ βασιλεῖς ἠθέλησαν ἰδεῖν ἃ ὑμεῖς βλέπετε, καὶ οὐκ εἶδον· καὶ ἀκοῦσαι ἃ ἀκούετε, καὶ οὐκ ἤκουσαν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΛΟΥΚΑΝ 10:24)||*πολύς πολλή πολύ: many, much, large|
|B2.||Καὶ εἰσῆλθεν πάλιν εἰς τὴν συναγωγήν, καὶ ἦν ἐκεῖ ἄνθρωπος ἐξηραμμένην ἔχων τὴν χεῖρα. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 3:1)||ἐξηραμμένην: shrivelled, withered|
|B3.||καὶ εἶπεν, Λάβετε, φάγετε· τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου ... Καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, Τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ αἷμά μου, τὸ τῆς καινῆς διαθήκης. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 14:22, 24)||λάβετε: take (aorist² imperative); *σῶμα, -ατος, τό: body; *αἷμα, -ατος, τό: blood; διαθήκη, -ης, ἡ: covenant|
74 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
|SELECTION||NOTES AND NEW WORDS|
|B4.||Ἐγὼ μὲν ἐβάπτισα ὑμᾶς ἐν ὕδατι· αὐτὸς δὲ βαπτίσει ὑμᾶς ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 1:8)||*βαπτίζω: baptize; *ὕδωρ, ὕδατος, τό: water; *ἅγιος, -α, -ον: holy|
|B5.||Εἴ τις ἔχει ὦτα ἀκούειν ἀκουέτω. Καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς, Βλέπετε τί ἀκούετε. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 4:23-24)||οὖς, ὠτός, τό: ear|
|B6.||ἦν γὰρ διδάσκων αὐτοὺς ὡς ἐξουσίαν ἔχων, καὶ οὐχ ὡς οἱ γραμματεῖς. Καὶ ἦν ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ αὐτῶν ἄνθρωπος ἐν πνεύματι ἀκαθάρτῳ, καὶ ἀνέκραξεν ... Καὶ ἐπετίμησεν αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς, λέγων, Φιμώθητι, καὶ ἔξελθε ἐξ αὐτοῦ. Καὶ σπαράξαν αὐτὸν τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἀκάθαρτον καὶ κράξαν φωνῇ μεγάλῃ, ἐξῆλθεν ἐξ αὐτοῦ. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 1:22-26)||ἀνακράζω: cry out (aorist, ἀνέκραξα); φιμώθητι: Be quiet!; σπαράξαν: throwing into convulsions (neuter aorist participle)|
|B7.||Λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ὁδὸς καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια καὶ ἡ ζωή· οὐδεὶς ἔρχεται πρὸς τὸν πατέρα, εἰ μὴ δι’ ἐμοῦ. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 14:6)||*οὐδείς, οὐδεμία, οὐδέν: no-one; ἔρχεται: (he) comes; εἰ μή: except, unless; δι’ = διά (elision)|
|B8.||Εἶπεν δέ, Ἄνθρωπός τις εἶχεν δύο υἱούς· καὶ εἶπεν ὁ νεώτερος αὐτῶν τῷ πατρί, Πάτερ, δός μοι τὸ ἐπιβάλλον μέρος τῆς οὐσίας. (ΚΑΤΑ ΛΟΥΚΑΝ 15:11-12)||νεώτερος, -α, -ον: younger; δός: give (aor impv); ἐπιβάλλον: falling by inheritance; μέρος, -ους, τό: part; οὐσία, -ας, ἡ: property|
|B9.||Καὶ ... ἦσαν ἐκ τῶν Φαρισαίων. Καὶ ἠρώτησαν αὐτόν, καὶ εἶπον αὐτῷ, Τί οὖν βαπτίζεις, εἰ σὺ οὐκ εἶ ὁ χριστός, οὔτε Ἠλίας, οὔτε Ἠλίας οὐδὲ ὁ προφήτης; Ἀπεκρίθη αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰωάννης λέγων, Ἐγὼ βαπτίζω ἐν ὕδατι· (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 1:24-26)||Ἠλίας, -ου, ὁ: Elijah; ἀπεκρίθη: (he) answered|
|B10.||ἀλλ’ ὑμεῖς οὐ πιστεύετε· οὐ γάρ ἐστε ἐκ τῶν προβάτων τῶν ἐμῶν, καθὼς εἶπον ὑμῖν. Τὰ πρόβατα τὰ ἐμὰ τῆς φωνῆς μου ἀκούει ἀκούουσιν, κἀγὼ γινώσκω αὐτά, καὶ ἀκολουθοῦσίν μοι· κἀγὼ ζωὴν αἰώνιον δίδωμι αὐτοῖς· καὶ οὐ μὴ ἀπόλωνται εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, καὶ οὐχ ἁρπάσει τις αὐτὰ ἐκ τῆς χειρός μου. Ὁ πατήρ μου ὃς δέδωκέν μοι, μείζων πάντων ἐστίν· καὶ οὐδεὶς δύναται ἁρπάζειν ἐκ τῆς χειρὸς τοῦ πατρός μου. Ἐγὼ καὶ ὁ πατὴρ ἕν ἐσμεν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 10:26-30, margin)||*ἐκ: belonging to, #2.65(b), #A4.38; Here there is an exception to 2.17(a): what is it? *γινώσκω: know; *αἰώνιος, -ία, -ον: eternal; ἀπόλωνται: (they) would perish (aor3 subj); εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα: to eternity, ever; ἁρπάζω: snatch; δέδωκεν: (he) has given; μείζων, μεῖζον: greater; *πᾶς, πᾶσα, πᾶν, (παντός): every, all|
|B11.||ἐπὶ ἀρχιερέως Ἄννα καὶ Καϊάφα, ἐγένετο ῥῆμα θεοῦ ἐπὶ Ἰωάννην τὸν Ζαχαρίου υἱὸν ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ. Καὶ ἦλθεν εἰς πᾶσαν τὴν περίχωρον τοῦ Ἰορδάνου, κηρύσσων βάπτισμα μετανοίας εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν· (ΚΑΤΑ ΛΟΥΚΑΝ 3:2-3)||Ζαχαρίας, -ου, ὁ: Zachariah; περίχωρος, -ου, ἡ: surrounding region; Ἰορδάνης, -ου, ὁ: Jordan (River); μετάνοια, -ας, ἡ: repentance; ἄφεσις, -εως, ἡ: forgiveness; *ἁμαρτία, -ίας, ἡ: sin|
|B12.||Μακροθυμήσατε καὶ ὑμεῖς, στηρίξατε τὰς καρδίας ὑμῶν, ὅτι ἡ παρουσία τοῦ κυρίου ἤγγικεν. (ΙΑΚΩΒΟΥ 5:8)||μακροθυμέω: wait patiently; παρουσία, -ας, ἡ: coming, arrival; ἤγγικα: perfect from ἐγγίζω, I draw near|
THE MIDDLE AND PASSIVE VOICE
6.1 THE PASSIVE AND MIDDLE VOICES OF THE VERB
6.11 So far we have covered only the active voice of the verb — where the subject of the verb is the doer of the action of the verb, that is, where the action of the verb moves outwards from the subject. It could be described diagrammatically as:
There are two other voices in Greek: the passive, and the middle.
6.12 The passive voice has the same meaning and operates in the same way as in English: the subject of the sentence is the person or thing upon whom the action of the verb is carried out. (Examples: "Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted." "The word was spoken by the prophet in days of old.") It could be described diagrammatically as:
6.13 The middle voice is (as its name suggests) between the active and the passive in its function. No simple explanation is possible of what the middle voice is: in fact, its function and meaning can vary from verb to verb. The middle voice can be found used in four ways:
1. Commonly, the middle voice is used for intransitive verbs, that is, where the action of the verb does not carry over to an object but solely affects the subject. (Examples: "The water boiled." "He paused." "The child laughed.") Often the subject of a middle voice verb is acting for himself or in his own interests.
2. Closely related to the first use, the middle voice can have a reflexive sense — the action was done to or for the subject. (Examples: "He exercised for thirty minutes, then bathed and dressed.")
6.14 These two basic usages shade into each other. Something of the force of the middle can be seen in these Greek New Testament examples, which you should consider:
|Acts 8:32||A lamb is dumb before the one who is shearing it (κείρω, in the active), but|
|Acts 18:18||Paul had his head shorn (also κείρω, but this time in the middle).|
|John 13:14||Jesus washed the disciples' feet (active of νίπτω), but|
|Matthew 27:24||Pilate washed his hands (middle voice of νίπτω).|
|Matthew 27:31||They put on him his own clothes (active of ἐνδύω), but|
|Mark 6:9||Do not put on two tunics (middle of ἐνδύω).|
|Acts 21:24||You yourself keep the law (active of φυλάσσω), but|
|Acts 21:25||They are to keep themselves from idol food (middle of φυλάσσω).|
However, the middle voice was falling out of use in koinē Greek, and it is not always found where it might be expected. Thus Matthew and Luke use the active voice of φυλάσσω in a passage where it is appropriate for the middle to be used, whereas in this passage Mark does use the middle:
|Matthew 19:20||All these I have kept (ἐφύλαξα — active of φυλάσσω)|
|Mark 10:20||All these I have kept (ἐφυλαξάμην — middle of φυλάσσω)|
|Luke 18:21||All these I have kept (ἐφύλαξα — active of φυλάσσω)|
SIX: THE MIDDLE AND PASSIVE VOICE 77
6.15 The reflexive use of the middle is seen in:
|Matthew 27:5||Judas went away and hanged himself (middle).|
But it is more common to find a reflexive expressed by an active voice and the reflexive pronoun, as in:
|John 17:19||I sanctify myself (active voice + reflexive pronoun).|
6.16 Most commonly the middle voice will be rendered in English by the active voice, occasion-ally with the added pronoun (himself, for himself, etc.), and at times with a construction that indicates that the subject had the action carried out upon himself. The middle voice could be described diagrammatically as:
6.17 The other two uses of the middle voice in Greek are:
3. Some verbs have developed a distinctive meaning in the middle voice which is only rather distantly related to their active meaning. NOTE these seven verbs particularly, to avoid confusion and misunderstanding. They are:
4. A number of verbs have only a middle form, without any corresponding active voice. These verbs have an active meaning and (in accordance with the connotations of the middle voice) they are intransitive or where they do require or can have an object it will be in a case other than the accusative. These verbs are known as deponent middle verbs. There are also a small number of deponent passive verbs, that is, verbs which use the passive voice forms rather than the middle, but with active meaning. A small number of deponents, of which ἀποκρίνομαι, "answer", is the most common, can use both middle and passive forms.
6.18 A comprehensive list of 59 verbs which are (always, or frequently) deponent in the Greek New Testament is given in #C7.5. Of these, there are twenty-four which occur more than 20 times each, and which therefore are particularly to be noted. These are:
6.19 Verbs that are deponent in the present are (almost without exception) deponent in the other tenses also (the only exceptions to note are that γίνομαι is γέγονα in the perfect, and the suppletive ἔρχομαι has active aorist and perfect forms from ἐλθ- [ἦλθον, ἐλήλυθα]). In addition, there are fourteen verbs (set out in #C7.6) which are deponent in their future tense in the New Testament and have active forms in their other tenses. These are all quite common and important
78 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
verbs, and should be noted carefully. It is important to be able to recognize a deponent form, so that it can be correctly interpreted.
6.2 THE PARADIGM OF THE MIDDLE VOICE
6.21 The middle voice has its own set of pronoun endings, which are added to the same stem as for the active. The six Greek tenses fall into two groups, which are known as the primary and secondary tenses. The primary and secondary tenses have slightly different pronoun endings. They are:
|Characteristic||Primary Tenses (Present,||Secondary Tenses (Imperfect,|
|Letter||Future, Present Perfect)||Aorist, Pluperfect)|
6.22 NOTE that the secondary tenses are the ones that take the augment (in the indicative mode, indicating past time), whereas the primary tenses do not. The secondary tenses are also known as the historic tenses. NOTE the characteristic letters found for 1st, 2nd and 3rd person (μ, σ, τ) which also surface in other places — the -μ- and -σ- in the personal pronouns ἐμέ, με, σύ, etc., and in ἐμός, ἐμαυτόν, σεαυτόν; and the -τ- in αὐτός, οὗτος, and the article.
6.23 The same procedures are used as in the active voice for adding the endings to the lexal: the present tense adds the neutral morph -ε- or -ο- to the lexal and then takes the primary endings; the future is the same as the present with the -σ- future morph inserted between the lexal and the endings; the imperfect has the augment, adds the neutral morph -ε- or -ο- to the lexal and then takes the secondary endings; the first aorist has the augment, adds the punctiliar morph -σα- (-σ- before vowels) to the lexal and then takes the secondary endings. The one difference is that the present perfect does not have the perfective morph -κα- (as in the active) but adds the ending straight on to the reduplicated lexal. The pluperfect is rare, and so is not set out here (it is given in #C1.1); like the present perfect middle, it adds its endings (the secondary endings) straight on to the lexal, and takes the augment — thus giving the form ἐλελύμην. However, in use the pluperfect frequently omits the augment. Some verbs form their pluperfect middle and possibly some forms of their perfect middle as well by the use of the perfect middle participle and the imperfect tense of εἰμι, or the present tense respectively. These are known as periphrastic tenses, and will be covered more fully at a later time (#10.6).
6.24 There is one complication: the -σ- of the second person singular is squeezed out and disappears in the present, future, imperfect, and aorist tenses, and the neutral morph -ε- (or the -α- in the aorist) then contracts with the vowel that follows the lost -σ- into a diphthong or long vowel.
6.25 The indicative and subjunctive middle paradigm flexions for λύω are:
|INDICATIVE: Primary Tenses||Secondary Tenses||SUBJUNCTIVE|
SIX: THE MIDDLE AND PASSIVE VOICE 79ς λύῃ λύσῃ
6.26 As in the active voice, there are two tenses of the subjunctive in common use, the present and the aorist. The present subjunctive middle is the same as the present indicative middle but with the neutral morph -ε- or -ο- lengthened to -η- and -ω- respectively (and iota being subscript on -η-). Thus the subjunctive morph (as in the active voice) is not something that is added to the word, but a process morph¹⁸. Again, as in the active, the aorist subjunctive middle is identical with the present subjunctive middle but with the aorist morph -σ- inserted between the lexal and the endings. This means that in the subjunctive the aorist follows the primary pattern of endings (and has no augment, and does not relate to past time) — contrast its secondary pattern in the indicative mode.
6.27 There are two possible forms of the 2nd person singular present indicative, λύῃ and λύει. Both forms are identical with others which occur elsewhere in the paradigms — λύει with the 3rd person singular present indicative active (#2.81) and λύῃ with the 3rd person singular present sub-junctive active (#4.21) and also with the 2nd person singular present subjunctive middle (#6.25). Usually the context will make it clear which form is intended (just as the context in English will usually make it clear, when one sees "read", "put", etc., whether the present or past tense is meant). But occasionally (in Greek, as in English) a form is encountered which is ambiguous.
6.28 Another pair of identical forms, to which the same comments apply, are the 2nd person singular future indicative middle and aorist subjunctive middle, both of which are λύσῃ (#6.25).
6.29 The present, aorist and perfect middle for the imperative, infinitive and participle are:
|PARTICIPLE:||λυόμενος, -η, -ον||λυσάμενος, -η, -ον||λελυμένος, -η, -ον|
6.3 POINTS TO NOTE
6.31 The 2nd person plural present, λύεσθε, is the same in form for the imperative (see above) as for the indicative (#6.25); we have already noted that this was true also for the active voice (λύετε: #3.51). Similarly, the 2nd plural imperative of the perfect, λέλυσθε (see above) is also the same as the indicative (#6.25). In the aorist indicative and imperative, these same forms are distinguished only by the augment — it is prefixed to the aorist form in the indicative (ἐλύσασθε), but absent in the imperative (λύσασθε). The forms for other persons and numbers are distinctive.
6.32 Another pair of identical forms needs now to be noted: the 2nd person singular aorist middle imperative, λῦσαι (#6.29), is the same in form as that for the aorist infinitive (see #4.21).
6.33 Future Middle forms can occur for the infinitive and participle — as usual, they are the same as for the present, with the future morph added in in Slot 6. These forms are very rare.
6.34 The letters -σθ- comprise the specifier morph (Slot 8) for the middle imperative and infinitive; but this morph is absent from the forms for all tenses of the 2nd person singular imperative. Nor does it occur in the flexions of the indicative middle (except, incidentally, in the 2nd person plural forms) — these forms have to be identified as middle by the distinctive sets of middle pronoun suffixes which they have, which bear some similarities to the equivalent suffixes for the active but are distinguishably different from them. However, when -σθ- does occur in Slot 8 in a word, it identifies that word form as middle.
80 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
6.35The morph -μεν- occurs in all middle participles and only in middle participles, and thus is a specifier morph (Slot 8): it effectively identifies any word in which it occurs as being a middle participle form. It can be noted that each participle consists of: the lexal, the aspect morph (the neutral morph -ο- for the present tense, -σα- for the first aorist, and prefixed reduplication for the perfect), the specifier morph for the middle participle, -μεν-, and then the respective numbercase endings of the First and Second Declensions. In all tenses, the middle participle declines in the pattern of the First and Second Declensions (see the complete set of paradigm flexions in Appendix D, #D5.14—D5.16).
6.36 NOTE THAT the specifier morph occupies the eighth of the verb's nine morph slots.
6.37 However, it is about to be explained (#6.5) that all the various middle forms for the future and aorist tenses can be "switched" to the passive voice by the insertion of the passive morph in Slot 5, and the middle forms for the present/imperfect and the perfect tenses can be either middle or passive in meaning.
6.38 The same linguistic modification rules given earlier (#4.5) apply when adding -σ- and when adding the endings of the perfect tense to a consonant verb stem. (Further details of these linguistic modifications are set out in #10.45.) In almost all cases, the verb, and the effect of the -σ- or the fact that it is perfect tense (as the case may be), will be easily recognizable. Difficult and irregular cases will be explained fully in your Analysis (Zerwick and Grosvenor, or Rienecker and Rogers) when you encounter them in reading your Greek New Testament.
6.4 THE FUTURE INDICATIVE AND THE OTHER MODES OF ΕΙΜΙ
6.41 The verb εἰμί is deponent in the future indicative, and has the lexal ἐ- and the endings of the middle of λύω (but note that the 3rd person singular form is ἔσται, not "ἐσεται*").
|Future||Present||Present||Present: εἶναι||ὤν οὖσα ὄν|
|S1||ἔσομαι||ὦ||—||Future: ἔσεσθαι||ἐσόμενος, -η, -ον|
|(The declension of ὦν follows #D5.11. See #C6, Conjugation Conspectus, for the εἰμί Paradigm.)|
6.43 NOTE> that there are several forms of the subjunctive and participle of which are differentiated from other words only by their accent, breathing, and/or iota subscript (and two forms, in fact, which are identical with others):
(a) The 1st person singular subjunctive ὦ is identical in form with the exclamation "0" or "oh".
(b) The 2nd person singular subjunctive ᾖς differs only in having an iota subscript from ἦς the 2nd person singular imperfect of εἰμί (#3.81).
(c) The 3rd person singular subjunctive ᾖ differs in accent and iota subscript from ἤ "or" or "than" (#4.15).
(d) The 2nd person plural ἦτε is identical in form for the subjunctive and the imperfect of εἰμί
(e) The masculine nominative singular participle ὤν [see also #8.34(a)] is to be distinguished from ὧν the genitive plural of the relative pronoun (#4.15) by the breathing and accent.
(f) The neuter nominative singular participle ὄν is to be distinguished from ὅν the masculine accusative singular of the relative pronoun (#4.15) by its breathing.
SIX: THE MIDDLE AND PASSIVE VOICE 81
6.5 THE PARADIGM OF THE PASSIVE VOICE
6.50 The passive voice in Greek is a distinct voice different from the active and middle in sense. However, it only has distinctive passive forms – with the passive morph – in the future and aorist tenses; for the present and perfect tense systems, the passive borrows and uses the corresponding forms of the middle voice. This means that whenever the middle forms of the durative or perfective are used, they could be either middle or passive in meaning. Thus it becomes a question of exegesis and interpretation to say which is intended.
Points to notice:
6.51 In the table, a dash (—) indicates that the form does not exist; an obelus (†) means that there are no special passive forms for that flexion but instead in these cases the middle forms are used for the passive voice as well as for the middle voice.
6.52 The passive morph is -θε-, the -ε- of which lengthens into -η- before a consonant (except in the aorist participle), and contracts with the following vowel (the lengthened neutral morph) in the subjunctive. There is thus for most verbs a very clear indication of the passive in all its special forms. The passive morph occupies the fifth of the verb's nine morph slots.
6.53 The aorist indicative passive is formed by adding the passive morph -θε- (which lengthens to -θη-) to the lexal, and to this are then added directly the endings of the third aorist active (from which in fact the passive was developed, as described in #C3.86; see also #7.72-7.73). That is to say, like the third aorist, the aorist passive does not have an aspect morph.
6.54 The future indicative passive is formed from the aorist indicative passive by replacing the final -ν of the flexion form with -σομαι, that is, with the endings of the future middle flexion. Thus the presence of the passive morph -θη- is the sole feature which distinguishes the future passive from the future middle. That is, -θη- switches the verb form from middle voice to passive voice.
6.55 The aorist subjunctive passive has the same pronoun endings as the aorist subjunctive active (#4.21), adding them to the passive morph -θε-, which is taken instead of the active/middle punctiliar morph -σ-. The -ε- of the passive morph then contracts (#6.8) with the endings, and this contraction is marked by the circumflex accent over the contracted long vowels.
6.56 There are, however, some verbs which make their passive flexion without the -θ- of the passive morph (so that in these verbs the passive morph is just -ε- or -η-: this flexion is called a direct flexion – these are discussed below, in #10.9 and #C4); and at times some of the forms of these verbs may not immediately be recognized as passives because of the absence of the -θ- of the
82 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
usual passive morph. The future passive is always derived directly from the form of the aorist passive, so if the latter is a direct flexion, then the future passive will be a direct flexion also.
6.57 The ending of the 2nd person singular imperative passive is -θι, which would give the form "λύθηθι". However, Greek seeks to avoid having successive syllables commencing with an aspirate (see #E2.8). The passive morph -θε- never loses its aspiration, so the aspiration is lost from the ending, which becomes -τι, and thus the form is λύθητι. But when the imperative ending is added to any verb which has a direct flexion, that ending is -θι, because in the case of a direct flexion the ending does not follow another -θ-. The remaining forms of the aorist passive imperative have the same pronoun endings as the aorist active imperative (#4.21).
6.58 The feminine participle, λυθεῖσα, having a sibilant stem, is declined like δόξα (#3.15); the masculine and neuter forms λυθείς, λυθέν, genitive λυθέντος) follow the usual Third Declension pattern (see ἄρχων, ἄρχοντος, in #5.44) and are set out in full in Appendix D, #D5.17.
6.59 Where Knowing Greek Makes a Difference: The λύω compound ἀπολύω is the word for "I divorce", and λύω itself has this meaning when used in a context about marriage, and in such a context δέω refers to being in the marriage bond (Romans 7:2; 1 Corinthians 7:39; cf. 1 Corinthians 7:15). As there is no separate Greek flexion for the passive perfect tense, the middle forms are used (#6.50, 6.51). Thus the form λέλυσαι (see #6.25) means "you have been loosed" or, in a context relating to marriage, "you have been divorced"; and similarly δέδεσαι means "you have become joined in the bonds of marriage". In each case the perfect tense form is looking at the present state resulting from a prior act [#4.31(c)].
These words occur in 1 Corinthians 7:27, where Paul says, in a context about marriage, δέδεσαι γυναικί; μὴ ζήτει λύσιν, "Have you become bound [in marriage] to a wife? Do not seek a divorce." He then goes on, λέλυσαι ἀπὸ γυναικός; μὴ ζήτει γυναῖκα, "Have you been divorced from a wife? Do not seek a wife." He then immediately adds, ἐὰνδὲ καὶ γαμήσῃς, οὐχ ἥματες, "But if indeed you do marry, you have not sinned." The construction shows that Paul is addressing the same person, the one who has been divorced, when he says "But if indeed you do marry". Paul's teaching is clear in the Greek: If you have entered a marriage, do not seek to break that marriage bond with your wife. If you have become divorced, do not seek for a new wife. But if you (the person who has been divorced) do marry, then this remarriage is not a sin.
This teaching is in line with what Paul has said earlier in this chapter: as the Lord himself commanded, marriage partners are not to break up (verse 10, citing Matthew 19:6). If a marriage does break up, then the former marriage partner is now ἄγαμος, "unmarried" — let that person continue unmarried in hope that there can be a reconciliation (verse 11). However, speaking realistically, such a reconciliation may not be possible: what then? In verse 8 Paul addresses all who are ἄγαμοι (and, as we have just seen, the word includes those who are divorced). He tells them to see if they can now remain unmarried as he himself did, but adds that if they cannot live celibate then γαμησάτωσαν, "they must marry" — third person aorist imperative (verse 9).
If you know Greek, you will recognize the significance, for understanding Paul's meaning, of these words ἄγαμοι, γαμησάτωσαν, and the perfect tense λέλυσαι. Some versions of the Bible translate λέλυσαι in 1 Corinthians 7:27 as a present tense (for example, NRSV, "Are you free from a wife?"; and the very ambiguous NIV, "Are you unmarried?"), obscuring the fact that when Paul says "you have not sinned" he is addressing someone who has been divorced and has remarried.
6.6 SELF-TESTING REVIEW
6.61 MEANING SYNOPSIS OF THE GREEK VERB: You have now been introduced to all nine morph slots of the Greek verb. And all the forms of Paradigm C1.1, λύω, have now been introduced (except the rarely used optative, and perfect subjunctive). The flexion form for each flexion, and its meaning, will be found set out in the Meaning Synopsis of the Greek Verb, #C0.4.
SIX: THE MIDDLE AND PASSIVE VOICE 83
6.62REVIEW the Indicative Mode (#C0.43), and satisfy yourself that you can correctly identify the tense and voice, and the meaning, of each of these forms. To do this, cover the right-hand (English meaning) part of each column with a piece of paper, exposing only the left-hand Greek forms, and alongside each Greek word write on your piece of paper its tense, voice and meaning. Remove the paper and verify the correctness of your answers. To extend your knowledge further, you can do this with the other modes also.
6.63 COMPLETE PARADIGM OF THE VERB: The complete paradigm of the forms of λύω is set out in #C1.1. Go through this paradigm to ensure that you are familiar (except for the optative) with the verb patterns given there, and know them well enough to recognize the characteristic morphs which indicate person, number, tense, voice, and mode.
6.64 DIAGRAM OF THE NINE VERB MORPH SLOTS: Note #A6.2 and A6.3, which set out a complete diagram of the nine morph slots of the verb and of what morphs can occur in each slot.
6.7 CONCERNING THE SECOND AORIST AND THE IMPERFECT
6.71 It has been seen (#4.23, #4.37) that the first aorist active is formed by prefixing the augment to the verb lexal and adding first the punctiliar morph -σα- (-σ- before vowels) and then the active suffixes of the pronoun ending. Thus the 1st person plural first aorist active of λύω is ἐ-λυ-σα-μεν. The second aorist active is formed in the same way, but with the neutral morph -ε/ο-used instead of the punctiliar morph (#3.81, #4.36). Thus the 1st person plural second aorist active of βάλλω is ἐ-βαλ-ο-μην.
6.72 This pattern is followed by the aorist in the middle voice also, the fact that the form is middle not active being indicated by the use of the middle suffixes of the pronoun ending. Thus the 1st person singular of the first aorist middle, as seen in λύω, is ἐ-λυ-σα-μην, and the 1st person singular of the second aorist middle, as seen in βάλλω, is ἐ-βαλ-ο-μην.
6.73 The imperfect is also formed by adding to the lexal: an augment, the neutral morph, and the appropriate pronoun suffix. This means that for Second Conjugation verbs (that is, those with a second aorist), the only difference between their imperfect and aorist flexions is in their lexal. Seven Second Conjugation verbs use completely different lexals in the present (and these are set out in #7.6); most of the rest — there are only two exceptions — add an extra morph to their lexal as a durative morph in forming their durative stem, for the present and imperfect tenses. For βάλλω this durative morph is the second -λ- which is added to the verb root βαλ-. Thus the Imperfect and Aorist Indicative Middle flexions, and the flexions for other modes of the second aorist middle, are:
6.74 Compare the forms of the Imperfect and Aorist Indicative, and note that the only difference between them is whether they do or do not have the second -λ-, the durative morph. Similarly, this is the only difference between the forms of the Present and the Aorist in the other modes (the forms of the Present Infinitive and Participle are given here alongside those of the Aorist for comparison).
84 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
6.75 The durative morph is added into the verb's lexal, and thus in morphologizing the verb (#3.93) the durative morph will be placed with the lexal in the lexal slot (Slot 4). A morph which is placed into the lexal in this way is termed an infix (#1.92). The durative morph in the lexal is the only infix which occurs in Greek — all other morphs are prefixes or suffixes or process morphs. [A partial exception to this is the iota added into the lexal of some liquid verbs in compensation for the loss of the punctiliar -σ-: see #4.57(a).]
6.8 CONTRACT VERBS (PARADIGMS C1.2, C1.3 AND C1.4)
6.81 The most numerous group of Greek verbs (404 out of a total of 1000 verbs in the New Testament) are those which end in a short vowel, either -α (78), -ε (235), or -ο (91). In the durative tenses (the present and imperfect), the neutral morph is added to the lexal, which in the case of these verbs will mean adding ε or ο (or when the neutral morph has been lengthened, η or ω) to the short vowel (-α, -ε or -ο). When they thus come together, these two vowels (the short vowel of the lexal and the neutral morph) combine and form either a long vowel or a diphthong. This combining is known as contraction, and these verbs which contract the final vowel of their lexal with the neutral morph are therefore known as "Short Vowel Verbs" and also "contract verbs".
6.82 Contraction takes place in accordance with specific rules. These rules are given in detail in #E2.2; the common ones (which therefore need to be noted now) are set out here:
This table shows the contractions which take place.
|When it is followed by||ε||η||ει||ῃ||ο||ου||ω|
|then: α||contracts to||α||α||ᾳ||ᾳ||ω||ω||ω|
6.83 Points to note:
(a) Any short vowel plus ω is absorbed into it.
(b) α plus ε or η becomes long α; if there is an ι, it will be iota subscript on the long α.
(c) α plus ο, ου or ω becomes ω.
(d) ε plus ε or ει becomes ει.
(e) ε plus η or ῃ is absorbed into it.
(f) ε plus ο or ου, ο plus ε, ο, or ου becomes ου.
(g) ο plus η becomes ω.
(h) ο plus ει or ῃ becomes οι.
6.84 NOTE the accent on a contracted form. Where an acute accent would fall on the short final vowel in the uncontracted form, then the contracted vowel/diphthong will bear a circumflex. Thus τιμάω contracts to τιμῶ, λαλέομεν to λαλοῦμεν, πληρόεις to πληροῖς, and so on. This circumflex accent should be noted, because frequently it fulfils a useful role in alerting you to a contraction. (This is the tenth occasion when an accent should be noted; for earlier ones, see #A1.37, #2.88, #3.37, #4.15, #4.94, #A4.23, #5.86, #5.88, and #6.43.)
6.85 The above information should assist in enabling you to recognize a contract verb form when you encounter one. Contract verbs in -α, -ε, and -ο comprise respectively Paradigms C1.2, C1.3 and C1.4 of the First Conjugation, and these paradigms, showing both the uncontracted and contracted forms, are set out in Appendix C under these references. In tenses other than the present and imperfect, the suffix that is added to the lexal commences with a consonant, and so no contraction of vowels occurs.
SIX: THE MIDDLE AND PASSIVE VOICE 85
6.86 All contract verbs are listed in the lexicon in their uncontracted form, because you need to know what that uncontracted form is. But they are always used in their contracted form. In practice ou will have little difficulty in recognizing and identifying a contract verb from its features — you will at times, however, have to check on the three possibilities for the lexical form of a contract verb (whether the lexal has -α, -ε, or -ο), because the form used in a Greek passage will not always reveal if the verb ends in -αω, -εω, or -οω).
6.87 As noted in #4.56 and #A4.23, liquid verbs add -ε not -σ in forming the future tense. But the neutral morph is then added to the future morph in forming the future. This means that the future tense of liquid verbs thus always has an -ε- (future morph) followed by a neutral morph. It is therefore a contract flexion, and follows the pattern of λαλέω, C1.3. Liquid verbs comprise Paradigms C1.8 and C1.9 of the First Conjugation, and these paradigms are set out in Appendix C under those references. In addition to those mentioned there, two other contracted futures occur in the New Testament: the deponents (ἀπο)θανέομαι, from (ἀπο)θνῄσκω (see #C2.4, #C7.6), and πεσέομαι, from πίπτω (see #C2.1).
6.88 Contraction also occurs in the other verb flexion where a short vowel is followed by another vowel: in the aorist passive subjunctive (#6.50), where the passive morph -Oe- is followed by the lengthened neutral morph. The same principles of contraction will operate in these forms.
6.9 THE REFLEXIVE PRONOUN
6.91 The reflexive pronouns refer to something directed towards oneself, as in "You shall love your neighbour as (you love) yourself'.
6.92 There can be no nominative; it declines in the oblique cases on the pattern of αὐτός (#3.32). There are forms for the three persons in the singular, but there was only one form in the plural, used for all persons. For first and second person singular, "myself" and "yourself", there were both masculine and feminine forms, and in the third person all three genders can be found.
|ἐμαυτόν, -ήν||1st person singular, "myself"|
|σεαυτόν, -ήν||2nd person singular, "yourself"|
|ἑαυτόν, -ήν, -ό||3rd person singular, "himself", etc.|
|ἑαυτούς, -άς, -ά||1st/2nd/3rd plural, "ourselves", "yourselves", "themselves"|
ASSIGNMENTS ON LESSON SIX
1. PARADIGMS FOR LEARNING: The paradigms to be learnt by heart this Lesson are:
12. Present Indicative Middle of λύω (#6.25): λύομαι
13. Perfect Indicative Middle of λύω (#6.25): λέλυμαι
14. Imperfect Indicative Middle of λύω (#6.25): ἐλυόμην
15. Other Modes of the Middle (#6.29): Present Imperative, Infinitive and Participle of λύω
16. Future Indicative of εἰμί (#6.42): ἔσομαι
17. Aorist Passive Indicative of λύω (#6.50): ἐλύθην
2. LEARNING THE OTHER MAJOR PARADIGMS OF THE MIDDLE AND PASSIVE: Aim to understand how the other flexions are formed from these ones set for rote learning, so that you will be able to recognize the forms of those other flexions which result. That is, seek to learn the forms of the other flexions by understanding rather than by rote.
3. APPENDIX: READ CAREFULLY the additional information set out in the Appendix, #A6. Especially NOTE the diagram of the Morph Slots of the Verb.
86 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
4. WORKBOOK: ANSWER THE QUESTIONS in your Workbook about this Lesson.
5. TRANSLATION EXERCISES A AND B: Do the English into Greek exercises, and then read and translate literally all the Selections from the Greek New Testament. Make sure that you continue the pattern of reading each Selection aloud before translating it, to help cultivate your "feel" for the Greek. NOTE: To do this work you will need to use the paradigms set for learning this Lesson, together with the paradigms and vocabulary of the previous Lessons. The new prepositions given below, and the cases they take, should be carefully noted. Most of the Selections introduce new vocabulary which is then used again in the Selections which follow. LEARN each unknown word as you use it.
6. VOCABULARY CARDS: Continue the practice of writing out Vocabulary Cards for the new words introduced in this Lesson, putting 6 (for "Lesson 6") in the top lefthand corner of each side of the Card. Make out the card for each new word as you come to it in the Sentences below; some words will be used in several Sentences. When you are given a word form and what it comes from, put the word it comes from at the top of your Card, and the information about that word form lower on the Card. Add these Cards to your collection, and place them all in alphabetical order. When additional information is provided about a word which you have had in a previous Lesson, add that information to your existing Vocabulary Card for that word. (Don't forget to put on your Card the case(s) taken by each preposition.)
7. ABBREVIATIONS IN THE NOTES (BELOW): see page 12.
PREPOSITIONS*διά (+acc) because of, on account of *ἕως (+gen) until ὁπίσω (+gen) after
A. TRANSLATION FROM ENGLISH INTO GREEK
(This may be done as an exercise in class at the end of the Lesson, or set as an assignment.)
|SENTENCES||NOTES AND NEW WORDS|
|A1.||And (Se) why do you call me, 'Lord, Lord', and do not do what I say?" (LUKE 6:46)||call: *καλέω|
|A2.||The stars will fall from the heaven. (MATTHEW 24:29)||star: ἀστήρ, -έρος, ὁ; fall: *πίπτω; future: πεσέομαι|
|A3.||For our (emphatic) citizenship is in (the) heavens, out of which also we expectantly await a saviour, (the) Lord Jesus Christ. (PHILIPPIANS 3:20)||citizenship: πολίτευμα, -ατος, τό; be, exist: *ὑπάρχω; expectantly await: ἀπεκδέχομαι|
|A4.||You shall call his name Jesus, for he (emphatic) will save his people from their sins. (MATTHEW 1:21)||future of *καλέω: καλέσω; people, a people: *λαός, -οῦ, ὁ|
|A5.||His father was a Greek. (ACTS 16:3)||was: imperfect of *ὑπάρχω; a Greek: Ἕλλην, -ηνος, ὁ|
|A6.||Jesus said to him, "Do you (emphatic) believe in (εἰς) the Son of Man?" That man answered and said, "And who is he, Lord, in order that I should believe in him?" (JOHN 9:35-36)||answered: ἀποκρίθη (from *ἀποκρίνομαι, passive deponent)|
SIX: THE MIDDLE AND PASSIVE VOICE 87
B. SELECTIONS FROM THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
A superscript number (as in aor²) is used to indicate a Second or Third Conjugation verb (as the case may be).
|B1.||καὶ ἐλθὼν εὐηγγελίσατο εἰρήνην ὑμῖν τοῖς μακρὰν καὶ τοῖς ἐγγύς· (ΠΡΟΣ ΕΦΕΣΙΟΥΣ 2:17)||εὐηγγελίσατο: 3sg aor. from *εὐαγγελίζω: proclaim, preach good news|
|B2.||Ἀπεκρίθη αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Ἐγὼ παρρησίᾳ ἐλάλησα τῷ κόσμῳ· ἐγὼ πάντοτε ἐδίδαξα ἐν συναγωγῇ καὶ ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ, ὅπου πάντοτε οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι συνέρχονται, καὶ ἐν κρυπτῷ ἐλάλησα οὐδέν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 18:20)||παρρησίᾳ: openly/plainly/freely (dat. sg of παρρησία, openness); πάντοτε: always; *ἱερόν, -οῦ, τό: temple; *ὅπου: where; συνέρχομαι (dep.): come together; κρυπτός -ή -όν: secret|
|B3.||Καὶ προσελθὼν ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἐλάλησεν αὐτοῖς, λέγων, Ἐδόθη μοι πᾶσα ἐξουσία ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ γῆς. Πορευθέντες μαθητεύσατε πάντα τὰ ἔθνη, βαπτίζοντες αὐτοὺς εἰς τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ Πατρὸς καὶ τοῦ Υἱοῦ καὶ τοῦ Ἁγίου Πνεύματος· διδάσκοντες αὐτοὺς τηρεῖν πάντα ὅσα ἐνετειλάμην ὑμῖν· καὶ ἰδού, ἐγὼ μεθ’ ὑμῶν εἰμι πάσας τὰς ἡμέρας ἕως τῆς συντελείας τοῦ αἰῶνος. Ἀμήν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 28:18-20)||ἐδόθη: 3sg aor. pass. from *δίδωμι, give; *ἐξουσία, -ας, ἡ: authority; πορευθέντες: aor. ptc from *πορεύομαι (dep.), go (ptc followed by an impv. means "go and .. ."); μαθητεύω: make a disciple (2pl aor. impv); *τηρέω: keep, observe, watch; *ὅσος -η -ον: as much (many, great) as; ἐντέλλομαι (dep., + dat.): command, order; πάσας τὰς ἡμέρας = always (Hebraism); συντέλεια, -ας, ἡ: completion, end|
|B4.||Τότε ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ , Εἴ τις θέλει ὀπίσω μου ἐλθεῖν, ἀπαρνησάσθω ἑαυτόν, καὶ ἀράτω τὸν σταυρὸν αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἀκολουθείτω μοι. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 16:24)||ἀπαρνησάσθω: 3sg aor. impv from ἀπαρνέομαι (dep.): deny, disown, renounce; *ἑαυτόν: oneself (reflexive) — see #6.9; ἀράτω: 3sg aor. impv of *αἴρω: take up, lift up; σταυρός, -οῦ, ὁ: (the) cross; *ἀκολουθέω: follow (takes dative)|
|B5.||Τότε δύο ἔσονται ἐν τῷ ἀγρῷ· ὁ εἷς παραλαμβάνεται, καὶ ὁ εἷς ἀφίεται. Δύο ἀλήθουσαι ἐν τῷ μύλωνι· μία παραλαμβάνεται, καὶ μία ἀφίεται. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 24.40-41)||παραλαμβάνω: take away, take along; ἀφίεται: 3sg pres pass. of *ἀφίημι, leave behind, forsake; ἀλήθουσαι: fem. pl pres. ptc of ἀλήθω): grind; μύλος, -ου, ὁ: mill/millstone|
|B6.||Μὴ θησαυρίζετε ὑμῖν θησαυροὺς ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, ὅπου σὴς καὶ βρῶσις ἀφανίζει, καὶ ὅπου κλέπται διορύσσουσιν καὶ κλέπτουσιν· θησαυρίζετε δὲ ὑμῖν θησαυροὺς ἐν οὐρανῷ, ὅπου οὔτε σὴς οὔτε βρῶσις ἀφανίζει, καὶ ὅπου κλέπται οὐ διορύσσουσιν οὐδὲ κλέπτουσιν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 6:19-21)||θησαυρίζω: store up, accumulate; θησαυρός, -οῦ, ὁ: treasure; ark, σής, -ητός, ὁ: (clothes-)moth; βρῶσις, -εως, ἡ, corrosion, rust; ἀφανίζω: ruin, destroy; κλέπτης, -ου, ὁ: thief; κλέπτω: steal; διορύσσω: dig through, break through; *οὔτε … οὔτε … : neither … nor …|
88 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
|B7.||Καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, Πορευθέντες ἀπαγγείλατε Ἰωάννῃ ἃ ἀκούετε καὶ βλέπετε· τυφλοὶ ἀναβλέπουσιν, καὶ χωλοὶ περιπατοῦσιν, λεπροὶ καθαρίζονται, καὶ κωφοὶ ἀκούουσιν, νεκροὶ ἐγείρονται, καὶ πτωχοὶ εὐαγγελίζονται· καὶ μακάριός ἐστιν, ὃς ἐὰν μὴ σκανδαλισθῇ ἐν ἐμοί. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 11:4-6)||ἀπαγγέλλω: announce, report, inform (2p1 aor. impv); ἀναβλέπω: see again; χωλός, -ή, -όν: lame; *περιπατέω: walk around, move about, [live one's life]; λεπρός, -οῦ, ὁ: leper; καθαρίζω: cleanse, make clean; κωφός, -ή, -όν: deaf; dumb; *νεκρός, -ά, -όν: dead; *ἐγείρω: raise (3p1 pass.); πτωχός, -ή, -όν: poor; *μακάριος, -ία, -ον: blessed, happy, fortunate; σκανδαλίζω cause to stumble, give offence, anger (someone) — in the pass., take offence, be made angry|
|B8.||(α)Ἄλλους ἔσωσεν, σωσάτω ἑαυτόν, εἰ οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ χριστός, τοῦ θεοῦ ὁ ἐκλεκτός. (ΚΑΤΑ ΛΟΥΚΑΝ 23:35)||*ἑαυτόν: #6.93; ἐκλεκτός, -ή, -όν: elect, chosen;|
|(β) Εἰ σὺ εἶ ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων , σῶσον σεαυτόν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΛΟΥΚΑΝ 23:37)|
|(γ) Εἷς δὲ τῶν κρεμασθέντων κακούργων ἐβλασφήμει αὐτόν , λέγων, Εἰ σὺ εἶ ὁ χριστός, σῶσον σεαυτὸν καὶ ἡμᾶς. (ΚΑΤΑ ΛΟΥΚΑΝ 23:39)|
|(δ) Ἰησοῦ, Μνήσθητί μου, κύριε, ὅταν ἔλθῃς ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ σου. (ΚΑΤΑ ΛΟΥΚΑΝ 23:42)||μνήσθητι: 2sg dep. aor. impv. from μιμνῄσκομαι (dep., takes gen.): remember (something, someone); *ὅταν: whenever (indefinite — contrast the decisiveness of Christ's reply: "today");|
|(ε) Ἀμὴν λέγω σοι, σήμερον μετ’ ἐμοῦ ἔσῃ ἐν τῷ παραδείσῳ. (ΚΑΤΑ ΛΟΥΚΑΝ 23:43)||σήμερον: today, this very day; παράδεισος, -ου, ὁ: paradise, garden|
|B9.||Ἄξιος εἶ, ὁ κύριος καὶ ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν, ὁ ἅγιος, λαβεῖν τὴν δόξαν καὶ τὴν τιμὴν καὶ τὴν δύναμιν· ὅτι σὺ ἔκτισας πάντα, καὶ διὰ τὸ θέλημά σου ἦσαν καὶ ἐκτίσθησαν. (ΑΠΟΚΑΛΥΨΙΣ ΙΩΑΝΝΟΥ 4:11)||ἄξιος -ία -ον: worthy, deserving; λαβεῖν: aor2 inf. from *λαμβάνω: receive, take; τιμή, -ῆς, ἡ: honour, respect; *δύναμις, -εως, ἡ: power; ἔκτισας: 2sg aor. pass. from κτίζω: create; θέλημα, -ατος, τό: will; ἐκτίσθησαν: 3pl aor. pass. from κτίζω: create|
|B10.||Καὶ ἤκουσα φωνῆς μεγάλης ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, λεγούσης, Ἰδού, ἡ σκηνὴ τοῦ θεοῦ μετὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων, καὶ σκηνώσει μετ’ αὐτῶν, καὶ αὐτοὶ λαὸς αὐτοῦ ἔσονται, καὶ αὐτὸς ὁ θεὸς ἔσται μετ’ αὐτῶν· καὶ ἐξαλείψει πᾶν δάκρυον ἀπὸ τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν αὐτῶν, καὶ ὁ θάνατος οὐκ ἔσται ἔτι· οὔτε πένθος, οὔτε κραυγή, οὔτε πόνος οὐκ ἔσται ἔτι· ὅτι τὰ πρῶτα ἀπῆλθον. Καὶ εἶπεν ὁ καθήμενος ἐπὶ τῷ θρόνῳ, Ἰδού, πάντα καινὰ ποιῶ. Καὶ λέγει μοι, Γράψον· ὅτι οὗτοι οἱ λόγοι ἀληθινοὶ καὶ πιστοί εἰσιν. (ΑΠΟΚΑΛΥΨΙΣ ΙΩΑΝΝΟΥ 21:3-5)||*θρόνος, -ου, ὁ: throne; λεγούσης: fem. sg gen. ptc from *λέγω, agreeing with φωνῆς; σκηνή, -ῆς, ἡ: tent, dwelling; σκηνόω: live, dwell; αὐτὸς ὁ θεός: God himself (*αὐτός in front of the article = self); ἐξαλείφω: wipe away; δάκρυον, -ου, τό: tear; *θάνατος, -ου, ὁ: death; ἔτι. still, longer; πένθος, -ους, τό: sorrow, sadness, grief; κραυγή, -ῆς, ἡ: crying, shout; πόνος, -ου, ὁ: pain, suffering; ἀληθινός -ή -όν: true, genuine|
SUPPLEMENTARY PASSAGES IN THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
B11. MARK 6:1-6
B12. JOHN 1:1-5
ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS; THE SECOND AND THIRD CONJUGATIONS
7.1 CORRESPONDING ADJECTIVES/PRONOUNS
7.11 Greek contains sets of adjectives/pronouns which differ in function and are related in meaning (and often, in root). These corresponding sets are:
|Identification||τίς; who?||τις anyone||ὁ, ὅδε, οὗτος this (one)|
ἐκεῖνος that, that one
|ὅς who, which|
ὅστις who-, whichever
|Quantity||πόσος; how much/many?||ποσός of some quantity||τοσοῦτος so (as) much/many/great (as)||ὅσος as great/much/many as|
|Quality||ποῖος of what kind?|
ποταπός of what kind?
|ποιός of some kind||τοιόσδε of such kind|
τοιοῦτος of such kind
|οἷος of what kind|
ὁποῖος such as
|Size||πηλίκος how large/great?||-||τηλικοῦτος so large, so great||ἡλίκος how large/great|
|Distribution||πότερος which of the two?||-||ἕτερος the one or the other/another/different|
ἕκαστος each, each one
7.12 Most of these words can occur either with a noun (that is, the word is functioning as an adjective), or without a noun (that is, the word is functioning as a pronoun).
7.13 Note how τοσοῦτος, τοιοῦτος and τηλικοῦτος are formed by replacing the initial ῾/τ- of οὗτος with τοσ-, τοι- and τηλικ- respectively. The declension of the flexion of each of these words follows οὗτος.
7.14 ὅδε, ἥδε, τόδε is a demonstrative pronoun/adjective formed by adding the enclitic δε to the definite article, which is declined in the ordinary way. Its meaning is the same as that of οὗτος: "this/these" (without a noun, "this man/woman/thing"). It does not often occur in the New Testament, and the majority of its occurrences is in the expression τάδε λέγει plus the speaker in the nominative, as in Acts 21:11, Τάδε λέγει τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον, "These things says the Holy Spirit."
7.15 ὅστις, ἥτις, ὄ τι is a relative pronoun similar in meaning to ὅς, ἥ, ὅ, but made rather general or indefinite by the addition of -τις, meaning "whoever, everyone who", etc. The neuter ὄ τι is often written that way, as two words, to distinguish it from ὄτι, "that, because". Otherwise the two parts of the word are written in combination together as a single word — but both parts of the word are declined in the usual way, as if they were separate words, to show gender, case, and number. However, the New Testament use of this common Greek word is very limited, and virtually confined to the nominative case and the neuter accusatives, singular and plural. Sometimes the indefinite particle ἄν is also used with ὅστις to stress the indefinite element in its meaning. At times, however, ὅστις is used without any real difference in meaning from the simple form, ὅς.
7.16 In classical Greek, ἕτερος meant "another of a different kind", whereas ἄλλος meant "another of the same kind". Something of this distinction can be found at times in New Testament Greek, but it is not strictly observed.
90 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
7.2 CORRESPONDING ADVERBS
7.21 Just as Greek had a system of corresponding adjectives/pronouns, so also it had a system of corresponding adverbs. This system had been more complete in classical times, but some of the parts had fallen out of colloquial use in Hellenistic Greek (much as our English patterns "where, whence, whither", "there, thence, thither" and "here, hence, hither" have contracted down to just "where", "there" and "here" and the other forms, if used at all, have a somewhat archaic flavour).
7.22 In particular there is less use of the indefinite forms (which are enclitic — that is, they throw their accent on the word preceding them: see #E6.3).
7.23 The corresponding adverbs are:
|Time||πότε; when?||ποτέ at some time||τότε then||ὅτε when|
|Place||ποῦ where?||πού somewhere||ἐκεῖ there|
|Source||πόθεν; whence?||ποθέν from some place||ἐκεῖθεν thence|
ἔνθεν from here
ἐντεῦθεν from here
|ὅθεν from where, whence|
(ὁπόθεν) from where
|Manner||πῶς; how?||πώς somehow||οὕτως thus, in this way||ὡς as, in which way|
ὅπως in order that
|Frequency||ποσάκις; how often?||-||πολλάκις often, frequently||ὁσάκις whenever, as often as|
7.24 NOTE that for both corresponding adjectives/pronouns and corresponding adverbs, the interrogative and indefinite forms are spelt the same, but differ in accent. In two-syllable words the interrogative form has the accent on the first syllable and the indefinite form has it on the second syllable, and on monosyllables the interrogative form has a stronger accent than the indefinite form (compare τίς/τις; πόσος/ποσός; ποῖος/ποιός; πότε/ποτέ; ποῦ/πού; πόθεν/ποθέν; πῶς/πώς).
7.3 FORMATION OF ADVERBS: THE REGULAR PATTERN
7.31 Most of the common adverbs of the New Testament are the same in form as the corresponding adjective in the genitive plural, but with -ς instead of -ν.
|7.32||Adjective||Its Genitive Plural||Adverb|
7.33 But also note these forms:
|7.32||Adjective||Its Genitive Plural||Adverb|
SEVEN: ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS; SECOND AND THIRD CONJUGATIONS 91
7.4 COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
7.41 The standard or basic form of an adjective or adverb is referred to as the positive degree. There are two other forms which it can have: it can be used in the comparative degree (strictly speaking, comparison of two instances or examples), and the superlative degree (strictly speaking, used of an instance or example that exceeds two or more others). These correspond with the sequence great, greater, greatest; short, shorter, shortest in English, where the comparative and superlative forms are made by the addition of the suffixes -er and -est. For some English words, however, a change in the word is made: as for example in the comparisons good, better, best; bad, worse, worst; little, less, least.
7.42 There are the same two types of comparatives and superlatives in Greek: those formed by adding a suffix to the positive stem (the more common), and those formed by a change in the form the word itself.
7.43 The comparative suffix is -τερος and the superlative suffix is -τατος. If the second-last vowel of the word is short, then the last vowel will become long in the comparative and superlative stem, before the ending.
|Thus:||ὑψηλός, ὑψηλότερος, ὑψηλότατος||high, higher, highest|
|σοφός, σοφώτερος, σοφώτατος||wise, wiser, wisest|
7.44 The forms in -τερος decline like ἅγιος and the forms in -τατος decline like καλός (see Appendix D, #D4.1 and D4.2).
7.45 These are the adjectives which use different word forms (those in brackets are not found int:he New Testament):
Comparatives in -ων decline like ἄφρων (see Appendix D, #D4.8).
7.46 The comparative of an adverb is the neuter singular of the corresponding comparative adjective. The superlative of an adverb is the neuter plural of the corresponding superlative adjective.
7.47 These are the adverbs which use different forms in the comparative and superlative degrees :hose in brackets are not found in the New Testament):
92 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
7.48 A comparative may be followed by (a) a genitive of comparison (discussed in #9.44(e); examples, Selections L5/B15; L9/B12); or (b) by ἤ "than", in which instance the things being compared will have the same case. For example:
|John 4:1:||Ἰησοῦς||πλείονας μαθητὰς||ποιεῖ||καὶ||βαπτίζει||↙||ἢ||Ἰωάννης|
|Jesus||↗||is making||and||is baptizing||more disciples||than||John|
7.49 The superlative forms of adjective and adverb are rarely used in the New Testament, and when they do occur they are more likely to have what is called an "elative" sense (that is, they mean "very" or something similar), than they are to have a strict superlative sense. Often, when the superlative is meant, the comparative form is used; and on frequent occasions when a comparative meaning is intended, the positive form is used. For example:
|Mark 9:45:||καλόν||ἐστίν||σοι||εἰσελθεῖν||εἰς||τὴν ζωὴν||χωλόν,||ἢ||...κτλ.†|
|better||it is||for you||to enter||into||life||lame||than||... etc.|
† κτλ. is the abbreviation for καὶ τὰ λοιπά. = "and the rest", equivalent to English "etc."
|Mark 14:21 (L9/B16):||καλὸν||ἦν||αὐτῷ||εἰ||οὐκ ἐγεννήθη||ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἐκεῖνος.|
|better||it was||for him||if||were not born||that man.|
Clearly in these sentences καλόν has the comparative sense, "better", rather than "good", so that these sentences do not mean, "It is good for you to enter into life lame than ... (etc.)", or "It would be good for that man if he had not been born." It is wise to bear this type of usage in mind when translating. However, on most occasions when the positive degree of an adjective is used it does not have comparative meaning, and we must be careful not to read it in. Thus:
|Mark 9:5 (L7/B24):||καλόν ἐστιν||ἡμᾶς||ὧδε εἶναι|
|It is good||for us||to be here||[not, It is better ...]|
7.5 ATTRIBUTIVE AND PREDICATIVE USE OF ADJECTIVES
7.51 ATTRIBUTIVE USE OF ADJECTIVES: Where an adjective is used with an article and noun (that is, identifying the noun by reference to an attribute of that noun), the adjective goes either
(a) between the article and noun, or
(b) after the noun, with the article repeated before the adjective. These are the two forms of what is called the attributive use of the adjective, and these two positions can be described respectively as the Attributive Intermediate Position (that is, between article and noun) and the Attributive Post Position (that is, immediately after the noun, with only the repeated article between them). Some examples from the Selections for this Lesson:
(a) Attributive Intermediate Position
|Matthew 27:53 (L7/B1):||εἰσῆλθον||εἰς||τὴν ἁγίαν πόλιν.|
|they entered||into||the holy city.|
A phrase describing the noun (an adjectival phrase) can be put into the attributive intermediate position. For example, ἐν Λαοδικείᾳ ("in Laodicea") in:
|Revelation 3:14 (L7/B2):||Καὶ||τῷ ἀγγέλῳ||τῆς ἐν Λαοδικείᾳ ἐκκλησίας|
|And||to the messenger||of the church in Laodicea|
SEVEN: ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS; SECOND AND THIRD CONJUGATIONS 93
(b) Attributive Post Position
|Revelation 21:2 (L7/B3):||τὴν πόλιν τὴν ἁγίαν||εἶδον|
|I saw||the holy city|
(Some grammarians hold the view that the attributive post use of the adjective is more emphatic than the attributive intermediate position; but this is not agreed by others.)
If more than one adjective is being used referring to the same noun, the repeated article is only used once in front of both adjectives:
|Revelation 3:14 (L7/132):||ὁ μάρτυς ὁ πιστὸς καὶ ἀληθινός|
|the faithful and true witness|
7.52 Notice that in both these forms of the attributive position, the adjective has the article immediately in front of it. NOTE: the possessive adjectives ἐμός, "my", and σός, "your" singular), take the article in the same way as any other adjective. (For examples, see L2/B25 and L3/B28 for the Attributive Intermediate Position, and L5/B10 for the Attributive Post Position.) An entire adjectival phrase can be used in this way as if it were an adjective, and the article will be used in front of it (see the discussion of this in #2.97 and an example L2/B5).
7.53 PREDICATIVE USE OF ADJECTIVES: By contrast, an adjective can be used as the complement of the verb "to be", that is, as the "completement" of the thought. Here, the adjective Is the predicate, and it is placed in the predicative position, which may be either prior to the article and noun (the Predicative Prior Position), or after the article and noun (the Predicative Post Position). Notice that it can never come between the article and its noun, or in any circumstances have the article immediately in front of it. Examples of the two forms of the Predicative Position from the Selections in these Lessons:
c) Predicative Prior Position (with εἰμί)
|Hebrews 11:38 (L7/B4):||ὧν||οὐκ ἦν ἄξιος ὁ κόσμος|
|of whom||the world was not worthy|
|Revelation 5:12 (L5/B19):||Ἄξιόν||ἐστιν||τὸ ἀρνίον||τὸ ἐσφαγμένον|
|worthy||is||the lamb||that has been slain|
d) Predicative Post Position (with εἰμί)
|1 Corinthians 3:17 (L7/B5):||ὁ γὰρ ναὸς||τοῦ θεοῦ||ἅγιός ἐστιν|
|for the temple||of God||is holy|
7.54 As the position of the words is an adequate indication of meaning, the verb "to be" is not really necessary, and so it is often omitted:
e) Predicative Prior Position (without εἰμί)
|Luke 1:49 (L7/B6):||καὶ||ἅγιον||τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ|
|and||holy is||his name|
|Luke 10:7 (L7/A5):|
1 Timothy 5:18 (L7/B7):
for worthy is
|τοῦ μισθοῦ αὐτοῦ|
of his pay
(f) Predicative Post Position (without εἰμί)
|Romans 7:12 (L7/B8):||Ὥστε||ὁ μὲν νόμος||ἅγιος,||καὶ||ἡ ἐντολὴ||ἁγία|
|so||the law||is holy||and||the commandment||is holy|
94 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
7.55 Where Knowing Greek Makes a Difference: One of the advantages of learning Greek is being able to examine New Testament passages, and compare the wording of different verses. The examples given above – from the Sentences at the end of this Lesson – include two verses which it is interesting to compare. The Scripture of 1 Timothy 5:18 (L7/B7) says, "The Scripture says, 'You shall not muzzle an ox while it is treading out the grain,' and, 'The laborer deserves to be paid.— (NRSV.) The first of the two quotations of what "the Scripture says" comes from Deuteronomy 25:4. And you can see that the second (L7/A5) is an exact word-for-word quotation of Luke 10:7. That is, one part of the New Testament gives an exact quote of another part of the New Testament, and calls it "Scripture". Now that, as I said, is a very interesting thing, if you think about it.
7.56 The two uses, attributive and predicative, without the verb "to be", can be clearly seen in the following example, which is unambiguous: Revelation 20:5 (L7/B9): avaaramc T1 rpojTri this is the first resurrection
7.57 Note the distinction between the two positions (that is, in the relationships of article and adjective): (a) In the attributive positions, the adjective is always immediately preceded by the article.
(b) In the predicative positions, the adjective is never immediately preceded by the article. The meaning is thus always indicated quite clearly.
7.58 There are however some sentences where the article is not used with adjective and noun. In these instances therefore there could be a potential ambiguity. However, usually the context makes the meaning plain. John 6:9 (L7/B10): Tarn/ gott6aprov cii6e bc 2(£1. 7rEVTE difyrovc Kpteivovc There is a lad here who has five barley loaves
7.59 There are five common words which always take the predicative position (that is, they do not ever have the article immediately preceding them) but which nonetheless have the usual adjectival sense and do not necessarily imply the verb "to be". These are: oZToc ("this"), kiceivoc ("that"), o)Loc ("whole, complete, entire"), rag. ("all"), and dizac (alternative form of Iraq). Examples of their use:
(a) In the Predicative Prior Position John 12:34 (L3/B1): ko-rtv aroc 6 viol Tof) aveparov; who is this son of man?Mark 12:30 (L5/B15): Kap6iac Gov (K-0,) out of your whole heart (etc.) Matthew 16:18 (L5/B18): eic i naves Trj 7thrpa obco8o,urjo-o) upon this rock I will build ... Matthew 28:19 (L6/B3): zavTa Tee all the nations ...
(b) In the Predicative Post Position Mark 10:5 (L5/B16): evT&Mv TonjTriv .. this commandment Matthew 3:9 (L5/1317): ... klc nOiv AiBcov TatjToyv .. out of these stones
SEVEN: ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS; SECOND AND THIRD CONJUGATIONS 95
7.6 SUPPLETIVES, AND OTHER VERBS OF THE SECOND AORIST
7.61 A number of Greek verbs are incomplete, in that they cannot be used in all tenses, because in some tenses the expected forms do not exist. These verbs are referred to as "defective" in those tenses. What happens in such cases is that forms from some quite different verbs fill the gaps.
7.62 We have defective verbs in English, and we also fill the gaps from other verbs in a similar way. Consider the following: "See how God has answered prayer in the past, and believe that he will answer prayer in the future also; see what wonders God has wrought in the past, and believe that he will _____ wonders in the future also." What is the future tense of "wrought" needed to fill the gap? There is no such future tense in use, so we have to borrow from another verb, perhaps "do", or "work" or "perform". Similarly, what are the infinitives of "can" and "will"? We have to borrow from other verbs and say, "to be able to" and "to intend to" or "to be about to". English has formed the tense system of some verbs from different roots: e.g., "go" is defective (it is not acceptable to say "he goed"), and has taken as its past tense "went", which is actually the past tense of the verb "wend".
7.63 Verbs which join together forms from different roots in this way are called suppletives. There seven suppletives used in the New Testament:
† Note the rough breathing on these three forms: this is explained in #C8.73.
7.64 In the New Testament both A,eyco and Orl,ui occur only in the present and imperfect, and On yi found only in these four forms: Present, 077 jai, "I say"; Ono-iv, "he says"; Oao- iv, "they say"; Imperfect, 47-7, "he said". (These four forms occur altogether 70 times in the New Testament, EOrj --,nrig by far the most common.) The gap for both verbs for other tenses is filled by Spew, ebrov, All these words, originally different verbs, have the same root meaning of "say/speak/tell", - are used to supplete each other. Similarly for the other suppletives.
7.65 NOTE that all seven suppletives are Second Conjugation verbs (that is, they have second • rist forms, indicated by the -ov ending). Two verbs (aipeco and Oepco) are shown as having first • rist alternatives, and also throv and Et8ov can have forms in the New Testament with first aorist -dings (though without the -a- phoneme of the punctiliar morph; see #A3.28). In the New stament there are two alternative forms of the future used for aipeco and its compounds.
7.66 For Second Conjugation verbs, their verb stem is their aorist stem, and (except for ayes and -,,o)) they add a durative morph to form their present stem. A fuller explanation of verb formation Ill be given in due course (#10.2), and all 34 Second Conjugation verbs which occur in the New - tament are listed in #C2. However, the 15 more frequent and more important of these should be ,ted now. The Principal Parts (see #10.3) for these are:
96 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
† Note the rough breathing on this form: this is explained in #E2.85.
The preposition ἀπο- is usually prefixed to θνῄσκω. For the other words listed, a form in brackets is one which does not occur in the New Testament but is worthy of note.
7.67 NOTE that where the stem of a word ends in a labial, the -κ- of the perfect active morph combines with this labial and gives -φ- (as in εἶληφα), and similarly this -κ- combines with a palatal at the end of the stem to give -χ- (as in ἦχα). Some perfects take the -α- ending direct, without the -κ- phoneme — see #7.8, below.
7.68 These patterns are not given for learning, but for you to look through so that you begin to become familiar with the kinds of changes that occur in a word. (When you encounter one of these forms, your Grammatical Analysis will remind you of the lexical form of that word.)
7.69 Once the first person singular of a flexion (the flexion form) is known, the remaining forms of that flexion will all conjugate regularly, on the pattern of λύω.
7.7 THE THIRD AORIST, AND THE THIRD CONJUGATION
7.71 THE FIRST AND SECOND AORISTS: So far we have met two ways of forming and conjugating the aorist active — adding the punctiliar morph -σα-, and then conjugating as for λύω (#4.21) and, secondly, adding the neutral morph -ε/ο- and conjugating as for ἔβαλον (#3.81).
7.72 THIRD AORIST ACTIVE: There is also a third aorist active pattern of conjugation, without any difference in meaning (#3.65). This pattern is followed by a small but important group of verbs: they add a third set of endings (slightly different from the other two) directly to the verb root, lengthening the final vowel of the root if it is short. Note that in this paradigm the 3rd person singular pronoun ending is ∅ (zero), and that it is in fact the absence of any other ending that is what is significant for indicating the person and number of this form.
SEVEN: ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS; SECOND AND THIRD CONJUGATIONS 97
ἵστημι is one of the most complex of New Testament verbs, with one set of tenses having transitive meaning, "to cause [something] to stand", and another set of its tenses having intransitive meaning, "to take a stand". Fuller details are given in #C3.87.)
7.74 THIRD AORIST MIDDLE: Most third aorist verbs do not use forms in the Middle Voice. Those that do take the same pronoun endings as the first aorist (λύω) forms, but once again they add them directly to the verb root. Thus ἐθέμην (from τίθημι), ἐδόμην (from δίδωμι). (For the full flexion, see #C6.)
7.75 THIRD AORIST PASSIVE: In the Passive Voice third aorist verbs add the passive morph θε- (which lengthens to -θη-) directly to their root and then again take the same Third Con-ization endings as given above for the active (#7.73). It is to be noted that λύω (and all First and and Conjugation verbs) follow the Third Conjugation pattern in the passive (compare the passive of λύω, #6.50, with the following Table). That is to say, all verbs are Third Conjugation n the Aorist Passive.
† In this flexion (and in the perfect middle/passive and the future passive) the lexal -γνω- has the allomorph form -γνωσ- (see #C8.91).
‡ This is a direct flexion passive without -θ- (see #7.8).
7.76 THIRD CONJUGATION: The third aorist is thus a third way of conjugating the aorist, that is, a Third Conjugation. Third Conjugation verbs form their present stem, like the Second Conjugation, by adding a durative morph to their verb stem. But -βαίνω, γινώσκω and δύνω have then taken the First Conjugation ending -ω, and they conjugate their present tense on a First Conjugation pattern. However, verbs ending in -μι (like ἵστημι) follow a distinctive (that is to say, Third Conjugation) pattern of conjugating their present and imperfect tenses.
7.77 THIRD CONJUGATION PRESENT: This conjugation (shown here for five representative -μι verbs) is:
98 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
|Root:||στα- (stand)||δυνα- (can)||θε- (place)||δο- (give)||δεικ- (show)|
7.78 NOTE: (a) The pronoun endings of the Third Conjugation Present Middle are the same as those taken by the perfect of First Conjugation verbs (see λέλυμαι, #6.25), and the endings of the Third Conjugation Imperfect Middle are the same as those taken by the pluperfect of First Conjugation verbs (see #C1.12); (b) The Third Conjugation Imperfect Active takes the same endings as the Third Aorist Active (#7.73); (c) The Imperfect flexions are set out in full in #C6.3; (d) δύναμαι is deponent; its imperfect (usually ἐδυνάμην, but occurring seven times as ἠδυνάμην, with double augment — see #4.62), follows ἱστάμην; (e) Three other important Third Conjugation deponents are κάθημαι "I sit down", κεῖμαι "I lie down", and -ἵημι, "I send" (which conjugates like τίθημι, but only occurs in the New Testament in compounds, notably ἀφίημι); (f) For the present and imperfect passive: use middle forms (#6.50, #6.51).
7.79 Many of the forms in the above flexions are never actually found in the New Testament, but are included to show clearly the pattern of conjugating. A fuller explanation of verb formation will be given in due course (#10.2), and all 36 Third Conjugation verbs which occur in the New Testament are listed in #C3.
7.8 DIRECT FLEXIONS
7.81 Some Greek verbs form one of their tenses without the use of the usual consonant in the aspect or voice morph. Two verbs form their future (deponent) without a future morph: φάγομαι (from ἐσθίω "I eat" — see #7.63); πίομαι (from πίνω "I drink" — see #C4.2). Nine verbs form their perfect active without either aspirating the stem consonant or adding -κ-, as the case may be; for example, γέγονα, from γίνομαι "I become" (see #C4.3 for the full list). Thirty verbs can form their aorist passive without taking the -θ- of the passive morph; for example, ἠγγέλην, not ἠγγέλθην, from ἀγγέλλω "I announce" (see #C4.4 for the full list). These flexions which add the next vowel directly to the lexal without the usual consonant of the morph can be termed "direct flexions".
7.82 Among the direct flexions of the perfect, there is one which requires special comment: οἶδα, from the same root, ἰδ-, as εἶδον, "I saw". It is:
SEVEN: ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS; SECOND AND THIRD CONJUGATIONS 99
This perfect form has the present meaning, "I know", etc., and the pluperfect is the past tense, "I knew".
7.83 Notice the second-last morph in the pluperfect flexion, -ει-. This identifies the form as pluperfect. Thus it is a specifier morph, and occupies Slot 8 of a verb's nine morph slots. NOTE that on to this specifier morph the pluperfect adds the endings (Slot 9) of the third aorist #7.73).
7.84 Because the specifier morph -ει- identifies the pluperfect in an unambiguous way, some riters of koinē Greek considered an initial augment unnecessary for the pluperfect tense, and i\mitted it for many words in the pluperfect.
7.85 A similar situation exists for another word: εἴωθα (which is as rare as οἶδα is common) is so a perfect form that has present meaning, "I am accustomed", and comes from an original present form (ἔθω) that has been obsolete since Homer's time. Again like οἶδα, it has a pluperfect form εἰώθειν (which follows the paradigm of ᾔδειν) that has simple past meaning, "I was accustomed". The neuter perfect participle εἰωθός occurs with the meaning "custom" (compare perfect participle εἰδώς from οἶδα).
7.86 For the paradigm of λύω, showing the regular pluperfect flexion with the perfective active morph -κ-, see #C1.11.
ASSIGNMENTS ON LESSON SEVEN
1. PARADIGMS FOR LEARNING: The paradigms to be learnt by heart this Lesson are:
18. Third Conjugation Aorist Active (#7.73): ἔστην (from ἵστημι), and ἔγνων (from γινώσκω)
19. Third Conjugation Present Active (#7.77): ἵστημι and δίδωμι
20. Third Conjugation Present Middle (#7.77): ἵσταμαι and δίδομαι
2(a) LEARNING THE OTHER MAJOR PARADIGMS OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION: Aim to understand how the other flexions of the Third Conjugation are formed: NOTE how the Third Conjugation Aorist Middle is formed by adding the regular aorist middle endings (as for λύω) to the verb root, while the Third Conjugation Aorist Passive flexion is formed from the verb root by adding the passive morph and then the third aorist endings.
(b) LEARN which are the seven verbs which are suppletives (#7.63), and NOTE the suppletive forms which are used in their other tenses: these are used in the Sentences (below).
3. WORKBOOK: ANSWER THE QUESTIONS in your Workbook about this Lesson.
100 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
4. TRANSLATION EXERCISES A AND B: Do the English into Greek exercises, and then read and translate literally all the Selections from the Greek New Testament. Make sure that you continue the pattern of reading each Selection aloud before translating it, to help cultivate your "feel" for the Greek. NOTE: To do this work you will need to use the paradigms set for learning this Lesson, together with the paradigms and vocabulary of the previous Lessons. The new prepositions given below, and the cases they take, should be carefully noted. Most of the Selections introduce new vocabulary which is then used again in the Selections which follow. LEARN each unknown word as you use it.
5. VOCABULARY CARDS: Continue the practice of writing out Vocabulary Cards for the new words introduced in this Lesson, putting 7 (for "Lesson 7") in the top lefthand corner of each side of the Card. Make out the card for each new word as you come to it in the Sentences below; some will appear in several of this Lesson's Sentences. When you are given a word form and what it comes from, put the word it comes from at the top of your Card, and the information about that word form lower on the Card. Add these Cards to your collection, and place them all in alphabetical order. When additional information is provided about a word which you have had in a previous Lesson, add that information to your existing Vocabulary Card for that word. (Don't forget to put on your Card the case(s) taken by each preposition.)
6. ABBREVIATIONS IN THE NOTES (BELOW): see page 12.
|*σύν||(+dat)||with, together with||χωρίς||(+gen)||without, apart from|
A. TRANSLATION FROM ENGLISH INTO GREEK
(This may be done as an exercise in class at the end of the Lesson, or set as an assignment.)
|SENTENCES||NOTES AND NEW WORDS|
|A1.||"I do not know this man." (MARK 14:71)||Use *οἶδα, "I know" (#7.82)|
|A2.||It has been written, "You (plural) shall be holy, because I (emphatic) [am] holy. (1 PETER 1:16)|
|A3.||Night is coming, when no-one is able to work.||I am able: *δύναμαι; (JOHN 9:4) work: ἐργάζομαι (dep.)|
|A4.||Do you not know that you are God's temple and the Spirit of God dwells in you? (1 CORINTHIANS 3:16)||temple: ναός, -οῦ, ὁ; dwell: οἰκέω|
|A5.||The workman [is] worthy of his pay. (LUKE 10:7)||workman: ἐργάτης, -ου, ὁ; pay: μισθός, -ου, ὁ|
|A6.||I wrote these things to you in order that you might know that you have eternal life. (1 JOHN 5:13)||in order that: *ἵνα (+ subjv); might know: see #7.82|
|A7.||I have not come to call righteous ones but sinners into repentance. (LUKE 5:32)||righteous: *δίκαιος, -αία, -ον; sinner, sinful: ἁμαρτωλός, -όν|
SEVEN: ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS; SECOND AND THIRD CONJUGATIONS 101
B. SELECTIONS FROM THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
A superscript number (as in aor²) is used to indicate a Second or Third Conjugation verb (as the case may be).
|SELECTION||NOTES AND NEW WORDS|
|B1.||καὶ ... εἰσῆλθον εἰς τὴν ἁγίαν πόλιν, καὶ ἐνεφανίσθησαν πολλοῖς. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 27:53)||ἐν-ε-φανίσ-θη-σαν: 3pl aor. pass. from ἐμφανίζω, cause to appear clearly, make known, (pass.: appear)|
|B2.||Καὶ τῷ ἀγγέλῳ τῆς ἐν Λαοδικείᾳ ἐκκλησίας γράψον, Τάδε λέγει ὁ Ἀμήν, ὁ μάρτυς ὁ πιστὸς καὶ ἀληθινός, ἡ ἀρχὴ τῆς κτίσεως τοῦ θεοῦ· Οἶδά σου τὰ ἔργα. (ΑΠΟΚΑΛΥΨΙΣ ΙΩΑΝΝΟΥ 3:14-15)||Λαοδίκεια, -ας, Laodicea; *ἐκκλησία, ἡ: church; τάδε: #7.14; *ἀμήν: amen; ὁ Ἀμήν: the one who is true; μάρτυς, -υρος, ὁ: witness, martyr; *ἀρχή, ruler, beginning (both meanings apply here); *οἶδα: know, #7.82|
|B3.||Καὶ τὴν πόλιν τὴν ἁγίαν, Ἱερουσαλὴμ καινήν, εἶδον καταβαίνουσαν ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἀπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ, ἡτοιμασμένην ὡς νύμφην κεκοσμημένην τῷ ἀνδρὶ αὐτῆς. (ΑΠΟΚΑΛΥΨΙΣ ΙΩΑΝΝΟΥ 21:2)||Ἰερουσαλήμ, ἡ (indecl.): Jerusalem; καινός -ή -όν: new; *εἶδον: #7.63; *καταβαίνω: come down (acc. sg fem. ptc, agreeing with πόλις); ἡτοιμασμένην: having been prepared (perf ptc); νύμφη, -ης, ἡ: bride; κεκοσμημένην: having been adorned (acc sg fern pf ptc); *ἀνήρ, ἀνδρός, ὁ: husband, man (see #5.44)|
|B4.||ὧν οὐκ ἦν ἄξιος ὁ κόσμος (ΠΡΟΣ ΕΒΡΑΙΟΥΣ 11:38)|
|B5.||ὁ γὰρ ναὸς τοῦ θεοῦ ἅγιός ἐστιν, οἵτινές ἐστε ὑμεῖς. (ΠΡΟΣ ΚΟΡΙΝΘΙΟΥΣ Α, 3:17)||οἵτινες: #7.15; see #D6.1 and #D6.6|
|B6.||Ὅτι ἐποίησέν μοι μεγαλεῖα ὁ δυνατός, καὶ ἅγιον τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ. (ΚΑΤΑ ΛΟΥΚΑΝ 1:49)||μεγαλεῖα: #5.75; ὁ δυνατός: the Almighty; Absence of verb "to be": #7.54(e)|
|B7.||Λέγει γὰρ ἡ γραφή, Βοῦν ἀλοῶντα οὐ φιμώσεις· καί, Ἄξιος ὁ ἐργάτης τοῦ μισθοῦ αὐτοῦ. (ΠΡΟΣ ΤΙΜΟΘΕΟΝ Α, 5:18)||*γραφή, -ῆς, ἡ: scripture; βοῦς, βοός, ὁ: ox, #5.20; ἀλοῶντα: masc. acc. sg ptc from ἀλοάω, thresh; φιμόω: muzzle|
|B8.||ὁ μὲν νόμος ἅγιος, καὶ ἡ ἐντολὴ ἁγία καὶ δικαία καὶ ἀγαθή. Τὸ οὖν ἀγαθὸν ἐμοὶ γέγονεν θάνατος; (ΠΡΟΣ ΡΩΜΑΙΟΥΣ 7:12-13)||*ἐντολή, commandment, instruction; *ἀγαθός -ή -όν: good|
|B9.||Καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ τῶν νεκρῶν οὐκ ἔζησαν ἄχρι τελεσθῇ τὰ χίλια ἔτη. Αὕτη ἡ ἀνάστασις ἡ πρώτη. Μακάριος καὶ ἅγιος ὁ ἔχων μέρος ἐν τῇ ἀναστάσει τῇ πρώτῃ· (ΑΠΟΚΑΛΥΨΙΣ ΙΩΑΝΝΟΥ 20:5-6)||*λοιπός -ή -όν: remainder, remaining, rest; *ζάω: live; ἄχρι: until; τελεσθῇ: 3sg aor. pass. subjv of τελέω, end, complete, finish; χίλιοι -αι -α: thousand; ἔτος, -ους, τό: year|
|B10.||Ἔστιν παιδάριον ἓν ὧδε, ὃ ἔχει πέντε ἄρτους κριθίνους καὶ δύο ὀψάρια· ἀλλὰ ταῦτα τί ἐστιν εἰς τοσούτους; (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 6:9)||παιδάριον, -ου, τό: a lad, young boy; πέντε: five; κρίθινος, -η, -ον: barley, made of barley; ὀψάριον, -ου, τό: a (small) fish; τοσοῦτος, -αύτη, -οῦτο(ν): so much/ so many, #7.13|
|B11.||Μακάριοι οἱ καθαροὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ· ὅτι αὐτοὶ τὸν θεὸν ὄψονται. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 5:8)||καθαρός: clean, pure; ὄψονται: #7.63|
102 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
|B12.||Καὶ λέγουσιν αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ, Πόθεν ἡμῖν ἐν ἐρημίᾳ ἄρτοι τοσοῦτοι, ὥστε χορτάσαι ὄχλον τοσοῦτον; (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 15:33)||τοσοῦτος #7.13; χορτάζω: feed, satisfy with food; *ὄχλος, -ου, ὁ: (a) crowd|
|B13.||Ὅστις δὲ ὑψώσει ἑαυτόν, ταπεινωθήσεται· καὶ ὅστις ταπεινώσει ἑαυτόν, ὑψωθήσεται. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 23:12)||*ὅστις: #7.15; ὑψόω: exalt; *ἑαυτόν: #6.93: ταπεινόω: humble|
|B14.||Ἐγὼ ἐλήλυθα ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι τοῦ πατρός μου , καὶ οὐ λαμβάνετέ με · ἐὰν ἄλλος ἔλθῃ ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι τῷ ἰδίῳ, ἐκεῖνον λήψεσθε (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 5:43)||ἐλήλυθα: #7.63; ἔλθῃ: 3sg aor2 subjv of *ἦλθον, were to come; *ἴδιος, -ία, -ον: one's own, his own; ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι τῷ ἰδίῳ: #7.51(b); λήμψεσθε: 2pl fut. (#7.66) from *λαμβάνω, receive|
|B15.||ἀλλὰ λέγει αὐτῷ, Ὕπαγε εἰς τὸν οἶκόν σου πρὸς τοὺς σούς, καὶ ἀνάγγειλον αὐτοῖς ὅσα σοι ὁ κύριος πεποίηκεν, καὶ ἠλέησέν σε. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 5:19-20)||σούς: from σός, -ή, -όν, L2/B25; with the article: the ones who are yours (i.e., your family and friends); ἀνάγγειλον: impv aor¹ of ἀναγγέλλω, liquid verb (#4.57); ὅσα: #7.11, neut pl., how many things, i.e., all that ...; ἠλέησεν 3sg aor. from ἐλεάω, have mercy, compassion (note the significance of the aor. here and perf of ποιέω, both referring to the one act)|
|B16.||Καὶ τοιαύταις παραβολαῖς πολλαῖς ἐλάλει αὐτοῖς τὸν λόγον, καθὼς ἠδύναντο ἀκούειν· χωρὶς δὲ παραβολῆς οὐκ ἐλάλει αὐτοῖς· κατ’ ἰδίαν δὲ τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ ἐπέλυεν πάντα. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 4:33-34)||*Totof)w; rota6T77, Totarov. of such a kind, #7.13; *KapaPo2M, -fic, 4: parable; 7)81jvavro: 3pl impf dep. of the Third Conjugation *513valuat, #7.78, note the double augment (#4.62); dcutjetv: here: understand; Kat' i8lay: on their own, privately (from *i6iog); brt2,1")co: explain|
|B17.||Καὶ συνάγονται οἱ ἀπόστολοι πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν, καὶ ἀπήγγειλαν αὐτῷ πάντα, καὶ ὅσα ἐποίησαν καὶ ὅσα ἐδίδαξαν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 6:30)||*avvayco: gather together (mid/pass., come together, meet); *durouToZoc-, -ov, 6: apostle; oo-a: #7.11; k8164ay: 3p1 aor. of *St8(itax-co, teach|
|B18.||Ἀλλὰ λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι καὶ Ἠλίας ἐλήλυθεν, καὶ ἐποίησαν αὐτῷ ὅσα ἠθέλησαν, καθὼς γέγραπται ἐπ’ αὐτόν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 9:13)||kill-M.7)9El'; #7.63; oo-a: #7.11; fi9EADv: 3pl impf from *Oato, with double augment (#4.62); yeypaIrrat: 3sg pf pass. from *ypotOw (#6.25, #6.50, #10.45)|
|B19.||Εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς τοὺς μαθητάς, Ἐλεύσονται ἡμέραι ὅτε ἐπιθυμήσετε μίαν τῶν ἡμερῶν τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἰδεῖν, καὶ οὐκ ὄψεσθε. (ΚΑΤΑ ΛΟΥΚΑΝ 17:22)||Oi-eljo-ovrat: #7.63; hrteviieco: strongly desire, long (for); play: #5.76; 1(5Efy: aor2 inf. (#4.48, #7.63); 61yea9E: #7.63|
|B20.||Καὶ ἐμαρτύρησεν Ἰωάννης λέγων ὅτι Τεθέαμαι τὸ πνεῦμα καταβαῖνον ὡς περιστερὰν ἐξ οὐρανοῦ, καὶ ἔμεινεν ἐπ’ αὐτόν. Κἀγὼ οὐκ ᾔδειν αὐτόν· ἀλλ’ ὁ πέμψας με βαπτίζειν ἐν ὕδατι, ἐκεῖνός μοι εἶπεν, Ἐφ’ ὃν ἂν ἴδῃς τὸ πνεῦμα καταβαῖνον καὶ μένον ἐπ’ αὐτόν, οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ βαπτίζων ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ. Κἀγὼ ἑώρακα, καὶ μεμαρτύρηκα ὅτι οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 1:32-34)||*papTypeco: testify, bear witness; -reeleaRat: lsg pf of Oedeopat (dep.), look at, notice, observe (re reduplication, see #E4.33); 7repurrepet, ag, rj: dove, pigeon; 1.1E1VEV: 3sg aor of *pew°, rest, remain, abide; 756etv. #7.82; 6 ,reytifac-; masc. nom. sg ptc (meaning, the one who sent), from *7repirco, send; Yorig: 2sg aor2 subjv, from *th5ov (#7.63); kcopaKa: #7.63|
SEVEN: ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS; SECOND AND THIRD CONJUGATIONS 103
|B21.||Λέγει ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ τοῖς διακόνοις, Ὅ τι ἂν λέγῃ ὑμῖν, ποιήσατε. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 2.5)||διάκονος, -ου, ὁ and ἡ: servant, deacon; ὅ τι: neut. from *ὅστις, #7.15|
|B22.||Οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν τὸ μάννα ἔφαγον ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ, καθώς ἐστιν γεγραμμένον, Ἄρτον ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς φαγεῖν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 6:31)||μάννα, τό (indecl.): manna; ἔφαγον: #7.63; γεγραμμένον: pf middlpass. ptc from *γράφω; with ἐστιν: it stands written; ἔ-δω-κ-εν 3sg aor³ in -κα (#E4.77), from *δίδωμι, φαγεῖν: aor² inf., #7.63|
|B23.||Ὅτι ἐγὼ ἐξ ἐμαυτοῦ οὐκ ἐλάλησα· ἀλλ’ ὁ πέμψας με πατήρ, αὐτός μοι ἐντολὴν ἔδωκεν, τί εἴπω καὶ τί λαλήσω. Καὶ οἶδα ὅτι ἡ ἐντολὴ αὐτοῦ ζωὴ αἰώνιός ἐστιν· ἃ οὖν λαλῶ ἐγώ, καθὼς εἴρηκέν μοι ὁ πατήρ, οὕτως λαλῶ. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 12:49-50)||ἐμαυτοῦ: #6.93; ὁ πέμψας: see L7/B20; ἔ-δω-κ-εν: 3sg aor³ of *δίδωμι; *οἶδα: #7.82; εἴρηκεν: #7.63|
|B24.||Καὶ ὤφθη αὐτοῖς Ἠλίας σὺν Μωσῇ, καὶ ἦσαν συλλαλοῦντες τῷ Ἰησοῦ. Καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Πέτρος λέγει τῷ Ἰησοῦ, Ῥαββί, καλόν ἐστιν ἡμᾶς ὧδε εἶναι· καὶ ποιήσωμεν σκηνὰς τρεῖς, σοὶ μίαν, καὶ Μωσῇ μίαν, καὶ Ἠλίᾳ μίαν. Οὐ γὰρ ᾔδει τί λαλήσει· ἦσαν γὰρ ἔκφοβοι. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 9:4-6)||ὤφθη: #7.63 [pass. means, (he) appeared]; συλλαλέω: converse, speak together; ἀποκριθείς masc nom sg pass ptc of *ἀποκρίνομαι (dep.), answer, respond; ᾔδει: #7.82; ἀποκριθῇ: 3sg aor. pass subjv; ἔκφοβος -ον: frightened, terrified|
SUPPLEMENTARY PASSAGES IN THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
|B25. JOHN 4:39-45||Do the translation of this passage from your Greek New Testament as an exercise in class, using your Grammatical Analysis.|
|B26. MATTHEW 18:3-5|
B27. MARK 10:10-16
B28. JOHN 1:6-13
|⎧ ⎨ ⎩||Translate these passages from your Greek New Testament, making the fullest use of your Grammatical Analysis.|
If Time permits, read a Commentary on the Greek text of Selections B25—B28.
PARTICIPLES AND PREPOSITIONS
8.1 THE PARADIGM OF THE PARTICIPLE
8.11 THE ENGLISH PARTICIPLE: The participle in English has only two forms, active and passive. Active: "lest coming unexpectedly he should find you sleeping" (Mark 13:36); passive: "in order to fulfil the word spoken by Isaiah the prophet" (Matthew 12:17); "my body given for you" (Luke 22:19). English can also construct more complex forms using auxiliary words: "having been promised of old", etc.
8.12 THE GREEK PARTICIPLE: A VERBAL ADJECTIVE: The participle is used very extensively in Greek, with a much wider range of function and meaning than it has in English. It is a verbal adjective, that is to say, it combines the features of both verb and adjective. The participle is a verb form — it is an alternative to a verb being in one of the other five modes: that is, a verb is either indicative, subjunctive, optative, imperative, infinitive, or a participle. As a verb, a participle has tense and voice, and it can govern nouns and pronouns after it in the oblique cases. And also: a participle can be used in all the same ways as an adjective. The participle has a verb stem. comprising the morphs to show tense and voice, and then to this tense-voice stem it adds a set of twenty-four numbercase endings, like an adjective, which indicate number, gender, and case. That is to say, participles (like adjectives, nouns, and pronouns) have declension endings: numbercase endings.
8.13 FOUR NECESSARY FORMS: It is only necessary to learn four forms for a given flexion of the participle in order to be able to recognize any form of that flexion. These four forms are the masculine, feminine and neuter nominative singular, and the masculine/neuter genitive singular.
8.14 SEVEN FLEXION PATTERNS: There are seven tense/voice patterns for the participle. which can be conveniently arranged in a grid according to their tense and voice. The four forms given under each heading are the masculine, feminine and neuter nominative singular, and masculine/neuter genitive singular respectively.
EIGHT: PARTICIPLES AND PREPOSITIONS 105
8.15 POINTS TO NOTE: When the participle forms for different voices and tenses are grouped together in this way, certain facts and relationships become clear:
(a) There are no separate forms or flexions for the second aorist. The second aorist participle active and middle has exactly the same endings as the present participle active and middle, these endings being added directly to the second aorist stem, with the neutral morph. Thus the four second aorist active participle forms for βάλλω are: βαλών, βαλοῦσα, βαλόν, βαλόντος (that is, with the same endings as λύων, etc.). Likewise, the middle: the four second aorist middle participle forms are: βαλόμενος, βαλομένη, βαλόμενον, βαλομένου. Furthermore, all the direct flexion aorist passive participles (#7.81) have exactly the same endings as the first aorist passive participle. These endings are added directly on to the aorist passive stem (that is, without the usual -θ- in the passive morph, so that the passive morph in these words is just -η- or -ε-). For example: The direct flexion aorist passive for κρύπτω [#C4.4] is ἐκρύβην, and thus the direct flexion aorist passive participle forms are: κρυβείς, κρυβεῖσα, κρυβέν, κρυβέντος. These decline in accordance with the flexions of the aorist passive participle λυθείς (#8.14; #D5.17).
(b) There are three tense forms of the participle: present, aorist, and perfect; that is, one for each aspect: durative, punctiliar, and perfective. There also exists a rarely-used future participle, formed in the usual way by adding the future morph -σ- to the present forms (for these future participle forms, see #D5.18 and #D5.19.)
(c) The passive has a separate paradigm only for the aorist: the middle paradigm forms for present and perfect participle are used when passive meaning for these aspects is needed (#6.50).
(d) From the feminine nominative singular it is possible to know all seven other forms of a flexion of the feminine participle, because all feminine participles follow one or other of the three feminine First Declension paradigms [#3.11], according to the ending of their stem:
|Tense/voice:||flexion form||stem ends in||follows Paradigm|
|1.||Present Active||λύουσα||-σ-||D1.3, δόξα|
|2.||1st Aorist Active||λύσασα||-σ-||D1.3, δόξα|
|3.||Perfect Active||λελυκυῖα||ριε letter||D1.1, καρδιά|
|4.||Present Middle||λυομένη||consonant||D1.2, φωνή|
|5.||1st Aorist Middle||λυσαμένη||consonant||D1.2, φωνή|
|6.||Perfect Middle||λελυμένη||consonant||D1.2, φωνή|
|7.||Aorist Passive||λυθεῖσα||-σ-||D1.3, δόξα|
(e) All masculine and neuter participle flexions can be known from the nominative and genitive forms. All active masculine/neuter participles and the passive forms of the aorist are Third Declension and follow the Linguistic Modification rules of the Third Declension [#5.33-5.38]. The present active forms decline on the pattern of ἀρχων, ἀρχοντος (#5.44, Paradigm D3.18 — Third Declension stem in -ντ); and as we shall see, the others are similar overall, though they do have some differences. Their flexions can be found in Appendix D, #D5.1. All middle masculine/ neuter participles (including the present and perfect forms which are also used for the passive) are Second Declension, and exactly follow κύριος/ἔργον [#2.40]. From their genitive singulars we can see their specifier morphs:
|Tense/voice:||flexion form||stem ends in||follows Paradigm|
|2.||1st Aorist Active||λύσαντος||-ντ-||D5.12|
|4.||Present Middle||λυομένου||μεν||D2.1, D2.2|
|5.||1st Aorist Middle||λυσαμένου||μεν||D2.1, D2.2|
|6.||Perfect Middle||λελυμένου||μεν||D2.1, D2.2|
106 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
(f) NOTE the specifier morphs (Slot 8). There are three of these: -οτ- for the perfect active participle, and -ντ- for the other active participles (the aorist passive also has this same specifier, but its forms are switched to passive by the passive morph -θε-). Thirdly, -μεν-. All middle participles have the same final morphs (in the genitive singular this is -μενου), the difference of tense being shown by the stem. The -ου is the genitive singular numbercase ending (Slot 9). Thus it can be seen that is the specifier of the middle participle, and occupies Slot 8 (#6.35).
8.16 RECOGNIZING A PARTICIPLE: A knowledge of these features is all that you need in order to enable you, when you encounter a participle, to recognize its gender, case and number (and thus to see its grammatical function in the sentence), and also to identify its tense and voice, and the verb it comes from (and thus to see its meaning).
8.17 FULL FLEXIONS: When you do have a problem in deciphering a particular participle, you can use the full flexions of participle forms set out in Appendix D, #D5, to identify what form it is. Each participle that you come to in your Greek New Testament is explained in your Grammatical Analysis (Zerwick and Grosvenor, or Rienecker and Rogers) — you can check in this when you encounter a participle that is still troublesome.
8.18 THE NEGATIVE: The negative normally used with the participle is μή (and μήτε for "nor"). Thus:
|Lk 7:33 (L8/B5):||Ἐλήλυθεν γὰρ Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστὴς||μήτε ἄρτον ἐσθίων||μήτε οἶνον πίνων|
|For John the Baptist has come||not eating bread||nor drinking wine|
8.19 SIX WAYS OF USE: There are six main ways in which the participle is used in the Greek New Testament. These will now be explained and discussed.
8.2 THE PERIPHRASTIC PARTICIPLE
8.21 Most verbs in Greek are a single word, with the verb's morphs conveying all necessary grammatical information. However, a number of verbs in the New Testament consist of a part of the verb εἰμί, "to be" together with a participle, so that the verb comprises two words. Such a verb is known as a periphrastic verb, and εἰμί is called an auxiliary verb when it is a component of a periphrastic verb. Thus ἦν διδάσκων:
|Mk 1:22 (L5/B6):||ἦν ... διδάσκων||αὐτοὺς||ὡς||ἐξουσίαν ἔχων,||καὶ||οὐχ||ὡς||οἱ γραμματεῖς.|
|He was teaching||them||as||one having authority||and||not||as||the scribes.|
8.22 In the above example ἦν διδάσκων is a periphrastic imperfect, and is equivalent in meaning to ἐδίδασκεν; if there is any difference intended by an author between the two kinds of imperfect, it would be (as in this example) that the periphrastic verb further emphasizes the ongoing, continuous or repeated nature of the action described. Two other examples:
|Mk 9:4 (L7/1324):||Καὶ ὤφθη||αὐτοῖς||Ἠλίας σὺν Μωσῇ,||καὶ||ἦσαν συλλαλοῦντες τῷ Ἰησοῦ.|
|And there appeared||to them||Elijah with Moses,||and||they were conversing with Jesus.|
|Lk 24:13 (L9/B7):||δύο||ἐξ αὐτῶν||ἦσαν πορευόμενοι ...||εἰς κώμην ...|
|two||of them||were journeying||to a village ...|
In these sentences the periphrastic forms for "were conversing" and "were journeying" indicate not merely that these activities were occurring, but that they were continuing and indeed were still in progress when the next event in the narrative took place. NOTE that both the auxiliary verb and the participle agree with the number of the subject.
EIGHT: PARTICIPLES AND PREPOSITIONS 107
8.23 Periphrastic forms occur in the New Testament for the present, imperfect, future, perfect, pluperfect and future perfect tenses. An example of a perfect tense periphrastic verb:
|>Jn 6:31 (L7/B22):||ἐστιν γεγραμμένον,||Ἄρτον ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς||φαγεῖν|
|It has been written,||"He gave them bread out of heaven||to eat".|
8.24 Some periphrastic verbs are used because a single-word form of the tense would be difficult to pronounce, some because the author wished to indicate more forcefully the durative nature of the activity, and some (it would appear) simply as a stylistic preference of the author in a particular sentence.
8.25 Periphrastic verbs can be used for any voice, and will use either the active or middle/passive participle accordingly. Present and perfect periphrastic subjunctives also occur. 8.26 Translate a periphrastic tense by the equivalent English tense, using either the active participle ("-ing") or passive participle ("-en", "-ed") according to voice. Thus: ἦν γεγραμμένον [John 19:19] (pluperfect passive periphrastic tense), "it had been written", or perhaps simply, "it was written".
8.27 The periphrastic verb is further discussed in #10.6.
8.3 THE ADJECTIVAL USES OF THE PARTICIPLE
8.30 THREE ADJECTIVAL USES: The participle can be used in any of the ways in which an adjective functions. The next three uses of the participle are in ways which parallel those of adjectives: in attributive and predicative uses (compare the adjective, #7.5), and in place of a noun (the "substantival participle").
8.31 THE USE OF THE ATTRIBUTIVE PARTICIPLE: (a) The same as the attributive use of the adjective (see #7.51), to refer to or identify a noun by an attribute, as in "the rising sun", "a shining light", "the living word of God"; and the participle will agree with the noun it refers to in number, gender, and case. The attributive participle can be used in either the attributive intermediate position or the attributive post position:
(b) Examples in the attributive intermediate position (between article and noun):
|Mt 4:18 (L31B26):||Σίμωνα||τὸν λεγόμενον||Πέτρον|
|Mt 3:7 (L5/B17):||ἀπὸ||τῆς||μελλούσης||ὀργῆς|
(c) Alternatively, the attributive participle can be translated by means of an adjectival clause that is, one beginning with "who", "what", or "that", with the participle made a full verb). Thus :he above examples could be translated "the father who is living", "Simon who is called Peter", from the wrath that is coming". Similarly for the examples which follow.
(d) Examples in the attributive post position (after the article and noun, with the article repeated):
|Lk 9:35 (var.) (L2/B27):||Οὗτός||ἐστιν||ὁ υἱός μου ὁ ἐκλελεγμένος|
|This||is||my chosen son|
(This could be rendered, "my son, the chosen one", or, "my son whom I have chosen".)
|Rev 5:12 (L5/B19):||Ἄξιόν||ἐστιν||τὸ ἀρνίον||τὸ ἐσφαγμένον|
|Worthy||is||the lamb||that has been slain|
108 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
8.32 THE ATTRIBUTIVE PARTICIPLE GOVERNING A NOUN OR PRONOUN: The attributive participle (in either position) can govern a noun or pronoun in any oblique case — such a participle would take the same case after it as would the full verb. The word a participle governs can accompany it in the intermediate position. Example:
|Lk 7:9 (L8/B6):||καὶ||στραφεὶς||τῷ ἀκολουθοῦντι αὐτῷ ὄχλῳ||εἶπεν ...|
|and||turning||to the crowd following him,||he said ...|
The participle ἀκολουθοῦντι, is in the attributive intermediate position between τῷ and ὄχλῳ, and agreeing with them in number, gender, and case. In its turn ἀκολουθοῦντι is governing αὐτῷ in (as usual) the dative case, and its object αὐτῷ accompanies it in the attributive intermediate position. As usual, this attributive participle can be translated by an adjectival clause; thus this example could be rendered, "and turning to the crowd which was following him, he said ..."
8.33 THE ATTRIBUTIVE PARTICIPLE USED WITHOUT AN ARTICLE:
(a) The attributive participle can be used without an article when the person or thing referred to is not specific or not already known. Thus a noun which is not definite (and thus has no article) can have an attributive participle referring to it, and this can be either in the attributive inter-mediate or attributive post positions (though these positions will be less clear in the absence of the article). For example,
|Mt 13:24 (L4/B20):||Ὡμοιώθη ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν||ἀνθρώπῳ||σπείροντι||καλὸν||σπέρμα ...|
|the kingdom of the heavens may be compared||to a man||who sowed||good||seed ...|
(NOTICE that σπείροντι is dative, agreeing with ἀνθρώπῳ, to which it is referring.)
|1 Tim 5:18 (L7/B7):||Λέγει γὰρ ἡ γραφή,||Βοῦν ἀλοῶντα οὐ φιμώσεις·|
|for the Scripture says,||"You shall not muzzle an ox treading out the grain"|
|Rev 4:1 (L3/B22):||εἶδον,||καὶ||ἰδού,||θύρα||ἀνεῳγμένη ...|
|I looked,||and||behold||a door||standing open ...|
(perfect participle, meaning "having been opened and still remaining open")
(b) A related adjectival use is where the participle provides additional information about a noun or pronoun in a sentence; the participle will agree with this noun or pronoun in number, gender, and case. Examples:
|Mk 3:1 (L5/B2):||καὶ||ἦν||ἐκεῖ||ἄνθρωπος||ἐξηραμμένην ἔχων τὴν χεῖρα.|
|and||there was||there||a man||having a withered hand|
|Rev 11:12 (L8/B7):||Καὶ||ἤκουσα||φωνὴν μεγάλην||ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ,||λέγουσαν||αὐτοῖς ...|
|and||they heard||a loud voice||out of the heaven||saying||to them ...|
(c) Often this use can be translated by an adjectival clause beginning with "who", "which", or "that", together with the full form of the verb; thus, in these examples: "there was a man who had a withered hand"; "a loud voice which said to them ...". NOTE that λέγουσαν, "saying", refers to φωνήν, "voice", and therefore, in agreement with it, is feminine genitive singular. Further examples:
|Jn 6:19 (L8/B8):||θεωροῦσιν||τὸν Ἰησοῦν||περιπατοῦντα||ἐπὶ τῆς θαλάσσης|
|they are watching||Jesus||walking||upon the sea|
|Jn 11:17 (L8/B9):||ὁ Ἰησοῦς||εὗρεν||αὐτὸν||τέσσαρας ἡμέρας ἤδη ἔχοντα||ἐν τῷ μνημείῳ.|
|Jesus||found||him||already having [been] four days||in the tomb|
In this sentence ἔχοντα, "having", refers to and agrees with αὐτόν, "him".
EIGHT: PARTICIPLES AND PREPOSITIONS 109
8.34 THE SUBSTANTIVAL PARTICIPLE WITH THE ARTICLE:
(a) MEANING: When used with an article this use can be referred to as the articular participle. It is similar to the use of the adjective with an article to refer to a person/persons who can be described in a particular way, for example, "The poor you always have with you"; but the articular participle contains also the verbal idea of action: "The believing are saved by their faith", "The persevering will attain their goal". The articular participle can be used in any case, and the article and participle will agree in number, gender, and case. NOTE: Where the masculine article is used, the meaning of the active participle is "the man who [does the action of the verb]", or else "the person who ...", "the one who ...", without reference to whether male or female. If the feminine article is used, it means "the woman who ...". The article can be plural, "the ones who ..."; the feminine plural article means "the women who . ..". Similarly the neuter singular or plural has the meaning "the thing/things which . ..".
|Jn 1:33 (L7/B20):||οὗτός||ἐστιν||ὁ βαπτίζων||ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ|
|This||is||the one who baptizes||with the Holy Spirit|
The articular participle can occur in the attributive post position after a noun, like an adjective [#7.51(b)], in which case it is usually sufficient to translate it "who [does the action of the verb]":
|Jn 1:18 (L8/B26):||ὁ μονογενὴς||υἱός,||ὁ ὢν||εἰς τὸν κόλπον||τοῦ πατρός|
|the only-begotten||Son||who is||in the bosom||of the Father|
NOTE: ὤν, masculine nominative singular present participle of εἰμί (#6.42), is to be distinguished from ὧν, the genitive plural of the relative pronoun (#4.13), by the breathing and accent. NOTE ALSO the similar distinction between ὄν, the neuter nominative singular present participle of εἰμί (#6.42), and ὅν, the masculine accusative singular of the relative pronoun (#4.13).
(b) WITH ADJECTIVES: The articular participle can have adjectives referring to it, as gc'evTeg in this example:
|Acts 2:44:||Πάντες δὲ||οἱ πιστεύοντες ...|
|and all||the believing ones ...||(that is, all the believers)|
(c) ARTICLE WITH TWO PARTICIPLES: The one article can apply to two participles, where they both describe the one person (or thing). That is, two participles can be articular to the same article.
|Rev 22:8 (L8/B10):||Κἀγὼ||Ἰωάννης||ὁ ἀκούων καὶ βλέπων||ταῦτα.|
|And I,||John, [am]||the one who hears and who sees||these things.|
Two such participles which are articular after the same article can even be in different clauses:
|Rev 3:7 (L8/B11):||ὁ ἀνοίγων||καὶ||οὐδεὶς||κλείσει||αὐτήν,||εἰ μὴ||ὁ ἀνοίγων·||καὶ||οὐδεὶς||ἀνοίξει|
|the one who opens||and||no-one||will shut||it,||except||the one who opens||and||no-one||will open|
(d) GOVERNING A NOUN OR PRONOUN: The articular participle can govern a noun or pronoun in any oblique case — such a participle would take the same case after it as would the full verb.
|Jn 1:33 (L7/B20):||ὁ πέμψας||με||βαπτίζειν||ἐν ὕδατι ...||εἶπεν|
|the one who sent||me||to baptize||with water ...||said|
|Mt 13:37 (L2/B26):||Ὁ σπείρων||τὸ||καλὸν||σπέρμα|
|the one who sows||the||good||seed|
|Rev 3:7 (L8/B11):||ὁ ἔχων||τὴν||κλεῖν||τοῦ Δαυίδ|
|the one who has||the||key||of David|
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(e) TENSE: The articular participle can be present, aorist, or perfect tense. When present tense, it has durative meaning, "the one who does (or continues to do) the action of the verb, or who at that point of time is engaged in doing that action". Thus:
|Mt 26:48 (L8/B12):||Ὁ δὲ παραδιδοὺς||αὐτὸν||ἔδωκεν||αὐτοῖς||σημεῖον|
|And the one who was (at that moment engaged in) betraying||him||had given||them||a sign|
When aorist, it has punctiliar meaning, "the one who had done the action of the verb prior to that point of time". Thus:
|Jn 1:33 (L7/B20):||ὁ πέμψας||με||βαπτίζειν||ἐν ὕδατι, ...||εἶπεν|
|the one who sent||me||to baptize||with water ...||said|
When perfect, it refers to some action that has taken place which is viewed as having ongoing consequences at the point of speaking or writing. Thus, perfect participle from συμβαίνω, "happen":
|Lk 24:14 (L9/B7):||αὐτοὶ ὡμίλουν||πρὸς ἀλλήλους||περὶ πάντων τῶν συμβεβηκότων τούτων.|
|they were conversing||with one another||about all these things which had happened|
(f) VOICE: The articular participle can be any voice. In translating, it is important to bear in mind that the present middle and perfect middle participle forms can be either middle or passive in meaning, as the same form does duty for both voices — see #8.15(c).
Thus, for the present participle,
|ὁ λύων||will be:||the one who looses (active);|
|while||ὁ λυόμενος||can be either:||the one who looses for himself (middle)|
|or else:||the one who is being loosed (passive).|
The similar dual possibility of middle or passive exists with the perfect participle. The context will be the guide, to indicate which is the intended meaning.
In the aorist, on the other hand, there are separate forms for middle and passive:
|ὁ λύσας||will be:||the one who loosed (active)|
|ὁ λυσάμενος||will be:||the one who loosed for himself (middle);|
|ὁ λυθείς||will be:||the one who was loosed (passive).|
Participles of deponent verbs will have an active meaning though they have a middle or passive form. Thus ἀποκριθείς means "answering", not "answered".
The article plus passive participle means, "the one/the thing who/which [has the action of the verb done to him/her/it]".
In this example the neuter passive participle from root ῥε-, "speak" (suppletive with λέγω), is used, meaning "the thing spoken" (that is, "what was spoken"):
|Mt 12:17 (L4/B19):||ὅπως||πληρωθῇ||τὸ ῥηθὲν||διὰ Ἠσαΐου τοῦ προφήτου||-|
|in order that||-||the thing spoken||through Isaiah the prophet||would be fulfilled|
|that is, what was spoken|
8.35 THE SUBSTANTIVAL PARTICIPLE WITHOUT THE ARTICLE: The substantival participle can be used without an article when the person referred to is not specific or not already known, with the meaning "someone who ..."
|Mk 1:22 (L5/B6):||ἦν ... διδάσκων αὐτοὺς||ὡς||ἐξουσίαν ἔχων,||καὶ||οὐχ||ὡς||οἱ γραμματεῖς.|
|He was teaching them||as||someone who had authority,||and||not||like||the scribes.|
8.36 IN OTHER CASES: Almost all the examples so far have had the substantival participle in the nominative case. However, it can be either singular or plural, and any gender and case, with or without the article. For example:
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|Mt 19:21:||πώλησόν||σου τὰ ὑπάρχοντα|
Note: τὰ ὑπάρχοντα is neuter accusative plural.
|Mt 5:46 (L8/B23):||Ἐὰν γὰρ||ἀγαπήσητε||τοὺς ἀγαπῶντας||ὑμᾶς,||τίνα||μισθὸν||ἔχετε;|
|for if||you love||the ones who love||you,||what||reward||do you have?|
|Jn 9:4 (L10/B5):||Ἐμὲ δεῖ||ἐργάζεσθαι||τὰ ἔργα||τοῦ πέμψαντός με||ἕως ἡμέρα ἐστίν|
|I must||perform||the works||of the one who sent me||while it is day|
|Lk 14:15 (L8/B14):||τις||τῶν συνανακειμένων|
|one||of those sitting at table with him|
|Jn 1:23 (L3/B30):||Ἐγὼ||φωνὴ||βοῶντος||ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ ...|
|I (am)||a voice||of one crying||in the desert ...|
|Mt 22:32 (L2/B20):||Οὐκ ἔστιν ὁ θεὸς||θεὸς||νεκρῶν,||ἀλλὰ||ζώντων.|
|God is not||a god||of dead ones||but||of living ones|
(Here, νεκρῶν is an adjective being used as a noun, and ζώντων is a participle being used as a noun, "those who are living"; no article, because it is speaking in general, and not of specific, known, "living ones".)
8.37 THE PREDICATIVE PARTICIPLE: The same as the predicative use of the adjective (see #7.53), as complement, to complete the thought of the main verb by making an additional assertion about its subject. Like the predicative adjective, the predicative participle is always nominative, and will never be preceded by an article. Examples of the predicative participle:
|Gal 1:22:||Ἤμην δὲ||ἀγνοούμενος||τῷ προσώπῳ||ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις|
|But I was||unknown||by face||to the churches|
|Acts 5:25:||Ἰδού,||οἱ ἄνδρες||...||εἰσὶν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ ἑστῶτες||καὶ||διδάσκοντες||τὸν λαόν.|
|Behold,||the men||...||are standing in the temple||and||teaching||the people.|
|Rev 1:18:||ἐγενόμην||νεκρός,||καὶ||ἰδού,||ζῶν εἰμὶ||εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων.|
|I was||dead||and||behold||I am living||for ever and ever.|
|he was||casting out||a demon|
8.38 In these examples the verb is the verb "to be", and the participle has adjectival force, describing what the subject is doing in each case. This type of use shades off into the periphrastic use of the participle (see above, #8.2) so that some occurrences would be classified differently by different scholars. For example, this could be described either as a predicative participle or a periphrastic participle
|Lk 1:10:||Καὶ πᾶν τὸ πλῆθος||ἦν τοῦ λαοῦ||προσευχόμενον||ἔξω|
|And all the multitude||of the people was||praying||outside|
8.39 Some grammarians would restrict the predicative participle to its occurrence after εἰμί; others recognize that it does occur (though not very often) after some other verbs, as for example:
|Mt 11:1:||ἐτέλεσεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς||διατάσσων ...|
|Jesus finished||commanding ...|
|Acts 5:42:||οὐκ ἐπαύοντο||διδάσκοντες ...|
|they did not cease||teaching ...|
Translation: usually by the equivalent English participle form (as above). Notice that this use of the participle cannot be translated by an adjectival clause, "who" or "which" and a full verb: one cannot substitute "who prayed", "who commanded", "who taught" for "praying", "commanding", "teaching", in the above sentences (in #8.38 and #8.39).
112 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
8.4 THE ADVERBIAL USE OF THE PARTICIPLE
8.41 ADVERBIAL OR CIRCUMSTANTIAL PARTICIPLE: In this fifth use, the participle still refers to, and agrees in number, gender, and case with, a noun or pronoun, but has an adverbial function as well, adding some further detail of time, place or other circumstance to what is being said. (For this reason this adverbial use of the participle is sometimes referred to as the "circumstantial participle".) Often it can simply be translated by the English participle, "-ing" if active, or "-en" or "-ed" if passive. However, additional shades of meaning indicated in the Greek participle form will very frequently require a fuller English rendering to bring them out.
8.42 ADVERBIAL SUB-CATEGORIES: Some grammarians classify the adverbial use of the participle into various sub-categories ("the temporal participle", "the telic participle", "the causal participle", and so on); but Robertson's comment [p.383] is valid: "Varieties of the Circumstantial Participle: In fact there are no varieties, but the loose way in which the participle is added allows much liberty in the resultant idea. The participle does not mean time, manner, purpose, or anything of the kind. The context alone can indicate those shades of resultant meaning."
8.43 THE TENSES OF THE PARTICIPLE: ASPECT, NOT TIME: The difference in meaning between the tenses of the participle is important. But this meaning has nothing directly to do with time: the participle itself is timeless — it has no inherent time value. NOTE PARTICULARLY that the participle itself does not and cannot indicate past time — so the aorist participle does not have the augment. Often the participle will need to be translated in a way that indicates time: but the time element for any given participle is taken from the time factor of the main verb in conjunction with the aspect of the participle. The difference between the participles is one of aspect: what kind of action is in view. The aspect of the adverbial participle is particularly significant. There are occasional exceptions, but as a generalization which holds good most of the time we should note the following general guidelines for the meaning of the tenses of the participle:
8.44 THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE, SIMULTANEOUS ACTION:
(a) Durative aspect is used for ongoing or continuing action. The present participle, being durative, thus indicates "continuing action", that is, action taking place at the same time as the action of the main verb: so, translate the present participle when adverbial by an adverbial clause introduced by "while" or "as", plus the full verb form. Example:
|Mt 4:18 (L3/B26):||Περιπατῶν δὲ||παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν τῆς Γαλιλαίας||εἶδεν ...|
|And as he was walking||beside the Sea of Galilee,||he saw ...|
This could be translated simply as, "And walking beside the Sea", etc.: but this would not indicate the details of number, gender, and aspect which are conveyed by περιπατῶν, so the fuller translation is more accurate for bringing out what the Greek is saying. Note that as the aspect of the participle is durative, the action of the participle is simultaneous with the main verb: it was during the time that he was walking beside the sea that he saw; therefore translate with "while" or "as". Note, further, that the adverbial participle takes its time frame from the main verb. Here, this is εἶδεν, "he saw", which is past time; therefore the participle will be translated as past time. But as the participle is durative, it must be translated by the durative past time tense, which is the English past continuous. Thus the translation is, "as [or, while] he was walking beside the Sea".
(b) A participle may occur after the main verb. Examples:
|Jn 1:32 (L7/B20):||Τεθέαμαι||τὸ πνεῦμα||καταβαῖνον||ὡσεὶ περιστερὰν||ἐξ οὐρανοῦ|
|I have observed||the Spirit||coming down||like a dove||out of heaven|
It is possible to translate here, "the Spirit as he was coming down", that is, with "as" and a full verb; but in this sentence the English participle is completely acceptable as it stands.
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|Mt 26:48 (L8/B12):||ἔδωκεν||αὐτοῖς||σημεῖον,||λέγων ...|
|he gave||them||a sign,||saying ...|
Here, λέγων, "saying", is durative because the saying was simultaneous with the giving of the sign (in fact, what he said was describing the sign to them).
|Lk 23:35 (L8/B15):||Καὶ||εἱστήκει ὁ λαὸς||θεωρῶν.|
|And||the people stood||watching.|
An alternative translation for this (and many other kinds of) adverbial participle is with "and" and a full verb, thus: "And the people stood and watched." Note that the durative participle θεωρῶν is used because the action of watching was simultaneous with the act of standing.
|Mk 1:39 (L4/B5):||Καὶ||ἦν||κηρύσσων ...||εἰς ὅλην τὴν Γαλιλαίαν,||καὶ||τὰ δαιμόνια ἐκβάλλων|
|and||he was||preaching ...||throughout the whole of Galilee||and||driving out the demons|
The participles are present (durative) because the "preaching" and "driving out" of the demons was simultaneous with the "going": it was what he did as he "went". Again, it is possible to translate these participles by "and" and a full verb: "And he went and preached ... and drove out demons."
(d) The present participle can be used after any tense, indicating simultaneous action with the main verb. After a perfect:
|Lk 7:34 (L8/B5):||ἐλήλυθεν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου||ἐσθίων καὶ πίνων|
|The Son of Man has come||eating and drinking|
After a future:
|Mt 24:5 (L8/B16):||Πολλοὶ γὰρ||ἐλεύσονται||ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματί μου,||λέγοντες ...|
|for many||will come||in my name,||saying ...|
(that is, many will come in my name and will say ...)
8.45 PRESENT PARTICIPLE WITH AN IMPERATIVE: The main verb with a present participle can be imperative mode. Thus:
|Mt 10:12 (L8/B17):||Εἰσερχόμενοι δὲ εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν,||ἀσπάσασθε αὐτήν.|
|And as you enter the household,||greet it.|
The participle εἰσερχόμενοι is durative, indicating that its action is to be simultaneous with that of the main verb, the imperative ἀσπάσασθε, "greet"; therefore translate it, "as you enter".
8.46 THE AORIST PARTICIPLE, PRIOR ACTION: (a) Punctiliar aspect is used for once-only or completed action. The aorist participle, being punctiliar, thus indicates completed action, action which has already taken place; that is, punctiliar aspect is used when the time of the action of the participle is prior to the action of the main verb: ,o translate the adverbial aorist participle by an adverbial clause introduced by "when" or "after".
|Mt 3:7 (L5/B17):||Ἰδὼν δὲ||πολλοὺς||τῶν Φαρισαίων||καὶ||Σαδδουκαίων||ἐρχομένους||ἐπὶ||τὸ βάπτισμα αὐτοῦ,||εἶπεν||αὐτοῖς ...|
|and when he saw||many||of the Pharisees||and||Sadducees||coming||to||his baptism||he said||to them ...|
It was after John noticed the Pharisees and Sadducees coming — and as a result of seeing them that he spoke to them. Similarly:
114 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
|Lk 7:9 (L8/B6):||Ἀκούσας δὲ||ταῦτα||ὁ Ἰησοῦς||ἐθαύμασεν||αὐτόν|
|and hearing||these things,||Jesus||marvelled at||him|
(and when he heard these things, Jesus marvelled at him)
(b) Sometimes the sequence of events indicated by an aorist participle and a main verb can best be expressed in English by two main verbs joined by "and". For example:
|Mt 13:27 (L4/B20):||Προσελθόντες δὲ||οἱ δοῦλοι||τοῦ οἰκοδεσπότου||εἶπον||αὐτῷ,||Κύριε ...|
|And approaching him,||the slaves||of the master||said||to him,||"Lord ..."|
προσελθόντες, "approaching", is aorist, so it indicates priority to the main verb "said" in the sequence of events: first they approached him, and then they said. This can be translated, "The slaves of the master approached him and said." Similarly:
|Mt 16:4 (L8/B18):||Καὶ||καταλιπὼν||αὐτούς,||ἀπῆλθεν.|
|and||leaving||them,||he went away|
(and he left them, and went away)
8.47 AORIST PARTICIPLE WITH AN IMPERATIVE: The main verb with an aorist participle can be imperative mode. The participle with an imperative will usually itself have imperatival force, and in this construction the participle is often best translated by a parallel imperative, with "and". Thus:
|Mt 11:4 (L6/B7):||Πορευθέντες||ἀπαγγείλατε||Ἰωάννῃ||ἃ||ἀκούετε ...|
|Go and||report||to John||what||you hear ...|
Again (as usual) the aorist participle indicates priority in a sequence of events, but it has imperatival force because the main verb is imperative. Thus the meaning of the aorist participle here is: first, go to John, and then, report to John what you hear.
|Eph 4:25 (L8/B19):||Διὸ||ἀποθέμενοι||τὸ ψεῦδος||λαλεῖτε||ἀλήθειαν|
|Therefore||putting away lying,||speak||the truth|
Bringing out the imperatival sense: Therefore put away lying and speak the truth The use of the punctiliar aspect indicates that this "putting away" is to be a turning away from lying which is to be done once and for all, permanently.
8.48 SERIES OF PARTICIPLES:
(a) A series of aorist participles can be used to indicate a sequence of events leading up to the main verb.
|Mk 1:26 (L5/B6):||Καὶ σπαράξαν αὐτὸν||τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἀκάθαρτον||καὶ||κράξαν φωνῇ μεγάλῃ,||-||ἐξῆλθεν ἐξ αὐτοῦ.|
|And throwing him into convulsions||-||and||crying out with a loud voice,||the unclean spirit||came out of him.|
The aorist participles σπαράξαν and κράξαν indicate the sequence of events leading up to the main verb ἐξῆλθεν: first the unclean spirit threw the man into convulsions, and then it cried out with a loud voice, and finally it came out of him.
(b) Such a sequence of participles can include participles of different aspects, each with the inherent meaning of its aspect. Notice this impressive example, which includes both present and aorist participles (the participles are underlined):
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|Mk 5:25-27:||Καὶ γυνή τις οὖσα ἐν ῥύσει αἵματος ἔτη δώδεκα, καὶ πολλὰ παθοῦσα ὑπὸ πολλῶν ἰατρῶν, καὶ δαπανήσασα τὰ παρ’ αὐτῆς πάντα, καὶ μηδὲν ὠφεληθεῖσα, ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον εἰς τὸ χεῖρον ἐλθοῦσα, ἀκούσασα περὶ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ, ἐλθοῦσα ἐν τῷ ὄχλῳ ὄπισθεν, ἥψατο τοῦ ἱματίου αὐτοῦ·|
Note how Mark uses a series of participles to relate the whole sequence of events which led up to the time when the woman touched Jesus's clothing. He uses the present participle for what was still the case at the point in time when she touched (aorist) his clothes, and aorist participles for each of the events, in sequence, which had preceded that action. The standard English translations break this passage up into two or three sentences, but Mark is piling up the participles to lead up to the climactic moment when this women stretched out her hand to Jesus. We shall best see the force of this if we translate the participles by adjectival clauses with "who", or adverbial clauses:
"And there was a woman who had been [present participle — this was still the case at the point of time being described] hemorrhaging for twelve years, and who had suffered [aorist participle — this was something that happened prior to the main verb] a great deal under many physicians and who had spent [aorist participle] all that she had, and was no better [aorist participle] but rather grew worse [aorist participle], who, after she heard [aorist participle] about Jesus, came up [aorist participle] behind him in the crowd and touched [main verb, aorist indicative: the climax of this part of the narrative] his clothing."
(c) One special aorist expression needs a comment: the frequent use in the New Testament of the aorist participle ἀποκριθείς, "answering", followed by a main verb of speaking. The best translation of this common construction is usually as two main verbs joined by "and". Thus:
|Mt 17:4 (L8/B20):||Ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ Πέτρος||εἶπεν||τῷ Ἰησοῦ ...|
|and Peter answered and||said||to Jesus ...|
Clearly here the aorist does not mean sequence: that first he answered and then he said. This is an idiomatic expression, probably influenced by Hebrew/Aramaic parallels. Numerous commentators call it a redundancy: that is, the two verbs, "answering" and "speaking", mean the same thing. However, the essence of the meaning of ἀποκρίνομαι (a deponent verb) is that it indicates a direct response to the situation at the time; "and said" then specifies that this response (which could have taken any form) in fact consisted of saying something. Thus "answering" shows the relationship: what is said is the person's response to the situation. This can be most clearly seen in the scene on the Mount of Transfiguration. Moses, Elijah and Jesus are conversing together, and no-one is talking to Peter. But we are told, "Peter answered and said ..." In fact, ἀποκριθείς shows that what Peter went on to say was his response to what he was observing. Translate this idiom by "answered and" or "in response":
|Mk 9:5 (L7/B24):||καὶ||ἀποκριθεὶς||ὁ Πέτρος||λέγει||τῷ Ἰησοῦ,||Ῥαββί ...|
|And||in response||Peter||said||to Jesus,||"Rabbi .. ."|
The main verb of speaking is usually in the past, but may be in the present (frequent in Mark) or the future:
|Mt 25:40:||καὶ||ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ βασιλεὺς||ἐρεῖ||αὐτοῖς|
|and||the king will answer and||will say||to them ...|
8.49 THE PERFECT PARTICIPLE: The perfect participle shows (as in other modes) that an action has taken place which has ongoing consequences, right up to the time of the main action, and therefore the perfect participle needs to be translated in some way that indicates this.
|Rev 4:1 (L3/B22):||εἶδον,||καὶ||ἰδού,||θύρα||ἀνεῳγμένη ...|
|I looked,||and||behold||a door||standing open ...|
The perfect participle means "having been opened and still remaining open". The door had been opened before John looked, and was still standing open when he looked.
116 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
As we have seen, some constructions allow the force of the perfect to be brought out by mean` of an adjectival clause:
|Lk 9:35 (L2/B27):||Οὗτός||ἐστιν||ὁ υἱός μου||ὁ ἐκλελεγμένος|
|This||is||my son||whom I have chosen|
|Rev 5:12 (L5/B19):||Ἄξιόν||ἐστιν||τὸ ἀρνίον||τὸ ἐσφαγμένον|
|Worthy||is||the lamb||that has been slain|
Note the present and two perfect participles in the following passage, all agreeing with πόλιν (to which they refer) in number, gender, and case:
|Rev 21:2 (L7/B3):||Καὶ||-||τὴν πόλιν τὴν ἁγίαν,||Ἱερουσαλὴμ καινήν,||εἶδον||καταβαίνουσαν||ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ||ἀπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ,||ἡτοιμασμένην||ὡς νύμφην||κεκοσμημένην||τῷ ἀνδρὶ αὐτῆς.|
|And||I saw||the Holy City,||the New Jerusalem,||-||coming down||out of the heaven||from God,||having been prepared||like a bride||having been adorned||for her husband|
8.5 THE GENITIVE ABSOLUTE
8.51 The genitive absolute, the sixth use of the participle, and the one furthest from any parallel in English, is a construction which uses both a participle and a noun (or pronoun) to add further information to a sentence. The participle and noun/pronoun are both placed in the genitive case. In this construction, the noun/pronoun is the subject, and will be translated as such; the participle will be translated as a full verb, taking its grammatical details from its aspect, the noun (or pronoun) which is also part of the construction, and from the main verb of the clause or sentence. If the participle is durative, this indicates simultaneous action with the main verb; if it is punctiliar, it indicates action completed prior to the action of the main verb, and these participles are translated in the same way as Adverbial Participles (#8.44, #8.46). Thus:
|>Mt 26:47 (L8/B12):||Καὶ||ἔτι αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος,||ἰδού,||Ἰούδας||εἷς τῶν δώδεκα||ἦλθεν ...|
|And||while he was still speaking,||behold||Judas,||one of the Twelve,||came ...|
The genitive case of αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος, because it is not put into this case by any preposition or verb, or after any noun, points to a genitive absolute. The adverb ἔτι, "still", is part of the construction in this example. The pronoun αὐτοῦ is the subject, so translate it as "he". The main verb, ἦλθεν, is past time, so the participle will also need to be translated as past time. The participle λαλοῦντος (from λαλέω, "speak, converse") is present tense, and thus durative aspect, so we need to begin the translation with "while" or "as". The combination of past time and durative aspect requires that we translate as past durative, "was speaking". Add the adverb hi, "still", and put this all together, and we arrive at: "while he was still speaking".
|Mt 17:22 (L9/B15):||Ἀναστρεφομένων δὲ αὐτῶν||ἐν τῇ Γαλιλαίᾳ,||εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς ...|
|And while they were gathered together||in Galilee,||Jesus said to them ...|
Once again, this Selection contains a present participle (middle form, with passive meaning), followed by the main verb in the past. Applying the procedure from the first example, above, can you see how the translation is reached?
|Mk 6:2 (L6/B11):||Καὶ||γενομένου σαββάτου,||ἤρξατο ... διδάσκειν ...|
|and||when the Sabbath came,||he began ... to teach ...|
In this example, the participle γενομένου is aorist, indicating action completed prior to the action of the main verb, ἤρξατο. That is, the Sabbath had come before he began to teach. Again, the noun in the genitive is the subject, and the participle (being punctiliar) is to be translated by "when" or "after".
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8.6 THE INS AND OUTS OF PREPOSITIONS
8.61 Originally, in the history of the Greek language, the case of the noun was the means of expressing all the relationships within a sentence. As the language developed, a number of adverbs were placed in front of nouns of various cases, to make possible greater precision in stating relationships. This usage became fixed, and the adverbs that were used in this way were called "prepositions" (that is, in the "pre-position", from the Latin praeponere, "to place before").
8.62 Then, as the language evolved further from "Classical Greek" to "Hellenistic Greek" (the koinē Greek of the New Testament), three particular developments can be noted:
(a) The increasing use of prepositions, upon which (rather than upon case itself) now rests the major responsibility of expressing relationships clearly, with case functions beginning to be transferred to prepositions. For example, "say to ..." is often found in the Greek New Testament with πρός plus the accusative used for "to", instead of the dative case being used. EXAMPLE:
|Jn 11:21 (L81B9):||Εἶπεν οὖν Μάρθα||πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν,||Κύριε ...|
|Martha then said||to Jesus,||"Lord ..."|
(b) The decrease in the number of cases with which some prepositions would be used: there is tendency towards using a preposition with only one or, at most, two, cases. FOR EXAMPLE: πρός used to govern all three oblique cases, but in the New Testament it is used almost entirely with the accusative; only once (Acts 27:34) with the genitive, and seven times with the dative (Mk 5:11; Lk 19:37; Jn 18:16, 20:11, 12 [twice]; Rev 1:13).(c) Greek speakers felt free to press additional adverbs into service as prepositions when they wanted them (for example, ἐγγύς, "near, nearby", is used as a preposition governing the genitive, as in "near the town").
8.63 Several prepositions in New Testament Greek can be used with two or with all three of the oblique cases: it is helpful to remember that strictly speaking it is the case of the noun which indicates the meaning of the preposition, and not the other way round (though it is still convenient to speak of a preposition governing a noun in the accusative case, etc.).
8.7 THE CASES, MEANINGS, AND FREQUENCIES OF THE PREPOSITIONS
8.71 PREPOSITIONS GOVERNING ALL THREE OBLIQUE CASES
1. ἐπί (878 occurrences — 4th in frequency in the New Testament)
(a) With Accusative (50% of use): across, to, against, on, upon, with, for
(b) With Genitive (25%): upon, over, at/in the time of, before
(c) With Dative (25%): at, by, on, upon, on the basis of
2. παρά (191 — 12th in New Testament frequency) Basic meaning: beside. This is then influenced by each case:
(a) With Accusative (60 times): motion to beside, alongside, near
(b) With Genitive (79 times): motion from the side of, away from
(c) With Dative (52 times): rest at, alongside, in the presence of
3. πρός (696 — 5th in New Testament frequency)
(a) With Accusative (689 times): to, towards, for, with, against
(b) With Genitive [1 only: #8.62(b)]: for, to the advantage of
(c) With Dative [7 times: #8.62(b)]: nearby, at, beside, on
(For practical purposes, πρός can virtually be regarded as a preposition governing one case.)
118 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
8.72 PREPOSITIONS GOVERNING THE ACCUSATIVE AND GENITIVE CASES
4. διά (666 - 6th in New Testament frequency)
(a) With Accusative (280 times): because of, on account of
(b) With Genitive (386 times): through (of place, and of agent)
5. κατά (471 - 8th in New Testament frequency)
(a) With Accusative (398 times): according to (throughout, during)
(b) With Genitive (73 times): against, down from
6. μετά (467 - 9th in New Testament frequency)
(a) With Accusative (103 times): after (of time)
(b) With Genitive (364 times): with, together with, in company with
7. περί (331 - 10th in New Testament frequency)
(a) With Accusative (less common): about, around (of place and time)
(b) With Genitive (extremely common): about, concerning
8. ὑπό (217 - llth in New Testament frequency)
(a) With Accusative (50 times): under, underneath, below
(b) With Genitive (167 times): by (personal agent), at the hands of
9. ὑπέρ (149 - 13th in New Testament frequency)
(a) With Accusative (19 times): over and above, beyond, more than
(b) With Genitive (130 times): on behalf of, for the sake of
8.73 PREPOSITIONS GOVERNING THE ACCUSATIVE CASE ONLY
10. εἰς (1753 - 2nd in New Testament frequency): into (to), for (with a view to)
11. ἀνά (13 - 17th in New Testament frequency): up; to each one; between; one at a time
8.74 PREPOSITIONS GOVERNING THE GENITIVE CASE ONLY
12. ἐκ (915 - 3rd in N.T. frequency): out, out of, from within (from), belonging to, member of
13. ἀπό (645 - 7th in N.T. frequency): from, away from
14. πρό (47 - 15th in N.T. frequency): before, prior to (usually of time)
15. ἀντί (22 - 16th in N.T. frequency): instead of, in place of, because
16. ἀμφί (-) Not in N.T. as a separate word, but in compounds: about, on both sides
8.75 PREPOSITIONS GOVERNING THE DATIVE CASE ONLY
17. ἐν (2713 - 1st in N.T. frequency): in, within, among, by means of, with (instrumental)
18. σύν (127 - 14th in N.T. frequency): with, together with, in company with (means the same as μετά with the genitive)
All the above eighteen prepositions can be prefixed to a verb, in the Preposition slot (Slot 1) (#E4.11). Two of these prepositions can be prefixed together to a word, as in συνανάκειμαι (see L8/B 14).
8.76 ADVERBS USED AS PREPOSITIONS (GOVERNING THE GENITIVE)
1. ἐνώπιον (93 times): in front of, in the presence of, before
2. ἔξω (62 times): outside, out of
3. ἔμπροσθεν (48 times): in front of, in the presence of, before
4. χωρίς (41 times): without, apart from
5. ὀπίσω (35 times): after, behind
6. ἐγγύς (31 times, 10 as preposition): near, close to
8.77 CONJUNCTIONS USED AS PREPOSITIONS (GOVERNING THE GENITIVE)
1. ἕως (145 times): up to, until, as far as
2. ἄχρι (48 times): up to, until, as far as
3. μέχρι (20 times): up to, until, as far as
EIGHT: PARTICIPLES AND PREPOSITIONS 119
8.78 OTHER PREPOSITIONS: There are a dozen or so other words (mostly adverbs) which are used a small number of times each in the New Testament as prepositions, almost always taking the genitive case. These can be noted when encountered.
8.79 CHANGES BEFORE VOWELS When a preposition that ends in a vowel (other than περί or πρό) occurs before a word commencing with a vowel or is prefixed to a verb commencing with a vowel, the final vowel of that preposition elides, and if the final consonant of that preposition is a stop consonant, it will aspirate in front of a following rough breathing (in a compound verb, it will absorb the rough breathing). Where the preposition is a separate word, the elision is marked by an apostrophe, but there is no mark for an elision of a preposition that is part of a compound verb. Thus:
|when a separate preposition||in a compound verb|
NOTE that the form of the preposition in a compound is determined according to these rules for each individual form of the verb. Thus ἀπό + ἵστημι becomes ἀφίστημι (Lk 8:13), and in the aorist of this verb ἀπό + ἔστην becomes ἀπέστην (Luke 4:13); and when in this verb ἀπό is followed by an aorist form other than the indicative (that is, a form which does not begin with a vowel), the elided -ο- will reappear: ἀποστῇ (subjunctive, 2 Corinthians 12:8); ἀπόστητε (imperative, Luke 13:27); ἀποστῆναι (infinitive, Hebrews 3:12); ἀποστάς (participle, Acts 19:9).
8.8 INTERRELATIONSHIPS AND USAGES OF THE PREPOSITIONS
8.81 INTERRELATIONSHIPS: These may be illustrated diagrammatically, thus:
120 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
8.82 INSTRUMENT, AGENT, AND INTERMEDIARY:
|By (= by means of — instrumental)||is dative alone or ἐν + dative|
|By (= the personal agent)||is ὑπό + genitive|
|By (= the intermediary)||is διά + genitive.|
|As: Mt 2:15 (L9/B11):||ἵνα||πληρωθῇ||τὸ ῥηθὲν||ὑπὸ τοῦ κυρίου||διὰ τοῦ προφήτου|
|in order to||fulfil||what was spoken||by the Lord||through the prophet|
8.83 TIME AND CASE:
|Length of (extent of) time||is expressed by the accusative case.|
|Time during which (something happened)||is expressed by the genitive case.|
|Point of time when or at which (something happened)||is expressed by the dative case.|
8.84 HELLENISTIC BLURRING OF DISTINCTIONS: These prepositions made a very precise meaning possible (see further, #A4.3). But in fact the distinction of the basic meaning of the cases (accusative: motion towards or around; genitive: motion through or away from; dative: rest at) was becoming blurred in Hellenistic times, with, in consequence, less precision in the use of some prepositions (for example, εἰς was sometimes used in the place of ἐν). Additionally, the distinction between πρός and εἰς, and (ἀπό and ἐκ respectively, was also less carefully observed in Hellenistic Greek and (in consequence) in some New Testament passages which reflect these Hellenistic blurrings.
8.85 NOTE that the preposition ἐξ "out of" (#8.79), is to be distinguished from ἕξ "six" (L8/B20) by the breathing and accent. NOTE ALSO the similar distinction between ἐκτός, "outside", and ἕκτος, "sixth". This is the twelfth occasion when we particularly need to note accents on words (often in conjunction with breathings). [The others were: #A1.37; #2.88; #3.37; #4.15; #4.94; #A4.23; #5.86; #5.88; #6.82; #7.24; and #8.34(a).]
8.86 Where Knowing Greek Makes a Difference: Matthew 22:37//Mark 12:30 reads (NRSV), "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind (, and with all your strength — [Mark only])". This indeed is what Matthew has, using the preposition ἐν plus dative (instrumental dative with ἐν). But (as we saw in L5/B15) Mark has: ἀγαπήσεις κύριον τὸν θεόν σου ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας σου, καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ψυχῆς σου, καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς διανοίας σου, καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ἰσχύος σου. Mark uses the preposition indicating "source or origin" — Mark's Gospel is saying that love for the Lord our God is to have its source or origin in, and flow out from, every part of our being: heart, soul, mind, and strength. While both ways of putting it are true, this is a richer and more meaningful way of expressing what Jesus is saying than loving God "with" our heart, etc., as with an instrument.
8.9 THE RECIPROCAL PRONOUN
8.91 The reciprocal pronoun means: "one another". In the nature of the case it has no nominative, and is only found in the plural.
8.92 There are no feminine or neuter forms in the New Testament, only the masculine forms, which are:
ASSIGNMENTS ON LESSON EIGHT
1. PARADIGM REVISION: There are no new paradigms to be learnt by heart this Lesson. REVISE the paradigms set for learning in Lessons One, Two, and Three.
EIGHT: PARTICIPLES AND PREPOSITIONS 121
2. LEARNING THE PREPOSITIONS: This is the Lesson when you should seek to understand and become quite at home with all the prepositions that are listed.
3. WORKBOOK: ANSWER THE QUESTIONS in your Workbook about this Lesson.
4. TRANSLATION EXERCISES A AND B: Do the English into Greek exercises, and then read and translate literally all the Selections from the Greek New Testament. Make sure that you continue the pattern of reading each Selection aloud before translating it, to help cultivate our "feel" for the Greek. NOTE: Most of the Selections introduce new vocabulary which is then used again in the Selections which follow. LEARN each unknown word as you use it.
5. VOCABULARY CARDS: Continue the practice of writing out Vocabulary Cards for the new words introduced in this Lesson, putting 8 (for "Lesson 8") in the top lefthand corner of each side of the Card. Make out the Card for each new word as you come to it in the Sentences below; you will need some words for several Sentences. When you are given a word form and what it comes from, put the word it comes from at the top of your Card, and the information about that word form lower on the Card. Add these Cards to your collection, and place them all in alphabetical order. When additional information is provided about a word which you have had in a previous Lesson, add that information to your existing Vocabulary Card for that word. (Don't forget to put on your Card the case(s) taken by each preposition.)
LEARN all of the prepositions in #8.7 which you do not already know, together with the case(s) they take and the meaning each preposition has with each case. You will need to use them to do the Sentences which follow.
A. TRANSLATION FROM ENGLISH INTO GREEK
(This may be done as an exercise in class at the end of the Lesson, or set as an assignment.)
|SENTENCES||NOTES AND NEW WORDS|
|A1.||"Two men went up into the temple to pray, the one a Pharisee and the other a tax-collector." (LUKE 18:10)||man: use *ἄνθρωπος; went up: ἀνέβησαν; pray: *προσεύχομαι (dep.); another (of a different kind): ἕτερος, -α, -ον; tax-collector: τελώνης, -ου, ὁ|
|A2.||He says to him, "Out of your mouth I will judge you, evil slave." (LUKE 19:22)||mouth: *στόμα, -τος, τό; judge: *κρίνω; evil: *πονηρός, - ά, -όν|
|A3.||And a huge crowd was following him, because they were watching the miracles which he was doing upon those who were sick. (JOHN 6:2)||huge: *πολύς, πολλοῦ [#5.85]; crowd: ὄχλος, -ου, ὁ; follow: *ἀκολουθέω (takes dat.); watch, observe: *θεωρέω; miracle, miraculous sign: *σημεῖον, -ου, τό; upon: *ἐπί + gen.; those who were sick: use articular participle from ἀσθενέω, be sick|
|A4.||We find nothing wrong in this man." (ACTS 23:9)||find: *εὐρίσκω; no-one: *οὐδείς, οὐδεμία, οὐδέν [#5.86]; wrong: *κακός, -ή, -όν|
|A5.||If anyone is not willing to work, neither let him eat. (2 THESSALONIANS 3:10)||if: *εἰ; anyone, someone: *τις, τι, τινός [#5.88]; be willing, wish: *θέλω; work: ἐργάζομαι (dep.); neither: *μηδέ; eat: *ἐσθίω|
|A6.||Pray on behalf of one another, so that you might ne healed. (JAMES 5:16)||pray: εὔχομαι; on behalf of: *ὑπέρ + gen.; one another: reciprocal pronoun, #8.9; so that, in order that: *ὅπως [#7.23]; heal: ἰάομαι (dep.)|
122 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENTB. SELECTIONS FROM THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
|B1.||Αἰτεῖτε, καὶ δοθήσεται ὑμῖν· ζητεῖτε, καὶ εὑρήσετε· κρούετε, καὶ ἀνοιγήσεται ὑμῖν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 7:7)||αἰτεῖτε: 2pl impv of *αἰτέω, ask (for something); δο-θή-σ-ε-ται: 3sg fut. pass., from *δίδωμι; ζητ-εῖ-τε: 2pl impv. of *ζητέω, seek; εὑρή-σ-ε-ται: 2pl fut., from *εὑρίσκω, find; κρού-ε-τε: 2pl impv. of κρούω, knock; ἀν-οιγ-ή-σ-ε-ται: 3sg fut. pass. (direct flexion), from *ἀνοίγω, open|
|B2.||Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ὃς ἐὰν μὴ δέξηται τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ ὡς παιδίον, οὐ μὴ εἰσέλθῃ εἰς αὐτήν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΛΟΥΚΑΝ 18:17)||δέξ-η-ται 3sg aor. subjv., from *δέχομαι (dep): receive; *παιδίον, -ου, τό: child|
|B3.||Καὶ θρὶξ ἐκ τῆς κεφαλῆς ὑμῶν οὐ μὴ ἀπόληται. (ΚΑΤΑ ΛΟΥΚΑΝ 21:18)||θρίξ, τριχός, ἡ: hair; *κεφαλή, -ης, ἡ: head; ἀπ-όλη-ται: 3sg aor3 subjv. mid., from *ἀπόλλυμι, destroy (mid.: perish)|
|B4.||Καὶ οἱ πρεσβύτεροι ἔπεσον, καὶ προσεκύνησαν. (ΑΠΟΚΑΛΥΨΙΣ ΙΩΑΝΝΟΥ 5:14)||*πρεσβύτερος, -ου, ὁ: elder; :ἔπεσον: 3pl, aor² variant of aor² verb *πίπτω, fall; *προσκυνέω: worship|
|B5.||Ἐλήλυθεν γὰρ Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστὴς μήτε ἄρτον ἐσθίων μήτε οἶνον πίνων, καὶ λέγετε, Δαιμόνιον ἔχει· ἐλήλυθεν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐσθίων καὶ πίνων, καὶ λέγετε, Ἰδού, ἄνθρωπος φάγος καὶ οἰνοπότης, φίλος τελωνῶν καὶ ἁμαρτωλῶν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΛΟΥΚΑΝ 7:33-34)||ἐλήλυθεν: see #7.63; βαπτιστής, -οῦ, ὁ: baptist; *ἐσθίω: eat; μήτε: nor; *πίνω: drink; οἶνος, -ου, ὁ: wine; φάγος, -ου, ὁ: glutton; οἰνοπότης, -ου, ὁ: drinker/drunkard; φίλος, -ου, ὁ: friend; τελώνης, -ου, ὁ: tax-collector|
|B6.||Ἀκούσας δὲ ταῦτα ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἐθαύμασεν αὐτόν, καὶ στραφεὶς τῷ ἀκολουθοῦντι αὐτῷ ὄχλῳ εἶπεν, Λέγω ὑμῖν, οὔτε ἐν τῷ Ἰσραὴλ τοσαύτην πίστιν εὗρον. (ΚΑΤΑ ΛΟΥΚΑΝ 7:9)||θαυμάζω: marvel at, wonder; στραφ-ε-ί-ς: masc. nom. sg aor. pass. ptc, refl. meaning, from στρέφω, turn; ἀκολοῦ-ντ-ι: masc. dat. sg ptc, from *ἀκολουθέω, follow (takes the dat.); τοσαύτην: see #7.13; εὗρ-ο-ν: lsg aor², from *εὐρίσκω, find|
|B7.||Καὶ ἤκουσα φωνὴν μεγάλην ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, λέγουσαν αὐτοῖς, Ἀνάβητε ὧδε. Καὶ ἀνέβησαν εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν ἐν τῇ νεφέλῃ, καὶ ἐθεώρησαν αὐτοὺς οἱ ἐχθροὶ αὐτῶν. (ΑΠΟΚΑΛΥΨΙΣ ΙΩΑΝΝΟΥ 11:12)||ἀνά-βα-τε: 2pl aor³ impv., from *ἀναβαίνω, come up; *θεωρέω: watch, observe|
|B8.||θεωροῦσιν τὸν Ἰησοῦν περιπατοῦντα ἐπὶ τῆς θαλάσσης, καὶ ἐγγὺς τοῦ πλοίου γινόμενον· καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν. Ὁ δὲ λέγει αὐτοῖς, Ἐγώ εἰμι· μὴ φοβεῖσθε. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 6:19-20)||περι-πατ-οῦ-ντ-α: acc. sg masc. pres. ptc, from *περιπατέω, walk (about), stroll; *πλοῖον, -ου, τό: boat; ἐ-φοβή-θη-σαν: 3pl aor. pass., and φοβε-ῖ-σθ-ε: 2pl pres. impv., from *φοβέομαι (dep.), fear|
|B9.||Ἐλθὼν οὖν ὁ Ἰησοῦς εὗρεν αὐτὸν τέσσαρας ἡμέρας ἤδη ἔχοντα ἐν τῷ μνημείῳ. Εἶπεν οὖν Μάρθα πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν, Κύριε, εἰ ἦς ὧδε, ὁ ἀδελφός μου οὐκ ἂν ἐτεθνήκει. Ἀλλὰ καὶ νῦν οἶδα ὅτι ὅσα ἂν αἰτήσῃ τὸν θεόν, δώσει σοι ὁ θεός. Λέγει αὐτῇ ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Ἀναστήσεται ὁ ἀδελφός σου. Λέγει αὐτῷ Μάρθα, Οἶδα ὅτι ἀναστήσεται ἐν τῇ ἀναστάσει ἐν τῇ ἐσχάτῃ ἡμέρᾳ. Εἶπεν αὐτῇ ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ἀνάστασις καὶ ἡ ζωή· (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 11:17, 21-25)||τέσσαρες, τέσσαρα, τεσσάρων: four; μνημεῖον, -ου, τό: tomb; ἀπ-έ-θαν-εν: 3sg aor2, from *ἀποθνῄσκω, die; *νῦν: now; ἀνα-στή-σ-ε-ται: 3sg fut. mid., from *ἀνίστημι: rise|
EIGHT: PARTICIPLES AND PREPOSITIONS 123
|B10.||Κἀγὼ Ἰωάννης ὁ ἀκούων καὶ βλέπων ταῦτα. Καὶ ὅτε ἤκουσα καὶ ἔβλεψα, ἔπεσον προσκυνῆσαι ... ὁ καιρὸς γὰρ ἐγγύς ἐστιν . ... Ἰδού, ἔρχομαι ταχύ, καὶ ὁ μισθός μου μετ’ ἐμοῦ, ἀποδοῦναι ἑκάστῳ ὡς τὸ ἔργον ἔσται αὐτοῦ. Ἐγὼ τὸ Ἄλφα καὶ τὸ Ὦ, ὁ πρῶτος καὶ ὁ ἔσχατος, ἡ ἀρχὴ καὶ τὸ τέλος. (ΑΠΟΚΑΛΥΨΙΣ ΙΩΑΝΝΟΥ 22:8-13)||ἔπεσον: 3sg, aor² variant of aor² verb *πίπτω, fall; *καιρός, -οῦ, ὁ: (appointed) time, season, occasion; ταχύ: without delay, soon, quickly; ἀπο-δοῦ-ναι: aor³ inf., from ἀποδίδωμι, render, give; *ἕκαστος, -η, -ον [#7.11]: each, every; ἔσχατος, -η, -ον [#7.45]: last; τέλος, -ους, τό: end|
|B11.||Καὶ τῷ ἀγγέλῳ τῆς ἐν Φιλαδελφείᾳ ἐκκλησίας γράψον, Τάδε λέγει ὁ ἅγιος, ὁ ἀληθινός, ὁ ἔχων τὴν κλεῖν τοῦ Δαυίδ, ὁ ἀνοίγων καὶ οὐδεὶς κλείσει καὶ κλείων· καὶ οὐδεὶς ἀνοίγει. Οἶδά σου τὰ ἔργα· (ΑΠΟΚΑΛΥΨΙΣ ΙΩΑΝΝΟΥ 3:7-8)||γρά-ψ-ον: 2sg aor. impv, from *γράφω, write; τάδε: from ὅδε (see #7.14); κλείς, κλειδός, ἡ: key; κλείω: shut, close, lock|
|B12.||Καὶ ἔτι αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος, ἰδού, Ἰούδας εἷς τῶν δώδεκα ἦλθεν, καὶ μετ’ αὐτοῦ ὄχλος πολὺς μετὰ μαχαιρῶν καὶ ξύλων, ἀπὸ τῶν ἀρχιερέων καὶ πρεσβυτέρων τοῦ λαοῦ. Ὁ δὲ παραδιδοὺς αὐτὸν ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς σημεῖον, λέγων, Ὃν ἂν φιλήσω, αὐτός ἐστιν· κρατήσατε αὐτόν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 26:47-48)||ἔτι: still; *δώδεκα: twelve; μάχαιρα, -ης, ἡ: sword; ξύλον, -ου, τό: tree, wood, piece of wood, club, the cross; *ἀρχιερεύς, -έως, ὁ: high priest, chief priest; παρα-δι-δούς: nom. sg masc. pres³ ptc, from *παραδίδωμι, hand over, deliver up, betray; ἔ-δω-κ-εν: 3sg aor. in -κα, from *δίδωμι; φιλήσω: 1 sg aor. subjv. after ἄν, have affection for, kiss; κρατή-σα-τε: 2pl aor. impv., from κρατέω; take hold of, seize, arrest|
|B13.||Καὶ ἤκουσαν οἱ γραμματεῖς καὶ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς, καὶ ἐζήτουν πῶς αὐτὸν ἀπολέσωσιν· ἐφοβοῦντο γὰρ αὐτόν, πᾶς γὰρ ὁ ὄχλος ἐξεπλήσσετο ἐπὶ τῇ διδαχῇ αὐτοῦ. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 11:18)||ἐ-ζήτ-ου-ν: 3pl impf., from *ζητέω; *πῶς: how [#7.23]; ἀπ-ολέ-σ-ω-σιν: 3pl aor. subjv., from *ἀπόλλυμι, destroy; ἐ-φοβ-οῦ-ντο: 3pl impf., from *φοβέομαι, fear; ἐξ-ε-πλήσσ-ε-το: 3sg impf. mid. [pass. meaning], from ἐκπλήσσω, astound, astonish; διδαχή, -ῆς, -ἡ, teaching|
|B14.||Ἀκούσας δέ τις τῶν συνανακειμένων ταῦτα εἶπεν αὐτῷ, Μακάριος, ὃς φάγεται ἄριστον ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τοῦ θεοῦ. (ΚΑΤΑ ΛΟΥΚΑΝ 14:15)||συν-ανα-κει-μέν-ων: masc. gen. pl ptc, from συνανάκειμαι (dep.), recline (at table) with [others]; φάγεται: see #7.63|
|B15.||Καὶ εἱστήκει ὁ λαὸς θεωρῶν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΛΟΥΚΑΝ 23:35)||εἱ-στη-κ-ει: 3sg plpf., with sense of impf, from ἵστημι, stand|
|B16.||Πολλοὶ γὰρ ἐλεύσονται ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματί μου, λέγοντες, Ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ χριστός· καὶ πολλοὺς πλανήσουσιν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 24:5)||*ἐπί: under (my name), that is, using my name, taking my name for themselves; πλανάω: lead astray, mislead, deceive|
|B17.||Εἰσερχόμενοι δὲ εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν, ἀσπάσασθε αὐτήν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 10:12)||*οἰκία, -ας, ἡ: house, those who live in a house, household; ἀσπά-σα-σθ-ε: 2pl aor. impv., from *ἀσπάζομαι (dep.), greet|
124 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
|B18.||τὸ μὲν πρόσωπον τοῦ οὐρανοῦ γινώσκετε διακρίνειν, τὰ δὲ σημεῖα τῶν καιρῶν οὐ δύνασθε; Γενεὰ πονηρὰ καὶ μοιχαλὶς σημεῖον ἐπιζητεῖ· καὶ σημεῖον οὐ δοθήσεται αὐτῇ, εἰ μὴ τὸ σημεῖον Ἰωνᾶ τοῦ προφήτου. Καὶ καταλιπὼν αὐτούς, ἀπῆλθεν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 16:3-4)||*μὲν ... δὲ ...; on the one hand ... (but) on the other hand ...; *γινώσκω: know how to; διακρίνω: evaluate, discern, distinguish; *σημεῖον, -ου, τό: sign; δύνα-σθε: 2pl pres³, from *δύναμαι (dep.), be able; μοιχαλίς, -ίδος, ἡ: adulteress, adulterous, unfaithful; ἐπι-ζητέω: seek, desire, want, search for, look for; Ἰωνᾶς, -ᾶ, ὁ: Jonah; κατα-λιπ-ών: nom. sg masc. aor2 ptc, from καταλείπω [#7.66]: leave (behind)|
|B19.||Διὸ ἀποθέμενοι τὸ ψεῦδος λαλεῖτε ἀλήθειαν ἕκαστος μετὰ τοῦ πλησίον αὐτοῦ· ὅτι ἐσμὲν ἀλλήλων μέλη. (ΠΡΟΣ ΕΦΕΣΙΟΥΣ 4:25)||*διό: therefore; ἀπο-θέ-μεν-οι: nom. pl masc. aor³ mid. ptc, from ἀποτίθημι, put away, cast off; ψεῦδος, -ους, τό: falsehood, lying, lie; ἀλλήλων: from *ἀλλήλους, reciprocal pronoun, see #8.9; μέλος, -ους, τό: limb, part, member|
|B20.||Καὶ μεθ’ ἡμέρας ἓξ παραλαμβάνει ὁ Ἰησοῦς τὸν Πέτρον καὶ Ἰάκωβον καὶ Ἰωάννην τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἀναφέρει αὐτοὺς εἰς ὄρος ὑψηλὸν κατ’ ἰδίαν Καὶ μετεμορφώθη ἔμπροσθεν αὐτῶν, καὶ ἔλαμψεν τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ ὡς ὁ ἥλιος, τὰ δὲ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ ἐγένοντο λευκὰ ὡς τὸ φῶς. Καὶ ἰδού, ὤφθησαν αὐτοῖς Μωσῆς καὶ Ἠλίας, μετ’ αὐτοῦ συλλαλοῦντες. Ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ Πέτρος εἶπεν τῷ Ἰησοῦ, κύριε, καλόν ἐστιν ἡμᾶς ὧδε εἶναι· (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 17:1-4)||ἕξ: six; ἀνα-φέρω: lead up; ὑψηλός: high; μετ-ε-μορφώ-θη: 3sg aor. pass., from μεταμορφόομαι (dep.), be transformed; λάμπω: shine; ἥλιος, -ου, ὁ: sun; *ἱμάτιον, -ου, τό: garment, clothing; ἐγένετο: 3sg aor2, from *γίνομαι (dep.); re use of sg, see Rule #2.17(a); λευκός, -ή, -όν: white, shining; ὤφ-θη: 3sg aor. pass., from root ὀπτ-, suppletive of *ὁράω (#7.63)|
|B21.||Ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἀπεκρίνατο αὐτοῖς, Ὁ πατήρ μου ἕως ἄρτι ἐργάζεται, κἀγὼ ἐργάζομαι. Διὰ τοῦτο οὖν μᾶλλον ἐζήτουν αὐτὸν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι ἀποκτεῖναι, ὅτι οὐ μόνον ἔλυεν τὸ σάββατον, ἀλλὰ καὶ πατέρα ἴδιον ἔλεγεν τὸν θεόν, ἴσον ἑαυτὸν ποιῶν τῷ θεῷ. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 5:17-18)||ἀπ-ε-κρίν-α-το: 3sg aor., from *ἀποκρίνομαι (dep), answer; *μᾶλλον: more, all the more, rather; ἀπο-κτείν-αι: aor. inf. act., from *ἀποκτείνω, kill; μόνος, -η, -ον: only, alone; ἵσος, -η, -ον: equal; *ἑαυτόν: see #6.93|
|B22.||Τίς οὐ μὴ φοβηθῇ σε, κύριε, καὶ δοξάσῃ τὸ ὄνομά σου; Ὅτι μόνος ἅγιος· ὅτι πάντα τὰ ἔθνη ἥξουσιν καὶ προσκυνήσουσιν ἐνώπιόν σου. (ΑΠΟΚΑΛΥΨΙΣ ΙΩΑΝΝΟΥ 15:4)||φοβη-θῇ: 3sg aor. dep. pass. subjv., from *φοβέομαι, fear; δοξά-σ-ε-ι 3sg fut., from *δοξάζω, glorify; ὅσιος, -α, -ον: holy; ἥξουσιν: 3pl fut., from ἥκω, come|
|B23.||Ἐὰν γὰρ ἀγαπήσητε τοὺς ἀγαπῶντας ὑμᾶς, τίνα μισθὸν ἔχετε; Οὐχὶ καὶ οἱ τελῶναι τὸ αὐτὸ ποιοῦσιν; (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 5:46)||*αὐτός preceded by the article: the same (Note the gender here.)|
SUPPLEMENTARY PASSAGES IN THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
|B24. MATTHEW 10:34-39|
B25. MATTHEW 14:13-21
|B26. MARK 3:20-35|
B27. JOHN 1:14-18
|Translate these passages from your Greek New Testament, making the fullest use of your Grammatical Analysis.|
USING NOUNS AND THE ARTICLE
9.1 INVESTIGATING: THE CASE OF THE FLEXIBLE NOUN
9.11 The Greek noun is very flexible, and by its case ending alone it can indicate a wide and diverse range of relationships within the sentence. This range is extended even further when a preposition is used with a noun.
9.12 For the student learning Greek, deciphering a Greek sentence is rather like working out "who dunnit" in a detective story: all the clues are there in front of you, and you have to be able to spot them and work out what they mean and what they show you, and how you are to put them all together to get the complete picture of what happened.
9.13 The nouns (and adjectives) give you the participants in the action, and the verb tells you the nature of the action and when it occurred. Deciphering the verb correctly is important for knowing accurately the details of what happened; deciphering the nouns correctly is essential for knowing who and what were involved in what happened, and the part played by each of them.
9.14 The noun is so flexible that it can fit anywhere into the pattern of what happened. The case of the noun tells you just where the noun fits in. That is, the meaning of a sentence is contained to a large extent in the cases of the nouns, for it is the case which shows how the person(s) and/or thing(s) mentioned in the sentence relate to each other. Contrast this with English, where that relationship is shown by word order: the sentences "The man ate a large fish" and "A large fish ate the man" use exactly the same words but mean very different things — and that difference is conveyed entirely by the word order (#2.91). In Greek, the relationship of the participants in an action (the nouns/adjectives) to each other and to that action (the verb) is shown by the case, and so the word order can vary without affecting that basic meaning. Word order can thus be used for other purposes, particularly for conveying nuances of emphasis and shades of meaning (#2.92).
9.15 Thus the key to understanding the meaning of the average Greek sentence is the deciphering of the case of each of its nouns.
9.16 A noun consists of (a) a stem, which gives the lexical meaning of the word (that is, the i antic meaning, what the noun refers to), and (b) the numbercase ending, which gives the grammatical meaning of the word (that is, number — whether one or more were involved in what happened, and, case). The ending may also indicate gender, which is sometimes important, and sometimes not.
9.17 There are three quite different patterns in Greek by means of which noun endings indicate the number and case of the noun. For convenience of reference and description these are called the First, Second, and Third Declensions (abbreviated as D1, D2, and D3 respectively). Within each Declension there are subgroups exhibiting some differences of the endings according to the nature of the stem and the gender of the noun. These Declensions have been discussed in Lessons Two, and Five, and the complete paradigms for them are set out in Appendix D.
9.18 There are eight basic case forms for each noun: four forms for the singular, and four for the plural. In addition, some nouns have a ninth form for the vocative singular (which, where it exists, is usally the stem of the word or — in the Second Declension masculine — the stem of the word plus -ε. as in the form κύριε.
126 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
(a) The comments about nouns apply to pronouns also. In addition, the third person pronouns have three sets of eight case forms, one for each gender. (There are no vocative forms for pronouns.)
(b) The case endings for pronouns need to be individually noted (they are set out in full in #D6) — though in most cases they have case endings which are the same as or recognizably similar to the usual endings of the noun Declensions.
(c) The comments which follow about case meanings apply to both noun and pronoun alike.
9.2 SELF-TESTING REVIEW
9.21 Turn to the paradigms for the three Declensions in Appendix D (#D1, #D2 and #D3), and go through them. Check that you are able to recognize and identify each of the noun case endings. If necessary, return to Lessons Two, Three, or Five, and revise the grammar given there.
9.22 Similarly, check that you are able to recognize and identify the cases of all the pronouns (#D6).
9.23 NOTE CAREFULLY the endings which are not decisive but which occur with different case meanings in the different paradigms (for example, -ους can be accusative plural, Second Declension, or genitive singular, Third Declension neuter, vowel stem). These case ambiguities will be resolved in a great many instances by the form of the article used with the noun; identifying the word in a lexicon or vocabulary will give you its nominative and genitive forms, and this will clarify what paradigm it follows and thus what its various case endings will be.
9.3 THE MEANING AND USE OF THE CASES: THE NOMINATIVE CASE
The nominative case will be found used in these ways:
9.31 The Subject of the Verb: That is, the person or thing concerning which the verb is making a statement or asking a question, whether the verb is active or passive.
Thus: He went out. He was cleansed. Is he the one?
(But note: when an infinitive has a subject, this is in the accusative: #9.53.)
9.32 The Complement of the Verb: Certain verbs take a noun after them which refers not to some other person or thing, but to the verb's subject, concerning which it gives further information. These include: verbs of being, becoming, being made, being named or called. This additional noun is thus the "complete-ment", or complement of the thought of the subject and verb. Examples:
|Mk 2:28 (L2/B24):||κύριός ἐστιν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου|
|The son of man is Lord|
|Lk 23:12 (L9/B1):||Ἐγένοντο δὲ φίλοι ὅ τε Πιλάτος καὶ ὁ Ἡρῴδης ...|
|and Herod and Pilate became friends ...|
|Mt 5:9 (L9/B2):||... οἱ εἰρηνοποιοί·||ὅτι||αὐτοὶ||υἱοὶ θεοῦ||κληθήσονται ...|
|the peacemakers,||because||they||shall be called||sons of God|
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9.33 Independent Nominative
At times a noun may be treated as independent of its place in the sentence structure, and have the nominative case instead of its appropriate case. Example:
|Jn 13:13 (L9/B3):||φωνεῖτέ||με,||Ὁ διδάσκαλος,||καὶ||Ὁ κύριος|
The "correct" case here would be accusative after "call", agreeing with (in apposition with) sue.
A nominative can also be left hanging on its own (so, sometimes called a "hanging nominative") at the beginning of a sentence where the grammatical construction changes. Example:
|Rev 3:21 (L9/134):||Ὁ νικῶν,||δώσω||αὐτῷ||καθίσαι||μετ’ ἐμοῦ|
|The one who overcomes,||I will give||to him||to sit||with me ...|
9.34 Appellation When a name is being introduced or indicated, it may be given in the nominative case even though, grammatically, it should be in another case:
|he has||the name||Apollyon|
This occurrence of the nominative is called "appellation".
However, sometimes the name will be given in the grammatically appropriate case in a sentence:
|Lk 1:13 (L9/B5):||καὶ||καλέσεις||τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ||Ἰωάννην|
|and||you shall call||his name||John|
9.35 Nominative for Vocative Sometimes a nominative case is used for a vocative — see below.
9.4 THE MEANING AND USE OF THE CASES: THE VOCATIVE CASE
9.41 The vocative case is the case used when addressing someone. Consequently, words in the vocative are not grammatically related to the rest of the sentence. Sometimes a vocative is preceded by ὦ, O, and sometimes not. Except in Luke, the inclusion of ὦ usually indicates strong emotion.
9.42 A separate form exists for the vocative in:
(a) the singular of the First Declension masculine (μαθητά, νεανία);
(b) the singular of the Second Declension masculine (κύριε, ἄνθρωπε, υἱέ, etc.);
(c) the singular of some Third Declension nouns (πάτερ, γύναι, etc.).
9.43 For most other words (including all plurals) the nominative form is used for the vocative. In addition, the nominative is sometimes used even where a vocative form does exist. This reflects a tendency for the vocative to be dropping out of use in the colloquial koine Greek usage in New Testament times. Compare:
|Mk 15:34:||Ὁ θεός μου,||ὁ θεός μου,||εἰς τί||με ἐγκατέλιπες;|
|Mt 27:46:||Θεέ μου,||Θεέ μου,||ἵνα τί||με ἐγκατέλιπες;|
|my God||my God,||why||have you forsaken me?|
9.44 As there is no vocative of the article, when the article is needed it forces the following noun into the nominative.
128 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
9.45 Where Knowing Greek Makes a Difference: "Lord", κύριος, has an extensive range of meaning, from being used as a translation of the Yahweh, "Jehovah", of the Old Testament, and as a title for Jesus which recognizes his deity, through to a reference to people in positions of authority, where it is translated "lord", "master", or sometimes "owner". Altogether, κύριος occurs some 720 times in the New Testament. However, one sixth of these occurrences are the vocative form, κύριε — and the vocative is frequently used in a very much weaker sense, as a normal polite form of respectful address to a person, equivalent to our "Sir".
Thus Jesus uses κύριε in addressing the Father (for example, Matthew 11:25//Luke 10:21); but in the parables that Jesus told, servants address their master as κύριε (Matthew 13:27; 25:20; 25:22; 25:24; Luke 13:8; 14:22; 19:16; 19:18; 19:20; 19:25); the son addresses his father as κύριε (Matthew 21:30); and so also do the virgins to the bridegroom (Matthew 25:11). And that is how the Jewish leaders address Pilate (Matthew 27:63), a group of Greeks address Philip (John 12:21: see L4/A11), and so on. But the most common use is when Jesus's disciples and a great number of other people use κύριε in addressing Jesus.
This poses something of a translation dilemma: when do you translate κύριε as "Lord", and when as "Sir"? Mostly the standard translations render κύριε as "Lord" when addressed to Jesus, no matter by whom, except when the translators do not judge that the speaker is really acknowledging Jesus's lordship. Thus the NIV, NKJV, and NRSV (and numerous others) translate as "Sir" when the woman at the well addresses Jesus (John 4:11) (amongst modern translators, only Lattimore has "Lord" here). Similarly these translations have "Sir" at John 4:49 when the royal official addresses Jesus, and at John 5:7 when the sick man at the pool calls Jesus κύριε. Mary addresses the risen Jesus as κύριε but thinks he is the gardener, so NIV, NKJV and NRSV translate as "Sir" (John 20:15).
The first time the healed man born blind addresses Jesus (John 9:36), NIV and NRSV have "sir" ("Who is he, sir?"); but the next time that this man uses Icopte, just two verses later, both these translations render the same word as "Lord" ("Lord, I believe"). Presumably this difference is because the healed man has now professed faith. We may think this is fair enough — though the judgement of translators will differ, and the NKJV has "Lord" far more times than the NIV and NRSV (for example, here in John 9:36, and also 6:34; 8:11; etc.).
Now, I have heard sermons and have read exegesis based on the word "Lord" in English translation: "With divinely given knowledge, the royal official recognized the Lordship of Jesus and immediately and publicly acknowledged him as Lord (John 4:49)". One can hear similar expositions regarding the crippled man at the pool (John 5:7) and the Canaanite woman (Matthew 15:21), when Zacchaeus calls him κύριε (Luke 19:8), and so on. If we know Greek, we can see how dubious this exegesis is: κύριε cannot carry this kind of weight. And how much theological understanding are we to attribute to Saul of Tarsus when on the Damascus road he is struck down by a blinding light and hears a voice speaking to him and responds, "Who are you, κύριε?" (Acts 9:5; 22:8; 26:15)? There is an interesting situation in John 20:28 (L3/B8). Thomas, in his proclamation of faith, uses the article and the nominative of κύριος, instead of the weaker vocative, to indicate the definiteness of "Lord":
|Jn 20:28 (L3/B8):||Ὁ κύριός μου||καὶ||ὁ θεός μου|
|My lord||and||my God|
9.5 OBLIQUE CASES: THE ACCUSATIVE CASE (WITHOUT PREPOSITION)
9.50 The accusative, genitive and dative cases are referred to by grammarians as the oblique cases. They may be used after (which is called being "governed by") a verb or a preposition, which determines the case that they are in, or they may have the specific meaning of the particular case. Their use with prepositions was discussed in #8.6; in this Section we consider their use without a preposition.
NINE: USING NOUNS AND THE ARTICLE 129
There are three main ways in which the accusative case is used: (a) as the object of a verb, (b) for a word indicating the extent of something, and (c) as the subject of an infinitive.
9.51 The Objective Accusative The accusative case is used for the direct object of the verb, that is, the person or thing to which the ac:tion of the verb carries directly. The direct object of the verb usually follows it closely in English and can be identified by asking "whom" or "what" after the verb.
|Mk 1:8 (L5/B4):||Ἐγὼ||ἐβάπτισα||ὑμᾶς||ἐν ὕδατι|
|Jn 6:31 (L7/B22):||Ἄρτον||ἐκ||τοῦ οὐρανοῦ||ἔδωκεν||αὐτοῖς||φαγεῖν|
|bread||out of||the heaven||he gave||them||to eat|
9.52 The Extentive Accusative (or, Accusative of Extent) The intrinsic idea of the accusative case could be said to be "motion towards" or "extension towards". The accusative is used at times with this implication of the extent of something.
This may be the extent of the time involved (so that it answers the question, How long?). For example:
|Mt 28:20 (L6/B3):||ἐγὼ||μεθ’ ὑμῶν εἰμι||πάσας τὰς ἡμέρας|
|I||am with you||during [for] all the days|
|Jn 4:40 (L9/B6):||καὶ||ἔμεινεν||ἐκεῖ||δύο ἡμέρας|
|and||he remained||there||for [during] two days|
The accusative can also be used for the extent of distance involved (so that it answers the question, How far?). For example:
|Lk 24:13 (L9/B7):||εἰς κώμην||ἀπέχουσαν||σταδίους ἑξήκοντα||ἀπὸ Ἱερουσαλήμ|
|to a village||which was distant||sixty stades||from Jerusalem|
9.53 The Accusative and Infinitive
The infinitive is frequently used in Greek with a subject, that is, a word which says who it is who is to do the action of the infinitive. This is one way of setting out indirect speech, and it is found in various other constructions as well. The subject of the infinitive is regularly put into the accusative case. Examples:
|Mk 12:18 (L9/B8):||Καὶ||ἔρχονται||Σαδδουκαῖοι||πρὸς αὐτόν,||οἵτινες||λέγουσιν||ἀνάστασιν||μὴ εἶναι|
|And||there came||Sadducees||to him,||who||say||a resurrection||there not to be.|
(What the Sadducees would have said in direct speech would have been, "There is no resurrection".)
|Mt 17:4 (L8/B20):||κύριε,||καλόν||ἐστιν||ἡμᾶς||ὧδε||εἶναι.|
|Lord,||good||it is||us||here||to be.|
(Lord, it is good that we are here.)
9.6 OBLIQUE CASES: THE GENITIVE CASE (WITHOUT PREPOSITION)
9.60 There are two different relationships which both have the same, genitive, case endings. To distinguish them, these two relationships or functions can be called the "True Genitive" (the term of N. Turner in A Grammar of New Testament Greek, Vol III, p.231), and the "Ablative". Most true genitives are the equivalent of "of" in English, and ablatives have the sense "from".
130 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
(a) The True Genitive
The word "genitive" means the case showing the genus or kind of thing being discussed. It is thus the case used to define or describe or specify. It limits the generality of a word to a more specific case. Words in the genitive case are therefore most commonly used with nouns, and usually follow the noun to which they refer.
(b) The Ablative
The word "ablative" means "that which is carried away or separated". It indicates the derivation, source, or origin of something, from which that something is now separated. The ablative is the meaning of the genitive form used with many prepositions, especially ἀπό and ἐκ.
(c) Verbs Taking the Genitive
A wide range of differing relationships can be set out through the genitive case. A word will be in the genitive case because either it comes after (and is governed by) a preposition or a verb which requires the genitive case, or because it expresses a relationship to a noun. Prepositions which require the genitive case were covered earlier, in #8.7.
Verbs taking the genitive case are for the most part verbs of touching or grasping (such as ἅπτομαι, I touch); of perception and feeling (such as ἀκούω, I hear: takes genitive of the person heard and accusative of the thing heard); of remembering and forgetting; of emotion and accusation; or ruling and surpassing (such as ἄρχω, I rule). Thus:
|Jn 10:27 (L5/B10):||τὰ πρόβατα τὰ ἐμὰ||τῆς φωνῆς μου||ἀκούει|
|(so also L3/B19)||my sheep||my voice||hear|
|Rev 21:3 (L6/B10):||Καὶ||ἤκουσα||φωνῆς μεγάλης|
|and||I heard||a loud voice|
|Mk 10:42 (L9/B9):||οἱ δοκοῦντες||ἄρχειν||τῶν ἐθνῶν|
|those who seem||to rule over||the gentiles/nations ...|
We shall now consider the ten most important relationships with a noun that a genitive expresses.
9.61 Possessive Genitive
(a) This genitive means "belonging to", and indicates ownership or close relationship. Examples:
|Mt 13:24 (L4/B20):||... ἐν||τῷ ἀγρῷ αὐτοῦ|
|... in||his field|
|Mk 14:22-24 (L5/B3):||τοῦτό||ἐστιν||τὸ σῶμά μου||...||Τοῦτό||ἐστιν||τὸ αἷμά μου|
|this||is||my body||...||this||is||my blood|
|Mk 10:46 (L4/B21):||υἱὸς||Τιμαίου|
|the son||of Timaios|
(b) The genitive of this type can be used alone, without the noun expressing the relationship actually being stated, so that this relationship has to be supplied from the context or from prior knowledge. Thus:
|Mk 1:19:||Ἰάκωβον||τὸν||τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου|
|James||the (—)||of Zebedee||(supply, "son")|
|Jn 19:25:||Μαρία||ἡ||τοῦ Κλωπᾶ|
|Mary||the (—)||of Clopas||(supply, "wife")|
|1 Cor 15:23:||οἱ||τοῦ χριστοῦ|
|the (—)||of Christ||(that is, those who are Christ's)|
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9.62 Subjective Genitive
In this use, the genitive is the subject of the idea in the noun (a noun of action) to which it refers. Examples:
|Mk 10:6 (L5/B16):||ἀπὸ δὲ||ἀρχῆς||κτίσεως ...|
|but from||the beginning||of creation . . .||(= when creation began ...)|
|Rom 5:5 (L9/A1):||
|(that is, God's love for us ...)|
|Thess 2:13 (L9/A2):||
9.63 Objective Genitive
In this use, the genitive is the object of the idea in the noun (a noun of action) to which it refers. Thus:
|Jn 8.12 (L1/B4):||Ἐγώ||εἰμι||τὸ φῶς||τοῦ κόσμου|
|I||am||the light||of the world|
(the world, the word in the genitive, is the object of the action of light, the noun of action to which it refers: "I light up the world, I give light to the world")
|Rom 13:10 (L9/B10):||πλήρωμα οὖν νόμου ἡ ἀγάπη|
|so love is the fulfilment of law|
|(love fulfils law)|
The meaning of the objective genitive is often well brought out by the use of the word "for" or "about" instead of "of":
|Rom 10:2 (L9/A3):||ζῆλον θεοῦ||zeal for God|
|Mt 5:13 (L1/B6):||Ὑμεῖς ἐστε τὸ ἅλας τῆς γῆς||You are salt for the earth|
|Mk 1:1 (L1/A9):||τοῦ εὐαγγελίου Ἰησοῦ χριστοῦ||the gospel about Jesus Christ|
9.64 Durative Genitive
This expresses "time-within-which", that is, time during which something else happened.
|Mt 24:20=Mk 13:18:||χειμῶνος|
|during the winter|
|Mt 2:14 (L9/B11):||Ὁ δὲ||ἐγερθεὶς||παρέλαβεν||τὸ παιδίον||καὶ||τὴν μητέρα αὐτοῦ||νυκτός,||καὶ||ἀνεχώρησεν||εἰς Αἴγυπτον.|
|and he||arose and||took||the child||and||his mother||during the night||and||departed||to Egypt.|
132 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
9.65 Comparative Genitive
Adjectives and adverbs of comparison take the genitive after them, with the meaning "than". Examples:
|Mk 12:31 (L5/B15):||μείζων||τούτων||ἄλλη ἐντολὴ||οὐκ ἔστιν|
|greater||than these||other commandment||there is not|
|Mt 12:45 (L9/B12):||καὶ||γίνεται τὰ ἔσχατα τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκείνου||χείρονα||τῶν πρώτων|
|and||the last things of that man becomes||worse||than the first|
|Mk 1:7 (L9/A4):||Ἔρχεται||ὁ ἰσχυρότερός||μου||ὀπίσω μου|
|There comes||one stronger||than me||after me|
9.66 Definitive Genitive (also known as Epexegitical or Appositive Genitive)
In this use, the genitive defines further the noun to which it refers — that is, both words are referring to the one person or thing, the genitive thus really being (in sense) in apposition to the first noun. Examples:
|Phil 2:1:||εἴ τι παραμύθιον ἀγάπης|
|... if any comfort of love||(love is the comfort)|
|Acts 2:38:||λήψεσθε τὴν δωρεὰν τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος|
|You will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit||(the gift is the Holy Spirit)|
|Mt 16:4 (L8/B18):||τὸ σημεῖον Ἰωνᾶ|
|the sign of Jonah||(the sign is Jonah himself)|
|2 Cor 1:22; 5:5:||τὸν ἀρραβῶνα τοῦ πνεύματος|
|the downpayment of the Spirit||(the downpayment is the Spirit)|
|Rev 2:10:||δώσω σοι τὸν στέφανον τῆς ζωῆς|
|I will give you the crown of life||(the crown is life)|
9.67 Adjectival Genitive (also known as Qualitative or Attributive Genitive)
Sometimes the genitive has a simple adjectival force. Examples:
|Mt 4:18 (L3/B26):||παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν||τῆς Γαλιλαίας|
|beside the sea||of Galilee||(= the Galilean sea)|
|2 Thess 1:8:||ἐν πυρὶ||φλογός|
|in fire||of flame||(= in flaming fire)|
|Lk 4:22:||ἐπὶ τοῖς λόγοις||τῆς χάριτος|
|at the words||of grace||(= at the gracious words)|
|a hearer||of forgetfulness||(= a forgetful hearer)|
9.68 Partitive Genitive
In this use, the genitive indicates the whole category while the noun to which the genitive refers gives the part of that category under discussion. Examples:
|Mk 11:1 (L4/B21):||ἀποστέλλει||δύο||τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ|
|he sends||two||of his disciples|
|Lk 14:15 (L8/B14):||τις||τῶν συνανακειμένων|
|one||of his table companions|
|Lk 17:22 (L7/B19):||μίαν||τῶν ἡμερῶν|
|one||of the days|
|Rev 20:5 (L7/B9):||οἱ λοιποὶ||τῶν νεκρῶν|
|the rest||of the dead|
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9.69 Genitive of Content
In this construction the genitive states the content of the noun to which the genitive refers. Examples:
|Jn 21:8 (L9/B13):||τὸ δίκτυον||τῶν ἰχθύων|
|the net||of (containing) fishes|
ALSO: Genitive Absolute
We have noted this construction earlier (see #8.5). It consists of a participle and noun (or pronoun) which agree in number and gender and which are both in the genitive case, the expression being grammatically independent of the rest of the sentence. The genitive absolute is common in the Greek New Testament, and is used to provide some extra item of information relating to the context of the sentence, most frequently a reference to time, place or circumstance.
Some grammarians list numerous other categories and sub-divisions of the use of the genitive in Greek, but those given above are sufficient for our purposes.
NOTE: It is important for exegesis and interpretation to be aware of these different types of relationships expressed by the genitive: then, in considering the meaning of a passage, one is able to weigh and choose between the range of possibilities that exist. For example, to regard "the sign of Jonah" or "the gift of the Holy Spirit" as Subjective Genitives and not recognize them as Definitive (Epexegetic) Genitives would be to seriously misinterpret the whole passage in which each occurs.
On the other hand, some genitive usages overflow the boundaries of such a grammatical system of classification. Thus, "the love of Christ" (2 Cor 5:14) means "Christ's love for us" and, also, "our love for Christ". Similarly, "the gospel of Jesus Christ" (Mk 1:1) means: "the gospel which Jesus Christ himself proclaimed" (see for example Mk 1:14); "the gospel about Jesus Christ"; and also, "the gospel which Jesus Christ personifies" — that is, in himself he is the gospel, the good news, the Word of God to mankind.
9.7 OBLIQUE CASES: THE DATIVE CASE (WITHOUT PREPOSITION)
9.70 Three different cases in Greek have come, historically, to have the same case ending, traditionally called the "dative". These are described as: the True Dative (or, Dative Proper), the Instrumental, and the Locative.
9.71 The True Dative The word "dative" derives from a form of the Latin verb for "to give"; it is the "giving" case, and has the primary idea of personal interest or reference, designating personal relations or involvement. There are various types of dative relationship, a number of which can be categorized together as "the dative of the person involved". This includes what is often called in English the "indirect object", the idea of "to" or "for" someone. Verbs like "say", "write", or "give" take the direct object (accusative) of the thing (what was said or written or given, etc.) and the indirect object (dative) of the person (to whom it was said or written or given, etc.). Examples:
|Jn 16:4 (L3/B7):||Ταῦτα δὲ||ὑμῖν||ἐξ ἀρχῆς||οὐκ εἶπον||...|
|but I did not say||these things||to you||from the beginning||...|
|Mk 10:5 (L5/B16):||ἔγραψεν||ὑμῖν||τὴν ἐντολὴν ταύτην|
|he wrote||for you (or, to you)||this commandment|
|Jn 14:27 (L4/B3):||εἰρήνην τὴν ἐμὴν||δίδωμι||ὑμῖν|
|I give||my peace||to you|
134 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
With numerous other verbs also, "the person involved" is put into the dative in Greek, even where it could be the direct object in English: for example, after ἀκολουθέω (follow), ἀποκρίνομαι (answer), δουλεύω (serve), προσεύχομαι (pray), πιστεύω (believe), and so on.
Another type of dative of personal involvement is when something is done for a person; and yet another type of dative is the dative of reference, which explains in what respect a previous word is applicable. These are all similar, and indeed the different categories shade off into each other. Some examples of these various kinds of dative usages (indicated by italics) include:
|Mt 5:8 (L7/B11):||Μακάριοι||οἱ καθαροὶ||τῇ καρδίᾳ|
|blessed||are the pure||in reference to their heart|
|Mt 6:19 (L6/B6):||Μὴ θησαυρίζετε||ὑμῖν||θησαυροὺς||ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς|
|Do not store up||for yourselves||treasures||upon the earth|
|Mt 15:33 (L3/B20):||Πόθεν||ἡμῖν||ἐν ἐρημίᾳ||ἄρτοι;|
|Whence||(is there)||for us||in a desert place||bread [loaves]?|
|Mt 25:11 (L4/A10):||Κύριε,||κύριε,||ἄνοιξον||ἡμῖν|
|Lord,||lord,||open up||for us|
|Lk 24:13 (L9/B7):||δύο ἐξ αὐτῶν||ἦσαν πορευόμενοι||...||εἰς κώμην||...||ᾗ||ὄνομα Ἐμμαούς|
|two of them||were journeying||to a village||to which||the name Emmaus|
|Phil 1:21 (L9/B14):||Ἐμοὶ γὰρ||τὸ ζῇν,||χριστός,|
|for me||to live||[is]||Christ||(that is, Christ is my life)|
|Jn 20:21 (L4/B16):||Εἶπεν||οὖν||αὐτοῖς||...||πάλιν,||Εἰρήνη||ὑμῖν.|
|he said||then||to them||again,||Peace||to you.|
9.72 The Instrumental
Frequently the means by which or with which the action of the verb is carried out is put into the dative case, sometimes without a preposition, and often with the preposition ἐν. Examples without a preposition:
|Mk 1:8 (L5/B4):||Ἐγὼ||...||ἐβάπτισα||ὑμᾶς||ἐν ὕδατι|
Mk 1:26 (L5/B6): κράξαν φωνῇ μεγάλῃ ... and calling out with a loud voice .. .
Mk 5:4: πολλάκις πέδαις καὶ ἁλύσεσιν δεδέσθαι often with fetters and with chains to have been bound
9.73 The Locative The locative (from the Latin for "place") indicates "rest at" a particular place; it is the case used for "position". Frequently ev or some other preposition is also used; occasionally it is without a preposition:
Jn 21:8 (L9/B13): Οἱ δὲ ἄλλοι μαθηταὶ τῷ πλοιαρίῳ ἦλθον and the other disciples came in the small boat
A corresponding temporal use is the locative of point of time:
Mt 17:23 (L9/B15): τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ ἐγερθήσεται and on the third day he will be raised
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9.8 THE USE OF THE ARTICLE
9.80 The article ὁ, ἡ, τό has a wide range of usages some of which are similar to English, and some of which have no parallel in English. The most frequent ways in which the article is used are:
9.81 To Indicate That a Noun Is Definite
(a) Thus ὁ ἄνθρωπος is "the man", that is to say, a particular man, a man who has already been mentioned or who is already known. This usage parallels the normal English use of the article the. It contrasts with the indefinite usage, that is, a noun without any article (as in John 4:29, Δεῦτε, ἴδετε ἄνθρωπον, ὃς εἶπέν μοι πάντα ὅσα ἐποίησα, "Come see a man who told me everything that I have done"); and with a noun used with τις (as in Luke 10:30, "Ἄνθρωπός τις κατέβαινεν ἀπὸ Ἱερουσαλὴμ εἰς Ἰεριχώ, "A (certain) man was journeying down from Jerusalem to Jericho", which is equivalent to, "There was once a man who was journeying down", etc.).
(b) When the noun is definite, the article is used with that noun when a genitive pronoun is also used. Contrast:
|ὁ δοῦλός σου|
|, where this is definite||("the slave whom you know I mean", or,|
"the only slave you have")
|, no article, therefore indefinite,||("a slave of yours",|
"one of your slaves").
(c) The article before a noun will frequently have the force of a personal pronoun when the noun in question refers to something closely related to oneself such as a part of the body, or a relative. See Luke 15:11 (L5/B8), where τῷ πατρί = "to his father"; and Mark 6:5 (L6/B11), where τὰς χεῖρας = "his hands".
9.82 For Categories
(a) To Indicate a Class
οἱ ἄνθρωποι means man as a class, mankind, as distinct from the beasts, from angels, or from God.
(b) With Abstract Nouns and Nouns Indicating Qualities
Greek frequently (but not always) uses the article with nouns such as "grace", "greed", "sin", "law", "flesh", "life", "death" etc. In most cases this article is not translated into English, but in some instances the English will require it, as for example in "the grace given to me" (Romans 12:3, 6, etc.), "the life of God" (Ephesians 4:18).
However, when a noun in any case is followed by a noun in the genitive, Greek frequently omits the article where English requires it: as for example,
136 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
(c) With Names
Often the article with a name has the same meaning as it has with a common noun: ὁ Ἰωάννης, the John who has previously been mentioned. Thus usually a proper noun lacks the article the first time the person is being mentioned in the story, and will have it thereafter. However, at times the use or absence of the article with a name appears to be a matter of the author's stylistic preference. This article would not be translated.
9.83 With μέν and δέ (a) With both μέν and δέ
The article without a noun but followed by μέν and then that article subsequently repeated followed by δέ, means "the one ... the other ...", or "one ... another ...".
|1 Cor 7:7:||ὁ μὲν οὕτως||ὁ δὲ οὕτως|
|("Each person has his own gift from God),||one has this gift,||another has that"||(NIV)|
The plural οἱ μέν ..., οἱ δέ ... means "some ..., and others ...".
|Acts 14:4:||καὶ||οἱ μὲν||ἦσαν||σὺν τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις,||οἱ δὲ||σὺν τοῖς ἀποστόλοις.|
|and||some||were||with the Jews||and others||with the apostles|
This same type of construction with μέν and δέ is found with the relative pronoun as an alternative to the article.
Sometimes, however, μέν and δέ will come after the article when that article is associated with a following noun. In such a case, μέν and δέ are being used to highlight a contrast, and mean "on the one hand ... , (but) on the other hand ..."
|Mt 16:3 (L8/B18):||τὸ μὲν πρόσωπον τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ...||τὰ δὲ σημεῖα τῶν καιρῶν ...|
|the face of the heaven on the one hand . . .,||but the signs of the times on the other hand ...|
See if there is a noun associated with the article in front of μέν or δέ, and you can distinguish the two situations.
It is possible for one of the pair of articles to be omitted while the μέν/δέ contrast is still intended (though this may be left untranslated in an English rendering). Thus:
|Mk 14:21 (L9/B16):||Ὁ μὲν υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου||ὑπάγει,||καθὼς||γέγραπται||περὶ αὐτοῦ ...||οὐαὶ δὲ||τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ ἐκείνῳ ...|
|On the one hand the Son of Man||goes||just as||it has been written||concerning him,||but on the other hand woe||to that man ...|
Indeed, μέν and δέ can be used without the article to indicate this contrast: see L9/1317.
(b) With δέ
The article in the nominative with δέ is used for the continuation of a narrative (and thus commonly indicates the end of direct speech by a previous speaker). This use means that ὁ δέ is frequently used to denote a change of speaker. It will normally be translated, "And he ..." An excellent example of this usage is the conversation between Jesus and the lawyer in Luke 10:25-37, where most of the changes of speaker are indicated by ὁ δὲ εἶπεν, "and the other man said..." Similarly, ἡ δέ means "and she", τὸ δέ "and it", τὰ δέ "and the things", and so on.
9.84 With Genitives In this construction, usually plural, the article means "the people of". Thus: 1 Cor 15:23: οἱ τοῦ Χριστοῦ, "the people of Christ", those who belong to Christ
NINE: USING NOUNS AND THE ARTICLE 137
or, according to gender, "the things of". Thus:
|Lk 20:25:||τὰ Καίσαρος ...,|
the things of Caesar ...,
|τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ|
the things of God
Often the article used in this way (and either singular or plural, according to the sense required) can mean "the wife/daughter/son of . .", with the reader left to supply the correct relationship: e.g. John 19:25; 21:2; Luke 3:23-38. [See also #9.61(b).]
9.85 With Prepositional Phrases In this construction, the masculine plural article will usually be translated as "those". Examples:
|Lk 9:32:||Πέτρος καὶ οἱσὺν αὐτῷ, "Peter and those with him" (Similarly, Mk 1:36.)|
|1 Cor 9:20:||καὶ ἐγενόμην ...τοῖς ὑπὸ νόμον ὡς ὑπὸ νόμον ... ἵνα τοὺς ὑπὸ νόμον κερήσω and I became, to those under law, as being under law, in order that I could win those under law|
9.86 With the Infinitive ("Articular Infinitive") The article may be used before an infinitive, treating it as a noun: the idea or concept in the infinitive is particularly in view.
|Phil 1:21 (L9/B14):||ἐμοὶ γὰρ|
for, for me,
|Rom 7:18:||τὸ γὰρ θέλειν|
for to want
|τὸ δὲ κατεργάζεσθαι|
but to carry it out
Often the articular infinitive is used as a way of indicating the case that the infinitive is to be regarded as having.
One special use of the infinitive is: ev r plus the infinitive, which expresses the time at or during which the action of the infinitive occurred; if punctiliar, it can be translated "when . .."; if durative, "while ...". The subject of such an infinitive will be in the accusative case (see #9.53). Examples:
|Mt 13:25 (L4/B20):||ἐν δὲ τῷ καθεύδειν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ...|
and while men slept ...
|Lk 24:15 (L9/B7):||καὶ|
|ἐν τῷ ὁμιλεῖν αὐτοὺς|
while they were conversing
discussing together ...
There are a number of other special uses of the articular infinitive, which should be noted from your Grammatical Analysis when encountered. For further discussion and examples of the use of the infinitive, #10.73, #10.74.
9.87 With Other Parts of Speech
(a) With Adjective and Noun
The details of this use and its meaning have already been discussed in Lesson Seven (see #7.5).
(b) With Adjectives
The article may be used in front of an adjective, and gives that adjective the force of a noun: Peter 4:18, ὁ δίκαιος, "the righteous man"; Matthew 13:38 (L2/B26), οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ πονηροῦ, the sons of the Evil One (the devil)"; Philemon 14, τὸ ἀγαθόν σου, "your good deed"; James 2:6, οἱ πλούσιοι, "the rich"; Revelation 20:5 (L7/B9), οἱ λοιποὶ τῶν νεκρῶν, "the remainder of he dead" (both λοιποί and νεκρῶν are adjectives used as nouns).
138 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
(c) With Adverbs
The article may be used with an adverb in a way similar to its use with an adjective, so that the adverb is then acting as a noun.
|Eph 2:17||(L6/B 1):||...εἰρήνην||ὑμῖν||τοῖς μακρὰν||καὶ||τοῖς ἐγγύς|
|literally,||"... peace||to you||the far away,||and||to the near",|
|that is,||"... peace||to you||who were far away,||and||to those who were near".|
(d) With the Participle ("Articular Participle")
This construction was discussed earlier (see #8.34).
9.88 With a Quotation or Thought
A group of words which are a single entity in some way (such as a quotation, a proverb, a saying) can be introduced by the neuter article and treated as a connected whole. So Mark 9:23, Τὸ εἰ δύνασαι, "the [idea or thought of saying], 'If you can!"; Mark 9:10, τί ἐστιν τὸ ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστῆναι, "What is the 'to rise from the dead'?".
ASSIGNMENTS ON LESSON NINE
1. PARADIGM REVISION: There are no new paradigms to be learnt by heart this Lesson. REVISE the paradigms set for learning in Lessons Four and Five.
2. LEARNING THE USE OF THE NOUN AND ARTICLE: This Lesson, you should seek to understand and become quite at home with the various ways in which the noun and the article are used.
3. WORKBOOK: ANSWER THE QUESTIONS in your Workbook about this Lesson.
4. TRANSLATION EXERCISES A AND B: Do the English into Greek exercises, and then read and translate literally all the Selections from the Greek New Testament. Make sure that you continue the pattern of reading each Selection aloud before translating it, to help cultivate your "feel" for the Greek. NOTE: Most of the Selections introduce new vocabulary which is then used again in the Selections which follow. LEARN each unknown word as you use it.
5. VOCABULARY CARDS: Continue the practice of writing out Vocabulary Cards for the new words introduced in this Lesson, putting 9 (for "Lesson 9") in the top lefthand corner of each side of the Card. Make out the card for each new word as you come to it in the Sentences below; you will need some words for several Sentences. When you are given a word form and what it comes from, put the word it comes from at the top of your Card, and the information about that word form lower on the Card. Add these Cards to your collection, and place them all in alphabetical order. When additional information is provided about a word which you have had in a previous Lesson, add that information to your existing Vocabulary Card for that word. (Don't forget to put on your Card the case(s) taken by each preposition.)
A. TRANSLATION FROM ENGLISH INTO GREEK
(This may be done as an exercise in class at the end of the Lesson, or set as an assignment.)
|SENTENCES||NOTES AND NEW WORDS|
|A1.||The love of God has been poured out in our hearts by [the] Holy Spirit who is given to us.(ROMANS 5:5)||pour out: ἐκχύννω; perf ἐκκέχυκα; who is given: use articular participle|
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|SENTENCES||NOTES AND NEW WORDS|
|A2.||Just as it is truly [the] word of God which indeed is at work in you who believe. (1 THESSALONIANS 2:13)||just as: *καθώς; truly: ἀληθῶς; work in: ἐνεργέω (use mid); who believe: use articular participle|
|A3.||For I testify for them that they have a zeal for God, but not according to knowledge (ROMANS 10:2)||testify: *μαρτυρέω; zeal: ζῆλος, -ου, ὁ; for God: see #9.63; knowledge: ἐπίγνωσις, -εως, ἡ|
|A4.||There is coming one stronger than me after me. (MARK 1:7)||strong: ἰσχυρός -ά -όν, after: see #8.76|
B. SELECTIONS FROM THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
|B1.||Ἐγένοντο δὲ φίλοι ὅ τε Πιλάτος καὶ ὁ Ἡρῴδης ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ μετ’ ἀλλήλων· (ΚΑΤΑ ΛΟΥΚΑΝ 23:12)||φίλος, -ου, ὁ: friend; *τε: and, both/and; Ἡρῴδης, -ου, ὁ: Herod; αὐτὸς ὁ: that very; *ἀλλήλους: reciprocal pronoun [#8.9]|
|B2.||Μακάριοι οἱ εἰρηνοποιοί· ὅτι αὐτοὶ υἱοὶ θεοῦ κληθήσονται. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 5:9)||εἰρηνοποιός, -οῦ, ὁ: peacemaker; κλη-θή-σ-ο-νται: 3pl fut. pass. of *καλέω, call|
|B3.||Ὅτε οὖν ἔνιψεν τοὺς πόδας αὐτῶν, καὶ ἔλαβεν τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ, ἀναπεσὼν πάλιν , εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, Γινώσκετε τί πεποίηκα ὑμῖν; Ὑμεῖς φωνεῖτέ με, Ὁ διδάσκαλος, καὶ Ὁ κύριος· καὶ καλῶς λέγετε, εἰμὶ γάρ. Εἰ οὖν ἐγὼ ἔνιψα ὑμῶν τοὺς πόδας, ὁ κύριος καὶ ὁ διδάσκαλος, καὶ ὑμεῖς ὀφείλετε ἀλλήλων νίπτειν τοὺς πόδας. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 13:12-14)||νίπτω: wash; *πούς, ποδός, ὁ: foot; ἀν-έ-πε-σ-εν: 3sg aor. of ἀναπίπτω, sit at table; καλῶς: well (#7.32); ὀφείλω: ought|
|B4.||Ὁ νικῶν, δώσω αὐτῷ καθίσαι μετ’ ἐμοῦ ἐν τῷ θρόνῳ μου, ὡς κἀγὼ ἐνίκησα, καὶ ἐκάθισα μετὰ τοῦ πατρός μου ἐν τῷ θρόνῳ αὐτοῦ. (ΑΠΟΚΑΛΥΨΙΣ ΙΩΑΝΝΟΥ 3:21)||νικάω: overcome, conquer, be victorious; δώ-σ-ω 1sg fut., from *δίδωμι, give; καθί-σ-αι: aor inf of καθίζω, sit, be seated|
|B5.||καὶ ἡ γυνή σου Ἐλισάβετ γεννήσει υἱόν σοι, καὶ καλέσεις τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Ἰωάννην. Καὶ ἔσται χαρά σοι καὶ ἀγαλλίασις, καὶ πολλοὶ ἐπὶ τῇ γεννήσει αὐτοῦ χαρήσονται. (ΚΑΤΑ ΛΟΥΚΑΝ 1:13-14)||*γεννάω: beget, give birth to; *χαρά, -ᾶς, ἡ: joy; ἀγαλλίασις, -εως, ἡ: exultation; γένεσις, -εως, ἡ: birth; χαρή-σ-ο-νται: 3p1 fut. dep. of *χαίρω, rejoice|
|B6.||Ὡς οὖν ἦλθον πρὸς αὐτὸν οἱ Σαμαρεῖται, ἠρώτων αὐτὸν μεῖναι παρ’ αὐτοῖς· καὶ ἔμεινεν ἐκεῖ δύο ἡμέρας. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 4:40)||ἠρώτων: 3pl impf. of *ἐρωτάω, ask; μεῖναι: aor. inf of *μένω, remain|
|B7.||Καὶ ἰδού, δύο ἐξ αὐτῶν ἦσαν πορευόμενοι ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ εἰς κώμην ἀπέχουσαν σταδίους ἑξήκοντα ἀπὸ Ἱερουσαλήμ, ᾗ ὄνομα Ἐμμαούς. Καὶ αὐτοὶ ὡμίλουν πρὸς ἀλλήλους περὶ πάντων τῶν συμβεβηκότων τούτων. Καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ ὁμιλεῖν αὐτοὺς καὶ συζητεῖν, καὶ αὐτὸς ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἐγγίσας συνεπορεύετο αὐτοῖς. (ΚΑΤΑ ΛΟΥΚΑΝ 24:13-15)||ἦσαν πορευόμενοι: 3pl periphrastic impf. (#8.2), from *πορεύομαι, journey, go, walk; κώμη, -ης, ἡ: village; ἀπέχουσαν: acc. fem. ptc, from ἀπέχω, be distant; στάδιοι, -ων, οἱ: stades, furlongs (a measure of distance); ἑξήκοντα: sixty; ὡμίλουν: 3pl impf, from ὁμιλέω, converse; συμβεβηκότων: neut. gen. pl perf ptc, from συμβαίνω, happen; ἐν τῷ ὁμιλεῖν: = while; see #9.86; συ-ζητέω: discuss together; *αὐτός: self; ἐγγίζω: approach, come up to, draw near; συν-ε-πορεύ-ε-το: 3sg impf, from συμ-πορεύομαι, walk with [someone]|
140 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
|B8.||Καὶ ἔρχονται Σαδδουκαῖοι πρὸς αὐτόν, οἵτινες λέγουσιν ἀνάστασιν μὴ εἶναι · καὶ ἐπηρώτησαν αὐτόν, λέγοντες, Διδάσκαλε, Μωσῆς ἔγραψεν ἡμῖν, ὅτι ἐάν τινος ἀδελφὸς ἀποθάνῃ, καὶ καταλίπῃ γυναῖκα, καὶ τέκνα μὴ ἀφῇ, ἵνα λάβῃ ὁ ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἐξαναστήσῃ σπέρμα τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ· (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 12:18-19)||*ὅστις: who, indefinite [#7.15] — used rather than ὅς because its antecedent Σαδδουκαῖοι is without an article, and not referring to specific, known Sadducees; ἐπηρώτων: 3pl impf, from *ἐπερωτάω ask [a question]; *διδάσκαλος, -ου, ὁ, teacher; ἀπο-θάν-ῃ 3sg aor2 subjv, from *ἀποθνῄσκω [#7.66], die; κατα-λίπ-ῃ: 3sg aor2 subjv, from καταλείπω [#7.66], leave (behind); ἀφῇ: 3sg aor3 subjv, from *ἀφίημι, leave, dismiss, forgive; *τέκνον, -ου, τό: child; ἵνα λάβῃ (3sg aor² subjv, from *λαμβάνω [#7.66]): that he should take, = let him take; ἐξ-ανα-στή-σ-ῃ: 3sg aor³ subjv, from ἐξανίστημι, raise up; σπέρμα, -ατος, τό: seed (here: offspring)|
|B9.||Καὶ ἀκούσαντες οἱ δέκα ἤρξαντο ἀγανακτεῖν περὶ Ἰακώβου καὶ Ἰωάννου. Ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς προσκαλεσάμενος αὐτοὺς λέγει αὐτοῖς, Οἴδατε ὅτι οἱ δοκοῦντες ἄρχειν τῶν ἐθνῶν κατακυριεύουσιν αὐτῶν· καὶ οἱ μεγάλοι αὐτῶν κατεξουσιάζουσιν αὐτῶν. Οὐχ οὕτως δὲ ἔσται ἐν ὑμῖν· ἀλλ’ ὃς ἐὰν θέλῃ γενέσθαι μέγας ἐν ὑμῖν, ἔσται ὑμῶν διάκονος· καὶ ὃς ἐὰν θέλῃ ὑμῶν γενέσθαι πρῶτος, ἔσται πάντων δοῦλος. Καὶ γὰρ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου οὐκ ἦλθεν διακονηθῆναι, ἀλλὰ διακονῆσαι, καὶ δοῦναι τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ λύτρον ἀντὶ πολλῶν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 10:41-45)||δέκα: ten; ἤρξ-α-ντο: 3pl aor. mid. of ἄρχομαι, begin; ἀγανακτέω: I am indignant/angry at/with, προσ-καλε-σά-μεν-ος: nom. sg masc. aor. mid. ptc of προσκαλέω, call to oneself; *δοκέω: be thought, seem; *ἄρχω: rule over (+gen.); ἔθνος, -ους, τό: nation (pl: gentiles); κατακυριεύω: lord it over (+gen.); κατεξουσιάζω: exercise authority over (+gen.); διάκονος, -ου, ὁ/ἡ servant; *δοῦλος, -ου, ὁ, slave; διακονη-θῆ-ναι: aor. inf. pass. of διακονέω, serve; δοῦ-ναι: aor.3 inf. of *δίδωμι, give; λύτρον, -ου, τό: ransom (price of freedom); ἀντί: in place of, instead of (#8.74)|
|B10.||Ἡ ἀγάπη τῷ πλησίον κακὸν οὐκ ἐργάζεται· πλήρωμα οὖν νόμου ἡ ἀγάπη. (ΠΡΟΣ ΡΩΜΑΙΟΥΣ 13:10)||*ἀγάπη, -ης, ἡ: love; πλήρωμα, -ατος, τό: fulfilling, completeness|
|B11.||Ὁ δὲ ἐγερθεὶς παρέλαβεν τὸ παιδίον καὶ τὴν μητέρα αὐτοῦ νυκτός, καὶ ἀνεχώρησεν εἰς Αἴγυπτον, καὶ ἦν ἐκεῖ ἕως τῆς τελευτῆς Ἡρῴδου· ἵνα πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθὲν ὑπὸ τοῦ κυρίου διὰ τοῦ προφήτου, λέγοντος, Ἐξ Αἰγύπτου ἐκάλεσα τὸν υἱόν μου. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 2:14-15)||ὁ δέ: "and he" [see #9.83(b)]; ἐγερ-θείς: aor. pass. ptc, from *ἐγείρω, raise up (pass. has meaning here: get up); παρ-έ-λαβ-ον: 3sg aor2, from παραλαμβάνω [#7.66]; *παιδίον, -ου, τό: child; νυκτός: gen. of time within which (see #9.64), from *νύξ, -υκτός, ἡ, therefore: by night; ἀν-ε-χώρη-σ-εν: from ἀναχωρέω, go away, depart; Αἴγυπτος, -ου, ἡ: Egypt; τελευτή, -ῆς, ἡ: end, death; ῥη-θέ-ν: nom. neut. sg aor. pass. ptc, from aor. pass. ἐρρέθην, suppletive of *λέγω (#7.63)|
NINE: USING NOUNS AND THE ARTICLE 141
|B12.||Τότε πορεύεται καὶ παραλαμβάνει μεθ’ ἑαυτοῦ ἑπτὰ ἕτερα πνεύματα πονηρότερα ἑαυτοῦ, καὶ εἰσελθόντα κατοικεῖ ἐκεῖ· καὶ γίνεται τὰ ἔσχατα τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκείνου χείρονα τῶν πρώτων. Οὕτως ἔσται καὶ τῇ γενεᾷ ταύτῃ τῇ πονηρᾷ. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 12:45)||*ἑαυτόν, ου: oneself (reflexive pronoun, #6.9); *ἑπτά: seven; *ἕτερος, -α, -ον: another (of a different kind); πονηρό-τερος, -α, -ον: more evil (see #7.43); κατοικέω: settle down, dwell; χείρονα: nom. neut. pl of χείρων, worse (see #7.45); *πρῶτος, -η, -ον: first; *οὕτως: thus (#7.23); γενεά, -ᾶς, ἡ: generation, age; *πονηρός, -ά, -όν: evil|
|B13.||Οἱ δὲ ἄλλοι μαθηταὶ τῷ πλοιαρίῳ ἦλθον — οὐ γὰρ ἦσαν μακρὰν ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς, ἀλλ’ ὡς ἀπὸ πηχῶν διακοσίων — σύροντες τὸ δίκτυον τῶν ἰχθύων. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 21:8)||πλοιάριον, -ου, τό: (small) boat; πῆχυς, -εως, ὁ: cubit (18 inches/46 cm); διακόσιοι: two hundred; σύρω: drag; δίκτυον, -ου, τό: net; ἰχθύς, -ύος, ὁ: fish|
|B14.||ὡς πάντοτε, καὶ νῦν μεγαλυνθήσεται χριστὸς ἐν τῷ σώματί μου, εἴτε διὰ ζωῆς εἴτε διὰ θανάτου. Ἐμοὶ γὰρ τὸ ζῇν, χριστός· καὶ τὸ ἀποθανεῖν, κέρδος. (ΠΡΟΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΗΣΙΟΥΣ 1:20-21)||πάντοτε: always; *νῦν: now; μεγαλυν-θή-σ-ε-ται: 3sg fut. pass. of μεγαλύνω, magnify; *εἴτε ... εἴτε ...: whether ... or ...; ;fly: pres. inf. of *ζάω, live; κέρδος, -ους, τό: gain|
|B15.||Ἀναστρεφομένων δὲ αὐτῶν ἐν τῇ Γαλιλαίᾳ, εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Μέλλει ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου παραδίδοσθαι εἰς χεῖρας ἀνθρώπων, καὶ ἀποκτενοῦσιν αὐτόν, καὶ τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ ἐγερθήσεται. Καὶ ἐλυπήθησαν σφόδρα. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 17:22-23)||συ-στρεφ-ο-μέν-ων: pres. ptc mid. (with pass. meaning), from συστρέφω, gather around, together (with αὐτῶν, gen. absolute [#8.5], = while they were gathered together); *μέλλω: I am about to; παρα-δί-δο-σθ-αι: pres inf. mid. (with pass. meaning), from *παραδίδωμι, deliver up, hand over, pass on; ἀπο-κτεν-οῦσιν 3pl fut., from *ἀποκτείνω, kill; τρίτος, -η, -ον: third; ἐγερ-θή-σ-ε-ται: 3sg fut. pass., from *ἐγείρω, raise up|
|B16.||Ὁ μὲν υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ὑπάγει, καθὼς γέγραπται περὶ αὐτοῦ· οὐαὶ δὲ τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ ἐκείνῳ δι’ οὗ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου παραδίδοται· καλὸν ἦν αὐτῷ εἰ οὐκ ἐγεννήθη ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἐκεῖνος. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΡΚΟΝ 14:21)||*ὑπάγω: go, go away; οὐαί: woe to ... !, alas for ... !; *καλός, -ή, -όν: see #7.49; ἐ-γεννή-θη 3sg aor. pass. of *γεννάω, beget, bear (pass.: be born)|
|B17.||Καὶ ὑμεῖς οὖν λύπην μὲν νῦν ἔχετε· πάλιν δὲ ὄψομαι ὑμᾶς, καὶ χαρήσεται ὑμῶν ἡ καρδία, καὶ τὴν χαρὰν ὑμῶν οὐδεὶς αἴρει ἀφ’ ὑμῶν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 16:22)||λύπη, -ῆς, ἡ: grief, sorrow, pain; *αἴρω: remove, take away, take up|
SUPPLEMENTARY PASSAGES IN THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
Passages as set by your teacher.
10.1 GREEK VERB CONJUGATIONS
10.11 In the course of the previous Lessons we have encountered most of the Greek verb system. In this Lesson we will complete the building of the framework, and fill in more fully some of the details.
10.12 A conjugation is a group of verbs which share a common pattern of conjugating one or more of their tenses (allowing for phonemic changes due to the last letter of the lexal interacting with a suffix). On the basis of this definition, there are three conjugations in Greek, as there are three different patterns of conjugation for the aorist active tense, and the choice of pattern of conjugation that a given verb will follow is not predictable upon the basis of any phonemic features such as what the final letter of the lexal is, but simply happens to be a function of that particular verb.
10.13 The three conjugations which can be recognized on this basis are:
First Conjugation: Those verbs which in their aorist active and middle flexions add the punctiliar morph -aa- (which after liquids becomes just -a-) to their lexal. (These aorists are called "first aorists".) For paradigm, see #4.21.
Second Conjugation: Those verbs which in their aorist active and middle flexions add the neutral morph, -o- (before nasals) and -e- (otherwise), to their lexal. (These aorists are called "second aorists".) For paradigm, see #3.81.
Third Conjugation: Those verbs which in their aorist active and middle flexions (and the active and middle of their present and imperfect flexions) add their pronoun (person/number) endings directly to the verb lexal — that is, they have no aspect morph. (These verbs are sometimes called verbs" as most of them have their lexical form ending in -jut rather than in -co, but it is clearer, and therefore preferable, to refer to their aorist forms as "third aorists".) For paradigm, see #7.7.
10.14 First and Second Conjugation verbs both have lexical forms in -co, and all but four Third Conjugation words have lexical forms in -pi, so that there is only a two-way contrast of conjugation in the present tense. This has led some scholars to classify Greek verbs into only two conjugations, an -w conjugation and a -pi conjugation. However this not only fails to take account of the difference in conjugation between first and second aorists but also obscures the important distinction relating to how the verbs of these two conjugations are formed: First Conjugation verbs build their verb system upon their present stem (and their lexal is therefore inherently durative in aspect); while Second Conjugation verbs build their verb system upon their aorist stem (and their lexal is therefore inherently punctiliar in aspect — as is true also of Third Conjugation verbs). Other scholars yet again do not accept the classification of the Greek verb into conjugations at all, but regard all Greek verbs as belonging to a single or unitary conjugation. This view must involve a redefining of the meaning of the word "conjugation", because if it means "a pattern of conjugating", then it simply is not true that all Greek verbs belong to the one conjugation, because they do NOT all follow the one pattern of conjugating.
TEN: VERB CONJUGATION 143
10.15 The situation is further complicated by the fact that a number of -/it verbs (that is, verbs hich are Third Conjugation in the present tense) change over and follow the first system of onjugation in the aorist. On top of that, some verbs are found in the New Testament (and koine Greek generally) with both First and Second Conjugation forms in use side by side, while other erbs are found with both First and Third (-in) Conjugation forms in use — this is due to a tendency n the language for both second aorists and -pi forms to drop out of use and give way to First Conjugation (-co) forms.
10.16 The clearest way of handling a complex (and changing) linguistic situation of this kind —and the way that is followed in this book — is to give full recognition to the different conjugational patterns that do exist, illustrate them by means of selected verbs which follow in a regular way those different conjugation patterns, and then describe the departures from these regular patterns that are to be observed.
10.17 The great majority of Greek verbs belong to the First Conjugation, and those which follow the Second or Third Conjugation in the New Testament are only a small — though important —minority: in the New Testament there are just 34 verbs (counting each simplex verb and its compounds as a single verb) which have second aorists and are thus to be classified as Second Conjugation, and a total of only 36 verbs which have Third Conjugation forms, 32 of which have -pi in the present tense (or, if deponent, come from a -pt root) and four of which have -co in the present tense but follow the Third Conjugation in the aorist. A number of these Second and Third Conjugation verbs occur only once or twice altogether in the New Testament. Many of the more frequently-occurring ones have forms that vary between or are selected from both the Second Conjugation and the First Conjugation, or the Third Conjugation and the First Conjugation, as the case may be.
10.18 Apart from these 70 verbs in the Second and Third Conjugations, the remainder of the 1000 New Testament verbs take regular First Conjugation endings throughout. Many First Conjugation verbs are irregular in that they do not form their stems for their different tenses in a way that is predictable from the phonemic rules; however, once the stem of a tense is known, they conjugate that tense in a completely regular manner.
10.19 First Conjugation verbs fall into nine different classes, with separate paradigms, as a result of the interaction of the final letter (phoneme) of their lexal with the morphs which are added. (These are set out in #10.4.)
10.2 THE FORMATION OF THE TENSE STEMS
10.21 A Greek verb is constructed of a lexal14 (the lexical morph, which contains the verb's basic semantic information, that is, its lexical meaning) together with various affixes (prefixes, infixes and suffixes) which are grammatical morphs and which indicate the grammatical meaning of the verb for the particular sentence in which it is being used; that is to say, they indicate person, number, tense (aspect), mode, and voice.
10.22 For some Greek verbs the root or basic stem upon which it constructs its inflectional system is the durative verb stem (that is, the verb system is constructed upon the basis of the present tense forms, and a punctiliar morph is added in forming the aorist). For other verbs the basic stem is the
144 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
punctiliar verb stem (that is, the verb system is constructed upon the basis of the aorist tense forms, and a durative morph is added in forming the present).
10.23 There are some verbs (listed and discussed further in #C5) which add to their basic stem both a durative morph to form the present, and a punctiliar morph to form the aorist; but most verbs add only one or the other.
10.24 The stem for each tense is known as the tense stem. There are three patterns which underlie the formation of the tense stem systems of Greek verbs. These patterns (and examples of each) are:ιαειαασα
10.25 PATTERN 1: The present stem consists of the verb stem (the lexal, sometimes with an additional phoneme or so in it, as a durative morph: set out in #C5) together with the neutral morph; and the aorist stem is formed from the verb stem by replacing the neutral morph with the punctiliar morph. This morph is (a) -La- for a basic verb stem ending in -E- plus a liquid (that is, -t-is added before the liquid, and -a- after it), (b) -a- for other liquids, and (c) -aa- in all other verbs (see #4.37, #4.57), The resultant aorist is known as a first aorist, and follows the first pattern of aorist conjugation. The verbs which follow this pattern of aorist conjugation comprise the First Conjugation. Examples: (a) μένω, ἔμεινα (b) σύρω, ἔσυρα (c) λύω, ἔλυσα.
10.26 PATTERN 2: The aorist stem consists of the verb stem together with the neutral morph, and the resultant aorist is known as a second aorist and follows the second pattern of aorist conjugation. The verbs which follow this pattern of aorist conjugation comprise the Second Conjugation. The present stem is formed by the adding of a durative morph as an infix in the lexal slot, and to this stem the same present and imperfect endings are added as for the First Conjugation. Example: verb stem, βαλ-; aorist active, ἔβαλον, durative infix, an additional -λ,-; present active, βάλλω; imperfect active, ἔβαλλον. In most cases the future stem is formed from the basic (aorist) stem in the regular way in accordance with the rules (see #4.22, #4.56) by adding -ε- to liquid stems and -σ- to other stems, but some irregularities can be found. The durative morphs (that is, what is added to the verb stem to form the present stem) require to be noted on a verb-by-verb basis (set out, #C2).
10.27 PATTERN 3: The aorist stem consists of the verb stem without addition, to which the Third Conjugation aorist endings are added directly (if the stem ends in a short vowel, this is normally lengthened when the endings are added — cf. #4.53, #7.72). The present stem is formed by the adding of a durative morph as an infix in the lexal slot, and to this stem the Third Conjugation present and imperfect endings are then added. Example: verb stem, στα-; aorist active, ἔστην; durative infix -ἱ, present active, ἵστημι; imperfect active, ἵστην. The Third Conjugation lexical-form ending is -μι and therefore this conjugation is frequently known as the -μι Conjugation. NOTE (a) that some verbs are Third Conjugation in the present/imperfect tense flexions, and First Conjugation in the aorist (that is, they take -σα-: example, δείκνυμι [-νυ- is the durative infix]; aorist active ἔδειξα; (b) that three such verbs have forms with -κα- as their punctiliar morph instead of -σα- (ἔδωκα, from δίδωμι) ἔθηκα, from τίθημι, and -ἦκα, from ἵημι — see #E4.77); and (c) that four verbs (-βαίνω, γινώσκω, δύνω, φύω) are First Conjugation in the present/imperfect and Third Conjugation in the aorist.
10.28 The clearest way of identifying the verb stem (and thus finding the basic form of a verb) is to compare the second person plural of the present and aorist active imperatives. The derived tense will be seen to contain the verb stem together with the durative or punctiliar aspect morph (as the case may be) and, where appropriate, the neutral morph.
10.29 Examples of the different verb categories (with underlining of the durative and punctiliar aspect morphs respectively):
TEN: VERB CONJUGATION 145
|FIRST CONJUGATION||Lexical Form||Meaning||PRESENT Impv.||AORIST Impv.|
|-ε- + liquid: add -ι.α||μένω||remain||μέν-ε-τε||μείνατε|
|other liquid: add -α||σύρω||drag||σύρ-ε-τε||σύρ-α-τε|
|other verbs: add -σα||λύω||loose||λύ-ε-τε||λύ-σα-τε|
|adding - μ.αν-||λαμβάνω||take||λαμβάνετε||λάβετε|
|reduplicating with -ι-||δίδωμι||give||δίδοτε||δότε|
10.3 THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF THE VERB
10.31 A large number of Greek verbs form some of their tenses in ways that could not be predicted from their lexical form (the first person singular present indicative active). The entire scheme of a verb's paradigms can be known, however, if one knows six of that verb's forms. As the endings of a tense flexion follow regularly, given the 1st person singular of that tense, it follows that all the forms of a verb can be obtained by adding the appropriate ending to the stem for a given tense.
10.32 These six forms, which are all in the indicative mode, are therefore known as the "principal parts of the verb", because all other tenses and modes are formed from them. The Principal Parts (in the order in which it is standard for them to be given), and other tenses formed from them, are:
|PRINCIPAL PART||FORMED FROM THEM||MIDDLE FORMS|
Other modes are derived from the corresponding indicative stem.
10.33 Not all verbs have all these parts, and the absence or non-existence of a Principal Part is usually indicated within a table of Principal Parts by a dash. Such verbs are said to be defective. A verb can be defective to a greater or less extent, that is, can have one or several parts lacking.
10.34 Seven verbs found in the New Testament (set out in #7.63, #C2.8) draw elements from more than one verb root to supplement each other, and thus make up a more complete frame of Principal Parts. These seven verbs are called suppletives.
10.35 The paradigm of λύω is given in full in Appendix C, together with particular flexions for some other verbs where these differ from that for λύω, or else which present difficulties or unusual features. However, for many words, other paradigms and conjugations differ only in relation to how their tense stems are formed, and the flexion for each particular tense then follows λύω exactly. For all such verbs it is therefore only necessary to set out the six Principal Parts, and every form of that verb can be known.
146 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
10.4 THE PARADIGMS OF THE FIRST CONJUGATION
10.41 There are nine paradigms for the First Conjugation, differing in the last phoneme of their lexal. These nine paradigms are as follows:
|1.1||Long Vowel Verbs (λύω)||(70 in -ev, 35 other)|
|1.2||Short Vowel Verbs in -α (τιμάω)||(78 verbs)|
|1.3||Short Vowel Verbs in -ε (λαλέω)||(235 verbs)|
|1.4||Short Vowel Verbs in -ο (πληρόω)||(91 verbs)|
|1.5||Labial Verbs (βλέπω, θλίβω, γράφω, καλύπτω)||(18 in -πτ, 19 other)|
|1.6||Palatal Verbs (ἄγω, διώκω, ἄρχω, κηρύσσω)||(65 verbs)|
|1.7||Dental Verbs (σπεύδω, δοξάζω)||(206 in -ζ, 17 other)|
|1.8a||Polysyllabic Oral Liquid Verbs (ἀγγέλλω, ἐγείρω)||(4 verbs)|
|1.8b||Monosyllabic Oral Liquid Verbs (ἀνατέλλω, φθείρω)||(17 verbs)|
|1.9a||Polysyllabic Nasal Liquid Verbs (ξηραίνω)||(27 verbs)|
|1.9b||Monosyllabic Nasal Liquid Verbs (ἀποκτείνω)||(6 verbs)|
|1.9c||Nasal Liquid Verbs in -iv (κρίνω)||(3 verbs)|
10.42 The numbers after each paradigm indicate the number of New Testament verbs (simplex and compound forms of a verb counted as one) that there are in each category. But it must be noted that many of these verbs occur only a very small number of times and therefore (at least as far as the New Testament is concerned) are very defective (that is, have forms representing only one or two or three of the Principal Parts).
10.43 The paradigm for λύω is given in full in Appendix C, #C1.1.
10.44 The Short Vowel paradigms are of considerable importance, containing between them more than four hundred verbs, or 47% of all First Conjugation verbs in the New Testament. They have two specific characteristics: (a) In all modes and both tenses of the durative aspect they combine their stem final vowel with the initial vowel of the suffix, according to the rules of contraction (#6.8); and (b) Before a consonant affix (that is, in the future, punctiliar and perfective systems) they lengthen their stem final vowel, in accordance with the Short Vowel Lengthening Rule (#4.53). Apart from the flexions of the durative aspect, the verbs of these paradigms have the same forms as Paradigm C1.1. The durative aspect flexions and the first form of the other flexions are given in Appendix C, #C1.2—#C1.48.
10.45 The Consonant paradigms (1.5 to 1.9) are quite regular for the most part, their Principal Parts being formed in accordance with the application of the Rules of Amalgamation and Assimilation (touched on at times in the Lessons, and set out in detail in #E2.4 and #E2.5). In particular:
† But in the perfect, + σ = ν.
TEN: VERB CONJUGATION 147
10.5 THE OPTATIVE MODE
10.51 An earlier Lesson (#4.4) has explained the concept of mode. In addition to those discussed in that Section, there is a further mode in Greek called the optative, from the Latin opto, "I wish". This mode was never common in Greek. "It was always a luxury of the language and was used more by Xenophon and Plato than other writers. κοινή writers like Strabo and Polybius use it sparingly."²³ Its use was declining in New Testament times — Clapp and Fribergs list 68 occurrences in the New Testament, including 17 occurrences of γένοιτο (15 in the expression Μὴ γένοιτο — see #10.52). It is used 28 times by Luke and 31 by Paul, but never by Matthew or James.²⁴ Turner gives quite a comprehensive discussion of the optative in Hellenistic Greek generally as well as in the New Testament.²⁵
10.52 The main New Testament use of the optative is in the expression of a wish (hence its name — #10.53), especially in a few set phrases. The most common of these is "may it never be", Μὴ γένοιτο, used fifteen times in the New Testament, fourteen of them in Paul (once in 1 Corinthians, thrice in Galatians, and ten times in Romans), and the other instance in Luke (20:16). Other examples are Mark 11:14, "May no-one eat ...", and 1 Thessalonians 5:23, "and may the God of peace himself sanctify you ..."
10.53 The optative was also used in a potential sense as a kind of softened future (e.g. Acts 26:29, could wish ...") and in a deliberative sense (for example, Luke 1:62, "as to what he would wish .."; Luke 6:11, "what they would do ..."). Some usages combine the potential and deliberative connotations (e.g. Acts 8:31, "how could I ...?"; Acts 17:18, "What would/might he wish to say ...?").
10.54 It is hard to state a clear distinction between the use of the optative and that of the subjunctive. Thus Turner²⁶ says that the optative "was declining during the three centuries B.C. ... It was probably never used much in conversation, even in Athens ... The reason for the decline probably lies in the 'syntactical weakness' ... of the optative. No one can or could quite define its essential function. The two chief functions, volitive and potential, were too dissimilar to give a unity to the mood, and the subjunctive was always at hand for a substitute for either."
10.55 The volitional (volitive, that is "wish") use of the optative will usually be rendered "may . ", and the other uses by means of the same kinds of expressions as the subjunctive, "could", "would", "might", etc. The particular shade of meaning for an optative in a given context is a matter for discussion in a commentary on the Greek text.
10.56 The optative is found in the New Testament only in two tenses, the present and the aorist. ( In classical Greek the optative also occurs in future and perfect flexions.)
10.57 The optative mode morph is -ι- added to the aspect morph (in the passive, -ιη- is added to the passive morph; in the Third Conjugation aorist, -ι- is added directly to the stem and when this has lengthened, is subscript — thus: δῴη, 3rd singular, from δίδωμι; δυναίμην, (1st singular middle, from δύναμαι). This always results in a diphthong: in the present (and in the second aorist) this produces -οι-; in the first aorist active and middle, -σαι-; and in the aorist passive, -θειη-. The flexions for the optative are set out in Paradigm C1.1, λύω, in Appendix C. The optative morph is a specifier morph, and occupies Slot 8 of a verb's nine Morph Slots (#A6.3; #E4.88).
148 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
10.6 PERIPHRASTIC TENSES
10.61 We have already met the concept of the periphrastic tense in the discussion of participles (see #8.2); a periphrastic tense is one that is formed by the use of a participle of the main verb and a part of εἰμί.
10.62 This was a required construction for some verb tense/mode forms because of the difficulty of pronouncing the form if it were a single word — this particularly applied to the third person plural of the perfect middle, where it was difficult to add the ending -νται to consonant stems. Thus we find forms such as πεπεισμένοι εἰσιν, "they have been persuaded". Some complete tense flexions were formed on a periphrastic basis for this reason (for example, the perfect subjunctive λελυμένος ὦ, and so forth, and the pluperfect of many verbs).
10.63 However, there are a considerable number of examples in the New Testament of periphrastic forms for the present, imperfect, future, and perfect tenses where the usual single-word forms are also in regular use. For example, see L3/B28: Οὗ γάρ εἰσιν δύο ἢ τρεῖς συνηγμένοι ...
10.64 Sometimes the use of the periphrastic form may emphasize the continuity or continuing nature of the action (#8.22), but in most cases it probably simply reflects the kind of colloquial Greek spoken at the time (some scholars would suggest that this is under the influence of Aramaic and the Septuagint, which used quite numerous periphrastics in its translation of the Old Testament; but these periphrastic forms were quite common in Hellenistic Greek generally).
10.65 No difference in meaning is detectable for example between ἐπεγέγραπτο (Acts 17:23) and ἦν γεγραμμένον (John 19:19). In fact within a few lines we find both forms: ἔστιν γεγραμμένα (John 20:30) and Ταῦτα δὲ γέγραπται (John 20:31). Similarly ἐβάπτιζεν and Ἦν βαπτίζων are both used in John 3:22, 23, with apparently equivalent meaning, and differing only stylistically.
10.66 The most frequent New Testament users of periphrastics are Mark and Luke.
10.67 The periphrastic:
|present||is formed with the present||of||εἰμί||and||the||present||participle|
|imperfect||is formed with the imperfect||”||”||”||”||”||”|
|future||is formed with the future||”||”||”||”||”||”|
|perfect||is formed with the present||”||”||”||”||perfect||participle|
|pluperfect||is formed with the imperfect||”||”||”||”||”||”|
|future perfect||is formed with the future||”||”||”||”||”||”|
10.7 THE INFINITIVE AND THE IMPERSONAL VERB
10.70 THE USE OF THE INFINITIVE: The infinitive (see #4.47) combines the features of a verb and a noun. As a verb, it has voice and aspect (tense): therefore it will be active, middle, or passive; and it will be durative (present), punctiliar (aorist), or perfective (perfect). As usual, the difference of aspect refers to type of action, not to time. There exists also a future infinitive form, though this is used only five or six times in the New Testament (Acts 11:28; 23:30; 24:15; 27:10: Hebrews 3:18; and John 21:25 in some manuscripts). Furthermore, as a verb the infinitive can have a subject or an object. As a noun, it is indeclinable, but it can be the subject or object of the main verb of a sentence, can have the article, and can be governed by a preposition.
TEN: VERB CONJUGATION 149
10.71 INDIRECT DISCOURSE: This term refers to reported speech, or any indirect way of reporting what a person is saying or thinking. The more common way in which this is done in the New Testament is with ὅτι, though Luke and Paul (and occasionally other writers) also use the infinitive construction. This infinitive will be of the same tense as would have been used in the direct speech which is being reported; normally the infinitive will be translated into English by a full verb, which will be put into the past tense, because this is what English uses for reported speech or thought. Examples:
(a) With present infinitive: Romans 1:22, Φάσκοντες εἶναι σοφοὶ, "claiming to be wise" ( what they said was, "we are wise", which English indirect discourse would then put into the past tense, "claiming that they were wise");
(b) With the future infinitive, John 21:25 (some early manuscripts), οὐδὲ αὐτὸν οἶμαι τὸν κόσμον χωρῆσαι τὰ γραφόμενα βιβλία, "I suppose that even the whole world would not have room for the books that would be written" (direct discourse, "not even the world itself will have room for the books being written").
(c) With the perfect infinitive, Luke 24:23, ἦλθον λέγουσαι καὶ ὀπτασίαν ἀγγέλων ἑωρακέναι, "they came saying also that they had seen a vision of angels" (what they said was, "we have seen ...").
10.72 INFINITIVE WITH SUBJECT AND OBJECT: When an infinitive has a subject, this will be in the accusative case [see #9.53, where examples are given]. The object of an infinitive will also be in the accusative case. Thus: Matthew 1:20, μὴ φοβηθῇς παραλαβεῖν Μαριὰμ τὴν γυναῖκά σου, "do not fear to take Mary [as] your wife"; Matthew 12:38, θέλομεν ... σημεῖον ἰδεῖν we wish to see a sign"; 1 Corinthians 11:20, οὐκ ἔστιν κυριακὸν δεῖπνον φαγεῖν, "it is not to eat the Lord's supper". Example with both subject and object: Romans 14:21, Καλὸν τὸ μὴ φαγεῖν κρέα , μηδὲ πιεῖν οἶνον ..., [it is] good not to eat flesh nor drink wine ..."
10.73 INFINITIVE ITSELF AS SUBJECT OR OBJECT: An infinitive is often used like a noun, and will then frequently have the article, which will be neuter singular (the "articular infinitive"; discussed further in #9.86). The infinitive itself can be the subject or the object of a finite verb. Examples: Philippians 1:21, τὸ ζῇν χριστός, "to live [is] Christ"; the infinitive τὸ ζῇν, "to live", is the subject. Luke 16:3, ἐπαιτεῖν αἰσχύνομαι, "I am ashamed to beg"; the infinitive ἐπαιτεῖν, "to beg", is the object of αἰσχύνομαι, "I am ashamed"; similarly, Matthew 5:34, ἐγὼ ... λέγω ὑμῖν μὴ ὀμόσαι, "I tell you not to swear".
10.74 INFINITIVE AFTER A PREPOSITION: The infinitive is also often used after a preposition, when it can be translated by a participle or a full verb. In the New Testament, the infinitive after a preposition will always have the article, which will be in the case required by the particular preposition being used. Thus: James 4:15, Ἀντὶ τοῦ λέγειν, "instead of saying"; Matthew 13:5, διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν, "because of not having"; Luke 22:20, μετὰ τὸ δειπνῆσαι, "after the dining"; Acts 8:40, ἕως τοῦ ἐλθεῖν, "until the coming"; and Luke 22:15, πρὸ τοῦ με παθεῖν, "before I suffer". (Notice that the subject of the infinitive "suffer" is "I", and that in accordance with the rule (#10.72; #9.53) this is in the accusative case, με.) We have met earlier (#4.92, Selection L4/1320) the construction with ἐν: ἐν δὲ τῷ καθεύδειν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, "and while men slept"
10.75 PURPOSE: The infinitive can express purpose, as in Selection L4/B18, Μὴ νομίσητε ὅτι ἦλθον καταλῦσαι ..., "Do not think that I came to destroy ...", that is, "with the purpose of destroying ...". Similarly, Matthew 2:2, ἤλθομεν προσκυνῆσαι, "we came to worship";
150 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENTLuke 1:76, προπορεύσῃ γὰρ πρὸ προσώπου κυρίου ἑτοιμάσαι ὁδοὺς αὐτοῦ, "you will go before the Lord to prepare his ways"; and Matthew 20:28//Mark 10:45 (Selection L9/B9), ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου οὐκ ἦλθεν διακονηθῆναι, ἀλλὰ διακονῆσαι, καὶ δοῦναι τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ λύτρον ἀντὶ πολλῶν, "the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life a ransom for many". The Hebrew infinitive construct is frequently translated in the LXX by the genitive article τοῦ) with the infinitive, and this has fostered the common use of the genitive article τοῦ in the New Testament when the infinitive expresses purpose. Example: Matthew 2:13, μέλλει γὰρ Ἡρῴδης ζητεῖν τὸ παιδίον , τοῦ ἀπολέσαι αὐτό, "Herod is about to search for the child to destroy him".
10.76 RESULT: Greek uses tho-Te with the infinitive for expressing result. Thus: Matthew 8:24, coo-TE TO IrA,ofov KakthrTeo-Oat 1571-O Tcov Kvituircov, "so as the ship to be covered by the waves"; Matthew 12:22, Kai kOepairevcrev arrov, djaTe TOv Koxpav A.aA,efv, "and he healed him, so as the dumb man to talk". We usually need to translate these constructions by "so that" plus a full verb. Occasionally (not very often) an infinitive is used to express result without the use of thaw: for example, Acts 5:3, Err 6 laravacc Trjv icap8lav cov VJEvaaa9al (Ye To Kvefipa là dirov, "Satan has filled your heart for you to lie to the Holy Spirit".
10.77 COMPLETION OF THE THOUGHT: There are a number of verbs which normally require an infinitive after them to complete the thought introduced by such a verb. These include verbs of capacity or wanting or willingness. Examples: Hebrews 2:18, 615vaToct roil zezpacoyevoic Porieficat, "he is able to help those who are being tempted"; John 12:21 (L4/All ), KOpte, 00,0411EV 71-16051/ i6eiv, "Sir, we wish to see Jesus"; Acts 17:20, Pov)Lokte8a of)v yvoivat "so we want to know ..."; Acts 25:20, A.eyov ei P0'6/1011-0 gopetjeceat eic 7epocav,ua, "I asked if he would be willing to go to Jerusalem". Into this group also fall several of the impersonal verbs.
10.78 THE IMPERSONAL VERB: An impersonal verb is one which does not have a personal or specific subject. The clearest example is, "It is raining." It does not make sense to ask, "What is raining?" The term "impersonal verb" is also on occasions extended more widely to include verbs without a particular subject in a given context. The subject may be people in general — "they say", meaning, "Rumour has it that ..." At times the subject that is understood may be "God". In a few instances in the New Testament the word "it says" is used, and the implied meaning is, "the Scripture says": for example, Galatians 3:16, "The Scripture does not say ..." (NIV; "the Scripture" does not occur in the Greek).
10.79 GREEK IMPERSONAL VERBS: In English, as in the statement "It is raining", the word "it" is used as a pseudo-subject. In such a usage, however, Greek has the verb alone. The two most common impersonal verbs are sad (past tense Met), meaning "it is necessary", "must", and also used with the meaning "you ought to", "it would be a good idea to" (occurs in the New Testament in various forms 101 times); and secondly, L;EOTly, "it is permitted", "it is lawful" (occurs 33 times). Other impersonal verb are "it matters" (occurs 10 times), and 7rpeirEl, "it is fitting" (occurs 7 times). The infinitive used in conjunction with such verbs is in fact their subject. Examples: Acts 5:29 (L10/B1): Iletactpxeiv 6EI 6EQ) pã))o i devep(throtc. It is necessary to obey God rather than men. Here "God" is the indirect object of "to obey" (and therefore is dative), and "to obey" is the subject of oef, that is, what it is which is necessary. The subject of "to obey" is unstated and could be "we", "you", "everyone". Similarly:
TEN: VERB CONJUGATION 151
|Mt 17:10 (L10/B4):||Τί οὖν οἱ γραμματεῖς λέγουσιν||ὅτι||Ἠλίαν||δεῖ||ἐλθεῖν||πρῶτον ;|
|Why then do the scribes say||that||it is necessary||for Elijah||to come||first of all?|
Here Ἠλίαν is the subject of ἐλθεῖν (and, being the subject of an infinitive, is in the accusative — see #9.53), and ἐλθεῖν is the subject of δεῖ — Elijah is the one who is to come, and his coming is what is necessary. The sentence could also he translated, "Elijah must come first of all".
This verb occurs in the imperfect, ἔδει with the meaning "it was necessary":
|Jn 4:4 (L10/A2):||Ἔδει δὲ||αὐτὸν||διέρχεσθαι||διὰ τῆς Σαμαρείας|
|and it was necessary||for him||to travel||through Samaria|
Frequently "must" is the preferable translation:
|Jn 3:30 (L10/A1):||Ἐκεῖνον||δεῖ||αὐξάνειν,||ἐμὲ δὲ||ἐλαττοῦσθαι.|
|That man||[must]||increase,||and I||must||decrease|
|Matthew 22:17 (L10/B6):||Ἔξεστιν||δοῦναι||κῆνσον||Καίσαρι,||ἢ||οὔ;|
|Is it lawful||to give||taxes||to Caesar||or||not?|
10.8 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
(a) A conditional sentence has the structure, "If one particular thing is so, then it follows that something else is the case as a consequence of this." In summary: "If A, then B." The "if" part of the sentence, the condition clause, is known as the protasis (pronounced with the stress falling on the first syllable, as in the word "protestant"), which means "what is set out beforehand", that is, the condition which has to be met in order for the conclusion to follow. The conclusion clause, which states what it is which follows if the condition is met, is termed the apodosis (pronounced with the stress falling on the second syllable, as in the word "apology"), meaning "what will follow from what has been given". The meaning of these two terms can be remembered from the Greek prepositions with which they commence: the protasis states what must come rpo, that is, -beforehand"; and the apodosis indicates what comes ago, "from", this. In use, either clause may come first or last in a sentence.
(b) Grammarians traditionally recognize four classes of condition, each with different con-stituent grammar and meaning. Class One and Class Two Conditions use si with the indicative mode in the protasis (the "condition"). The indicative makes a clear-cut assertion one way or the other: in a Class One protasis, the condition is asserted to be true, a fact; in a Class Two protasis, the condition is asserted to be not true, contrary to fact. A Class Three Condition uses kav plus the subjunctive mode in the protasis, which indicates that the fulfilment of the condition is doubtful, uncertain. A Class Four Condition uses the optative mode and indicates that fulfilment of the condition is highly unlikely. To consider these in more detail:
10.81 CLASS ONE CONDITIONS: REAL CONDITION (IN ACCORDANCE WITH FACT)
(a) These are sentences in which it is implied that the "if" clause is true (that is, in accordance with the facts). This type of condition is dealing with reality, with "what is", so it is expressed by
152 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
εἰ plus the indicative (any tense) in the protasis. And any tense of the indicative (the most common), subjunctive, or imperative mode can be used in the apodosis. (Occasionally, irregularly, in the protasis of a Class One Condition ἐάν will be found with the indicative instead of εἰ.)
(b) In English we often use "if" with this sense of "and it is really the case". Thus: A man heads for the door on a rainy day, and his wife says, "If you're going out in this rain, at least wear a raincoat." Because the condition is being met — he is going out in the rain — in sentences like this the "if" has the sense of, and can at times be translated as, "since". Example:
|Mt 12:28 (L10/B7):||Εἰ δὲ||ἐν πνεύματι θεοῦ||ἐγὼ||ἐκβάλλω||τὰ δαιμόνια,||ἄρα||ἔφθασεν ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ .|
|and if [as indeed is actually the case]||by the Spirit of God||I||drive out||the demons,||then [it follows that]||the kingdom of God has come upon you|
Sentences of this kind have the meaning: Because the first part of this (the protasis) is true, then it is to be recognized that the second part (the apodosis) has come to pass also.
(c) The protasis can be in the past, present, or future, as so also can be the apodosis, with virtually any combination of tenses possible in the two clauses. Examples:
|Jn 13:14 (L9/B3):||Εἰ οὖν ἐγὼ ἔνιψα ὑμῶν τοὺς πόδας ...||καὶ ὑμεῖς ὀφείλετε ...|
|If then I washed your feet ...,||[and I did]||you ought also ...|
|Jn 15:20 (L10/B8):||Εἰ ἐμὲ ἐδίωξαν,||καὶ ὑμᾶς διώξουσιν|
|If they persecuted me||[and they did],||they will persecute you also|
(d) The protasis can be a negative, and will have the meaning that this negative statement is being put forth as being true. As the protasis uses the indicative and is dealing with what is, a negative used in this protasis will be οὐ). For example:
|Lk 18:4-5:||Εἰ καὶ τὸν θεὸν οὐ φοβοῦμαι, καὶ ἄνθρωπον οὐκ ἐντρέπομαι ...||ἐκδικήσω αὐτήν|
|If indeed I do not fear God nor have regard for man [and this is the case] ...||I will give her justice|
The sense of εἰ καὶ in this sentence is "even though".
(e) The apodosis can be a question:
|Jn 8:46 (L4/B9):||Εἰ δὲ ἀλήθειαν λέγω,||διὰ τί ὑμεῖς οὐ πιστεύετέ μοι;|
|If I speak truth||[which in fact I do],||why do you not believe me?|
(f) The apodosis can be an imperative:
|Mk 4:23 (L5/B5):||Εἴ τις ἔχει ὦτα ἀκούειν||ἀκουέτω|
|If anyone has ears to hear with||[which is true],||let him hear!|
(g) The protasis can be negative followed by a negative imperative, a prohibition:
|2 Thess 3:10 (L8/A5):||εἴ τις οὐ θέλει ἐργάζεσθαι,||μηδὲ ἐσθιέτω|
|If anyone is not willing to work,||neither let him eat|
(h) A Class One condition with εἰ can be based upon the presumption that something is the case:
|Mt 16:24 (L6/B4):||Εἴ τις θέλει ὀπίσω μου ἐλθεῖν,||ἀπαρνησάσθω ἑαυτόν|
|If anyone wishes to come after me||[which I presume to be so],||let him deny himself ...|
TEN: VERB CONJUGATION 153
(i) In the Class One condition, the grammar indicates that the condition is met; but remember, this is from the point of view of the speaker: and he might be mistaken. Or the speaker may for the sake of argument be accepting the viewpoint of someone else, to see where it leads, thus: Mt 12:27 (L1 0/B7): Ei eyth ev BEEA,cEPoiA kicf3c/OAco re( (5atkiovta, of viol vµwv ev rivt k1ci3a/Uovcriv; If I by means of Beelzebul drive out the demons. by whom do your sons drive them out?
Alternatively, the speaker may be speaking sarcastically. For example: Lk 23:37 (L6/B8): El (71) el 6 Pao-ulEi)g Tthv 7ov6aicov, o-ciicrov o-eavTov Since you are the king of the Jews, save yourself! — a belief about Jesus which the speaker did not in fact actually hold.
10.82 CLASS TWO CONDITIONS: UNREAL CONDITION (CONTRARY TO FACT)
(a) These are sentences in which it is implied that the "if" clause is untrue (that is, contrary to the facts). The protasis sets out the "unreal condition" (that is, states what is not the case), and the apodosis sets out what would have followed if the opposite were so (that is, if what is not the case actually had been the case).
(b) This type of condition is still dealing with the realm of reality — what really is or is not so — and therefore, like Class One Conditions, it is expressed by el plus the indicative in the protasis. This indicative will be in a past tense (imperfect, aorist, or pluperfect), and the apodosis will have av plus a past tense of the indicative (though sometimes the av is omitted in practice).
(c) A contrary-to-fact condition relating to present time (that is, durative aspect) will have the past durative — the imperfect tense — in both protasis and apodosis: Jn 5:46 (L10139): ei brlOTE15ETE Moiiscref, hrto-TEOETE av epoi If you believed Moses, you would believe me [that is, you would be believing me now]
(d) A contrary-to-fact condition relating to past time would normally have one of the other past tenses (aorist or pluperfect) in both protasis and apodosis. Examples: Lk 10:13 (L10/1310): El ev No) Kai Et&Ovt kyevriOricav ai 6vvailetc ai yevoktevat Lv if in Tyre and Sidon had been done the mighty works done in you, Ircaat av ev o-cboap Kai arcooci) waeripEvot pETEvorio-av [both verbs are aorist] long ago they would, sitting in sackcloth and ashes, have repented Mt 12:7 (L10/B11): ei 6e eyvcOKEiTE Ti 01)1C av KaTE6tKaaaTe Toi)c avatTiovg [pluperfect in protasis, aorist in apodosis] but if you had known what it is ..., you would not have condemned the innocent
(e) There is no aorist of eliut; the imperfect can be found in contrary-to-fact conditions: Jn 11:21 (L10/1312): Ktjpte, Ei t1 c dioe ofm av dure9avEv 6 a80.06c you [aorist in apodosis] Lord, if you had been here, my brother would not have died 1 Jn 2:19 (L10/1313): ei a rjcjiv ijaav, yeilevr-jicetaav av pee' rfurcov [pluperfect in apodosis] if they had belonged to us, they would have remained with us
154 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
(f) The protasis can be in the negative, using prj. As in other Greek constructions, the verb "to be" can be omitted and understood.Jn 14:2: e duri, throv óv15u1v and if it were not so, I would have told you
(g) The grammatical construction expresses the point of view of the speaker. He may or may not be correct. Thus: Lk 7:39 (L10/B14): Oros rpoOrirri; kylvcoolcev etv rig Kai n-ozwrii i yvvii [both verbs are imperfect tense, = present reference] If this man were a prophet he would know who and what sort of woman this is The speaker does not believe Jesus to be a prophet, and takes it that Jesus does not know the kind of woman he is dealing with; therefore the speaker uses the "unreal condition" construction. The speaker is of course mistaken in his assessment of the situation.
10.83 COMPARISON BETWEEN CLASS ONE AND CLASS TWO CONDITIONS
Note that whether a condition is Class One or Class Two depends upon the (perceived) truth or falseness of the initial premiss, the protasis. Thus: Jn 15:20 (L10/B8): el kue e810,4av [aorist] if they persecuted me ... [they did persecute Jesus, so this is true, therefore it is Class One, and the apodosis is also true, they will also persecute you]. Jn 5:46 (L10/B9): el eirtatrtjete Monjaef ... [imperfect] if you believed Moses ... [they did not believe Moses, so this is not true, therefore it is Class Two, and the apodosis (with dv) states what would have followed if it had been true]
10.84 CLASS THREE CONDITIONS: UNCERTAIN CONDITION
(a) In these conditional sentences, the fulfilment of the condition is uncertain: the form of the sentence does not indicate whether the speaker expects the condition to be met or not, though it is quite possible for it to be met. Because it is dealing with uncertainty, with "what might be", the verb in the protasis will be subjunctive mode (present or aorist), and the "if" is expressed by kav (the indefinite form, compounded from ei and dv; sometimes shortened to simply dv). The translation should aim to reflect in some way the uncertainty indicated by the use of the subjunctive: "if you were to ...". "if he happens to ...". The apodosis may be present, future or even (occasionally) aorist indicative, or imperative mode, but in any case will usually have future reference. It may make a statement, ask a question, or give a command: Lk 5:12 (L10/B15): Ktjpte, eav 9EATJ 56vao-ai LE Kaeapicrat Sir, if you are willing to, you are able to cleanse me [the leper is uncertain as to Jesus's willingness] Mt 5:13 (L10/1316): kali 6e to caac pcopaverj, v rivi 6.1.1crericetat; but if the salt were to become tasteless, by what means will its saltness be restored? [what can be done if a particular situation were to arise?] Mk 11:3 (L4/1321): eav rig t5piv thrra, TI Troteire rofyro; &raze And if anyone were to say to you [and this may or may not happen], ..., say ...
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(b) Sometimes the context shows that, although an indefinite ἐάν construction has been used, the fulfilment of the condition is known to be certain. For example:
|Jn 14:3 (L10/B17):||Καὶ ἐὰν πορευθῶ ἑτοιμάσω ὑμῖν τόπον,||πάλιν ἔρχομαι||καὶ παραλήψομαι ὑμᾶς πρὸς ἐμαυτόν·|
|and if I go and prepare a place for you,||I am coming again,||and I will receive you to myself|
(c) Frequently this construction is used of a condition which is not being, and will not be, fulfilled:
|Mt 15:14:||τυφλὸς δὲ τυφλὸν ἐὰν ὁδηγῇ,||ἀμφότεροι εἰς βόθυνον πεσοῦνται|
|And if a blind man were to lead a blind man,||both will fall into a pit|
|[such a thing would not happen; cf. Lk 6:39]|
|Mt 16:26:||τί γὰρ ὠφελεῖται ἄνθρωπος||ἐὰν τὸν κόσμον ὅλον κερδήσῃ|
|for what would it profit a man||if he were to gain the whole world ...|
|[this is not a condition which would|
be fulfilled; it is hypothetical]
|Mk 8:3:||ἐὰν||ἀπολύσω αὐτοὺς||νήστεις||εἰς οἶκον αὐτῶν ...|
|If||I were to send them away||hungry||to their homes ...|
|[but Jesus would not do this]|
|1 Cor 13:1:||Ἐὰν||ταῖς γλώσσαις τῶν ἀνθρώπων λαλῶ||καὶ τῶν ἀγγέλων ...|
|If||I were to speak in the tongues [languages] of men||and of angels ...|
|[the use of ἐάν shows that Paul is not saying he does, or can do, this]|
|1 Cor 14:6:||ἐὰν ἔλθω πρὸς ὑμᾶς γλώσσαις λαλῶν,||τί ὑμᾶς ὠφελήσω ...;|
|if I were to come to you speaking in tongues,||what benefit would I be to you ...?|
[Paul is posing a hypothetic possibility to consider its results; similarly in 14:14]
(d) In addition, this form of condition is often used to state what is true on a timeless basis: whenever the situation described in the protasis happens to be the case, then the conclusion follows as a matter of certainty.
|Jn 14:15 (L10/A3):||Ἐὰν||ἀγαπᾶτέ με,||τὰς ἐντολὰς τὰς ἐμὰς τηρήσατε|
|If||[it is the case that]||you love me,||[then]||you will keep my commandments|
|Rev 3:20 (L10/B18):||ἐάν τις ἀκούσῃ τῆς φωνῆς μου, καὶ ἀνοίξῃ τὴν θύραν,||καὶ εἰσελεύσομαι ...|
|If anyone were to hear my voice and open the door,||I will come in ...|
|Rom 7:2:||ἐὰν δὲ ἀποθάνῃ ὁ ἀνήρ,||κατήργηται ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου τοῦ ἀνδρός.|
|but whenever the husband happens to die,||she is released from the law relating to a husband|
|Rom 10:9 (L10/B19):||ἐὰν ὁμολογήσῃς||ἐν τῷ στόματί σου||κύριον Ἰησοῦν, ...||σωθήσῃ·|
|If you were to acknowledge||with your mouth [that]||Jesus is Lord, ...,||you will be saved|
(e) When this construction is used with a command (an imperative) in the apodosis (If A, then do B), it can refer to the occurring of a specific situation:
|1 Cor 16:10:||Ἐὰν δὲ ἔλθῃ Τιμόθεος,||βλέπετε ἵνα ἀφόβως γένηται πρὸς ὑμᾶς·|
|And if Timothy were to come,||see that he has nothing to fear while with you|
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(f) Or, it can be a general statement, in effect a general requirement or invitation:
|Jn 7:37 (L10/B20):||Ἐάν τις διψᾷ,||ἐρχέσθω πρός με καὶ πινέτω|
|If anyone be thirsty,||let him come to me and drink|
|Rom 12:20:||Ἐὰν πεινᾷ ὁ ἐχθρός σου,||ψώμιζε αὐτόν·||ἐὰν διψᾷ,||πότιζε αὐτόν·|
|If your enemy is hungry,||feed him;||if he is thirsty,||give him a drink|
10.85 CLASS FOUR CONDITIONS: UNLIKELY CONDITION
The Class Four Condition is used in Classical Greek, consisting of εἰ plus the optative in the protasis, and ἄν plus the optative in the apodosis. There is no complete example of a Class Four Condition, with protasis and apodosis, occurring in the LXX or New Testament, and only a very small number of incomplete constructions (the protasis without an apodosis, or vice versa). It is not therefore necessary to discuss this Class in detail.
10.86 SUMMARY OF THESE CONDITIONS
The first two Classes deal with reality situations, sometimes called "conditions that are determined" — where the outcome of the protasis, the "if" clause, is "determined", that is, known or presumed: therefore these have εἰ plus the indicative mode in the protasis.
The Third Class deals with conditions the outcome of which is "undetermined" (that is, uncertain), and therefore these have ἐάν plus the subjunctive mode in the protasis.
|IN A NUTSHELL:||PROTASIS||(NEGATIVE|
|CLASS ONE: REAL CONDITION|
|(THE CONDITION IS FULFILLED)|
|(a) Since A is so, then B is so also.||εἰ + indicative||(οὐ)||indicative|
|(b) Since A is so, let B be so also.||εἰ + indicative||(οὐ)||imperative|
|CLASS TWO: UNREAL CONDITION|
|(THE CONDITION IS NOT FULFILLED)|
|(a) If A were so, then B would follow.||εἰ + indicative||(μή)||indicative|
|CLASS THREE: UNCERTAIN CONDITION|
|(THE CONDITION MAY OR MAY NOT BE FULFILLED)|
|(a) If it happens to be A, then B.||ἐάν + subjunctive||(μή)||any form|
|(b) Whenever A, then always B.||ἐάν + subjunctive||(μή)||any form|
|(c) If A is so, let B be so also.||ἐάν + subjunctive||(μή)||imperative|
10.87 MIXED CONDITIONS AND ELLIPTICAL CONDITIONS
(a) It must be remembered that these categories were deduced by later grammarians. Greek speakers and writers did not always keep these categories separate, but felt free to mix them: to have one of the four kinds of conditions in the protasis, and a different kind in the apodosis. Some examples:
Acts 8:31 has a Class Four apodosis ("how could I be able, Πῶς γὰρ ἂν δυναίμην) with a Class One protasis ("unless someone shall guide me");
Acts 24:19 has a Class Two apodosis ("they ought to be here before you") and a Class Four protasis ("if they have any case against me", εἴ τι ἔχοιεν πρός με);
Luke 17:6 has a Class One protasis and a Class Two apodosis ("if you have, you would say").
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(b) An elliptical condition implies the condition or the conclusion without stating it expressly. The condition may be implied by a participle or an imperative. Thus in 1 Timothy 4:4 (NIV), "For everything God created is good, and nothing is to be rejected if it is received with thanksgiving", the words "if it is received" — the condition — represent the participle λαμβανόμενον. In Eph 4:26 the two imperatives in Ὀργίζεσθε καὶ μὴ ἁμαρτάνετε ("be angry, but do not sin") express an implied conditional sentence: "if you are angry, do not sin". Sometimes the condition (protasis) may be given but the apodosis left unstated: "If you, even you, had only known on this day ..." ( Luke 19:42, NIV).
Thus, taking advantage of the basis structure of conditions, Greek speakers (like those of any other language) were able to manipulate these freely to express particular shades of meaning more explicitly or less so.
10.88 Where Knowing Greek Makes a Difference: There are somewhere about six hundred conditional sentences in the New Testament, of these various kinds. Recognizing which kind is being used in a particular passage can often be significant for its meaning. Important here is which form of "if" is being used: εἰ, or ἐάν. Let us examine some examples (drawn in the main from 1 Corinthians):
ἐάν (plus the subjunctive) is used in posing a hypothetical situation: "If the foot were to say ... if the ear were to say ..." (1 Corinthians 12:15-16).
Or in speaking of a possibility which may or may not eventuate: "If Timothy were to come ..." 1 Corinthians 16:10); "if he comes to you ..." (Colossians 4:10); "So if the Son makes you free, you will be free indeed" (John 8:36) — it is uncertain whether any of his hearers, who are ready to kill him (verse 37), will accept this freedom that Jesus offers.
Similarly Paul is dealing with situations which are possible but not certain when he says, "The wife must not separate from her husband. But if she does ..." (1 Corinthians 7:11); "But if indeed ou do marry, you have not sinned" (1 Corinthians 7:28).
On the other hand, εἰ (plus the indicative) is used about a situation which really is so (or, not so). In Matthew 16:24 Jesus says to his disciples, "If anyone wishes to follow me ...": they are his disciples, and they do wish to follow him. Similarly, 2 Corinthians 5:17, "If anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation": Paul is writing to those who are in Christ, to spell out what this means for them. Similarly Philippians 4:8: "If anything is excellent and praiseworthy — think about such things."
Thus ἐάν (plus subjunctive) is found used when floating a possibility, putting up a hypothesis, and εἰ (plus indicative) when referring to something which actually is (or is not) the case. This can be relevant in looking at some passages.
When Paul says (1 Corinthians 13:1), "If I speak in the tongues of men and of angels . ..", he uses ἐάν, the hypothetical "if": "If I were to speak ...". Similarly 1 Corinthians 14:14, "If [ἐάν] I were to pray in a tongue ...". Thus we note the distinction between a statement about something that Paul actually does, and (here) a hypothetical possibility he is raising for examination.
But when Paul writes (1 Corinthians 7:12, 13) about if any brother or wife has an unbelieving ,pouse, he uses εἰ: this is not a hypothetical question, but a real-life situation, because there are those to whom he is writing who do have an unbelieving partner.
In 1 Corinthians 7:9 Paul addresses the ἄγαμοι (those not now married, including those previously married). He says, "But if they cannot control themselves ...", using εἰ, the "if" of real circumstances; the NRSV translates, "But if they are not practising self-control, they should marry. For it is better to marry than to be aflame with passion."
In 1 Corinthians 14:35, Paul lays down, "If (εἰ) they [women] want to enquire about something, they should ask their own husbands at home" — the et showing that this is what was actually the case: in the church assembly they were engaging in talking and asking questions.
If you know Greek, you will be able to see how this question of the difference between εἰ and ἐάν, and types of conditional sentences, is relevant in the consideration of a wide range of New Testament passages.
158 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
10.89 INDIRECT QUESTION
There is another type of "if" sentence which is not a conditional sentence at all, but a variety of indirect question. This type of "if" sentence can be recognized by: (a) there is no "conclusion" clause that results from the "if" clause, (b) "if" has the meaning of "whether", and (c) it is possible to see what the original, direct, question would have been which is now represented by the "if" clause. Examples:
|Mt 27:49 (L10/A4):||ἴδωμεν||εἰ||ἔρχεται Ἠλίας σώσων αὐτόν|
|Let us see||whether||Elijah comes and saves him Direct question: Will Elijah come and save him?|
|Mk 10:2 (L10/A5):||ἐπηρώτησαν||αὐτόν,||Εἰ||ἔξεστιν||ἀνδρὶ||γυναῖκα ἀπολῦσαι|
|they were asking||him||whether||it is lawful||for a husband||to divorce his wife|
Direct question: Is it lawful for a husband to divorce his wife?
|Mk 15:44:||Ὁ δὲ Πιλάτος ἐθαύμασεν||εἰ||ἤδη τέθνηκεν|
|And Pilate wondered||if||he was dead already|
Direct question: Is he dead already? — a question which Pilate then asked
Similarly, Luke 14:31; John 9:25; Acts 4:19; 2 Corinthians 13:5; 1 John 4:1; etc.
10.9 DIRECT FLEXIONS AND OTHER VERB TERMINOLOGY
10.91 We have seen that it is customary for a Greek verb to indicate aspect and voice by appropriate morphs added to the stem. Some verbs have flexions where the expected morph (or the consonant part of it) is omitted — for example, the perfect active flexion of a verb without the -κ- an aorist passive without the -θ-. Sometimes these are referred to by grammarians as "second" tenses ("second perfect", "second aorist passive", etc.) on the basis of a supposed analogy with the second aorist active. This is in fact a particularly misleading manner of reference, because the analogy does not hold.
10.92 The second aorist active flexion is not simply the first aorist active with a phoneme missing — it is a completely different pattern of conjugation (compare #3.81 with #4.21). This therefore genuinely deserves the designation of second aorist. But all the other so-called second tenses are in fact conjugated exactly the same as the corresponding flexion of λύω: they simply omit a consonant phoneme of the aspect or voice morph in forming the appropriate tense stem. That is, they are formed by the adding of the endings (including the vowel of the aspect or voice morph) directly to the stem. They are therefore more appropriately called direct flexions. They are fully listed and discussed in Appendix C, #C4.
10.93 Strong Verbs: This term is sometimes used to designate flexions that are formed by changing the stem (for example, second aorist active forms) or by adding endings directly to the same stem without using the usual aspect or voice morph (that is, direct flexions). By contrast, verbs that do add such a morph are called "weak" verbs. The rationale for these terms is that the strong verbs do not need "outside help" in forming other tenses/modes/voices (that is, the appropriate morphs), while the weak verbs are weak because they do need such "outside help". This seems a very tenuous and far-fetched basis for a technical term, and it is terminology which is not self-explanatory. It therefore has not been used in this book. When, however, you encounter it in other books that you consult, you will readily recognize that it refers to Second (or perhaps Third) Conjugation forms, or to direct flexions.
10.94 Thematic and Athematic Verbs: The -ε/ο- vowel of the durative flexions, the future, the second aorist, and the subjunctive flexions, which in this book has been classified (on linguistic
TEN: VERB CONJUGATION 159
grounds) as the neutral morph is referred to in some other grammars as the thematic vowel. By contrast, the -μι flexions which lack the -ε/ο- vowel are called athematic. This particular way of making a distinction does not appear particularly helpful or linguistically intelligible, and therefore these terms have not been used in this book. The -ε/ο- occupies the slot which is filled by the punctiliar or perfective active aspect morphs (-σα- and -κα- respectively) when these occur, and never occurs together with them (except in the special instance of the aorist subjunctive) so that it is said (in linguistic terminology) to be in complementary distribution with them. This indicates that, on the basis of synchronic linguistic description (which means, discussing the language as it actually operates at a particular point in time), -ε/ο- is an aspect morph without specific aspect meaning of its own but is used when neither of the other aspect morphs appears. This is the linguistic basis for the description of it in this book as the neutral (aspect) morph.
10.95 A concluding word about verbs: Appendix C gives detailed and comprehensive information about Greek verb conjugation, and Appendix E gives explanations for phonemic modification and morphology. Familiarize yourself with these Appendices, so that you can refer to them when you encounter verb forms you need to check on. Whenever you come across unrecognized forms as you read the Greek New Testament, always check them out in these conjugation paradigms if the explanation in your Grammatical Analysis does not remind you of them.
ASSIGNMENTS ON LESSON TEN
1. PARADIGM REVISION: There are no new paradigms to be learnt by heart this Lesson. REVISE the paradigms set for learning in Lessons Six and Seven.
2. LEARNING ABOUT VERB CONJUGATIONS: This Lesson, you should seek to under-stand and become quite at home with concept of verb conjugation, the factors which enable us to identify the three verb conjugations, and the differences between them.
3. PRINCIPAL PARTS: LEARN the names and the order of the six Principal Parts (# 10.32) — these will apply to the columns of verb parts given throughout Appendix C.
4. WORKBOOK: ANSWER THE QUESTIONS in your Workbook about this Lesson.
5. TRANSLATION EXERCISES A AND B: Do the English into Greek exercises, and then read and translate literally all the Selections from the Greek New Testament. Make sure that you continue the pattern of reading each Selection aloud before translating it, to help cultivate your "feel" for the Greek. NOTE: Most of the Selections introduce new vocabulary which is then used again in the Selections which follow. LEARN each unknown word as you use it.
6. VOCABULARY CARDS: Continue the practice of writing out Vocabulary Cards for the new words introduced in this Lesson, putting 10 (for "Lesson 10") in the top lefthand corner of each side of the Card. Make out the card for each new word as you come to it in the Sentences below; you will need some words for several Sentences. When you are given a word form and what it comes from, put the word it comes from at the top of your Card, and the information about that word form lower on the Card. Add these Cards to your collection, and place them all in alphabetical order. When additional information is provided about a word which you have had in a previous Lesson, add that information to your existing Vocabulary Card for that word. (Don't forget to put on your Card the case(s) taken by each preposition.)
7. COMMON NEW TESTAMENT WORDS: In Appendix G, Greek Vocabulary, read through the list of the most common New Testament words. You have met all of these at one time or another in the course of these ten Lessons. How many of them can you remember? Seek now to learn the others — but remember that the meanings given here represent only a part of the range of meaning of each word, and that you must seek to expand your understanding of a word each time you encounter it.
160 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
8. APPENDICES: After completing this Lesson, turn the page, and read "The Way Ahead". Then glance through the contents of the Appendices from C onwards, to familiarize yourself with them, so that you are aware of what they contain, and can make use of them whenever they can be of assistance to you.
A. TRANSLATION FROM ENGLISH INTO GREEK
(This may be done as an exercise in class at the end of the Lesson, or set as an assignment.)
|SENTENCES||NOTES AND NEW WORDS|
|A1.||That man must increase, and I [must] decrease. (JOHN 3:30)||increase: αὐξάνω [use the present]; decrease: passive of ἐλαττόω, make less|
|A2.||and it was necessary for him to travel through Samaria. (JOHN 4:4)||travel through: διέρχομαι (use iterated preposition); Samaria: Σαμάρεια, ας, ἡ|
|A3.||If you love me, you will keep my commandments. (JOHN 14:15)||if: use form for uncertainty; love: *ἀγαπάω; keep: *τηρέω; commandment: *ἐντολή, -ῆς, ἡ|
|A4.||Let us see whether Elijah comes and saves him. (MATTHEW 27:49)||Elijah: Ἠλίας, -ου, ὁ; and saves: use participle of *σῴζω. What tense?|
|A5.||and they were asking him whether it is lawful for a husband to divorce a wife. (MARK 10:2)||ask: *ἐπερωτάω; it is lawful: ἔξεστιν; divorce: *ἀπολύω|
B. SELECTIONS FROM THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
|B1.||Πειθαρχεῖν δεῖ θεῷ μᾶλλον ἢ ἀνθρώποις. (ΠΡΑΞΕΙΣ 5:29)||πειθαρχέω: give the obedience due to one in authority; *δεῖ: it is necessary (for) [= must]; *ἤ: than [or]|
|B2.||καὶ αὐτός ἐστιν πρὸ πάντων, καὶ τὰ πάντα ἐν αὐτῷ συνέστηκεν. Καὶ αὐτός ἐστιν ἡ κεφαλὴ τοῦ σώματος, τῆς ἐκκλησίας. (ΠΡΟΣ ΚΟΛΑΣΣΑΕΙΣ 1:17-18)||συν-έ-στη-κ-εν: 3sg pf act. (with the idea of an ongoing state of affairs) of συνίστημι, hold together/cohere/be established; *κεφαλή, -ῆς, ἡ, head|
|B3.||Καὶ αὕτη ἐστὶν ἡ ἐπαγγελία ἣν αὐτὸς ἐπηγγείλατο ἡμῖν, τὴν ζωὴν τὴν αἰώνιον. (ΙΩΑΝΝΟΥ Α, 2:25)||*ἐπ·αγγελία, -ας, ἡ: promise; ἐπ-ηγγείλ-α-το 3sg aor. dep., from ἐπαγγέλλομαι, promise|
|B4.||Καὶ ἐπηρώτησαν αὐτὸν οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ λέγοντες, Τί οὖν οἱ γραμματεῖς λέγουσιν ὅτι Ἠλίαν δεῖ ἐλθεῖν πρῶτον; Ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, Ἠλίας μὲν ἔρχεται πρῶτον, καὶ ἀποκαταστήσει πάντα· λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν ὅτι Ἠλίας ἤδη ἦλθεν, καὶ οὐκ ἐπέγνωσαν αὐτόν, ἀλλὰ ἐποίησαν ἐν αὐτῷ ὅσα ἠθέλησαν· οὕτως καὶ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου μέλλει πάσχειν ὑπ’ αὐτῶν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 17:10-12)||ἐπ-ηρώτη-σα-ν 3pl aor. of *ἐπερωτάω, ask (a question); *πρῶτον: firstly/first of all; *μὲν: indeed; ἀπο-κατα-στή-σ-ε-ι: 3sg fut. of ἀποκαθίστημι, restore again; *ἤδη: already; ἐπ-έ-γνω-σαν. 3pl aor.³ of ἐπιγινώσκω, know, recognize; *ὅσα: see #7.11; ἠ-θέλη-σα-ν: 3pl aor. (note double augment; see #4.61), from *θέλω, want, wish; *μέλλω: be about to, be going to, be destined to; πάσχω: suffer|
|B5.||Ἐμὲ δεῖ ἐργάζεσθαι τὰ ἔργα τοῦ πέμψαντός με ἕως ἡμέρα ἐστίν (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 9:4)||ἐργάζ-ε-σθ-αι: pres inf, from ἐργάζομαι, work; *ἕως: until, while, for as long as|
TEN: VERB CONJUGATION 161
|B6.||Εἰπὲ οὖν ἡμῖν, τί σοι δοκεῖ; Ἔξεστιν δοῦναι κῆνσον Καίσαρι, ἢ οὔ; (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 22:17)||*δοκέω: seem; ἔξεστιν: it is lawful; κῆνσος, -ου, ὁ: tax; Καῖσαρ, -αρος, ὁ: Caesar, emperor of Rome; *ἤ: or [than]|
|B7.||Καὶ εἰ ἐγὼ ἐν Βεελζεβοὺλ ἐκβάλλω τὰ δαιμόνια, οἱ υἱοὶ ὑμῶν ἐν τίνι ἐκβάλλουσιν; Διὰ τοῦτο αὐτοὶ ὑμῶν ἔσονται κριταί. Εἰ δὲ ἐν πνεύματι θεοῦ ἐγὼ ἐκβάλλω τὰ δαιμόνια, ἄρα ἔφθασεν ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 12:27-28)||*ἐκβάλλω: drive out; ἄρα: then; ἔ-φθα-σ-εν: 3sg aor, from φθάνω, come upon|
|B8.||Οὐκ ἔστιν δοῦλος μείζων τοῦ κυρίου αὐτοῦ. Εἰ ἐμὲ ἐδίωξαν, καὶ ὑμᾶς διώξουσιν· εἰ τὸν λόγον μου ἐτήρησαν, καὶ τὸν ὑμέτερον τηρήσουσιν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 15:20)||ἐ-δίω-ξα-ν 3pl aor, from διώκω, persecute; ὑμέτερος, -α, -ον: your, yours|
|B9.||Εἰ γὰρ ἐπιστεύετε Μωσῇ, ἐπιστεύετε ἂν ἐμοί· περὶ γὰρ ἐμοῦ ἐκεῖνος ἔγραψεν. Εἰ δὲ τοῖς ἐκείνου γράμμασιν οὐ πιστεύετε, πῶς τοῖς ἐμοῖς ῥήμασιν πιστεύσετε; (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 5:46-47)||γράμμα, -ατος, τό: writing; *πῶς: how? (#7.23)|
|B10.||Οὐαί σοι, Χοραζίν, οὐαί σοι, Βηθσαϊδά· ὅτι εἰ ἐν Τύρῳ καὶ Σιδῶνι ἐγένοντο αἱ δυνάμεις αἱ γενόμεναι ἐν ὑμῖν, πάλαι ἂν ἐν σάκκῳ καὶ σποδῷ καθήμεναι μετενόησαν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΛΟΥΚΑΝ 10:13)||Χοραζίν, ἡ, Chorazin; Βηθσαϊδά, ἡ, Bethsaida; Τύρος, -ου, ἡ, Tyre; Σιδών, -ῶνος, ἡ, Sidon; ἐ-γέν-ο-ντο: 3pl aor pass, from *γίνομαι; πάλαι: long ago; σάκκος, -ου, ὁ: sackcloth; σποδός, -οῦ, ἡ, ashes; μετ-ε-νόη-σα-ν: 3pl aor, from μετανοέω, repent|
|B11.||Εἰ δὲ ἐγνώκειτε τί ἐστιν, Ἔλεον θέλω καὶ οὐ θυσίαν, οὐκ ἂν κατεδικάσατε τοὺς ἀναιτίους. (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 12:7)||ἐ-γνώ-κ-ει-τε: 2pl plpf, from γινώσκω; ἔλεος, -ους, τό: mercy; θυσία, -ας, ἡ: sacrifice; κατ-ε-δικά-σα-τε: 2pl aor, from καταδικάζω, condemn; ἀναίτιος, -ον, ὁ/ἡ: innocent|
|B12.||Εἶπεν οὖν Μάρθα πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν, Κύριε, εἰ ἦς ὧδε, ὁ ἀδελφός μου οὐκ ἂν ἐτεθνήκει. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 11:21)||Μάρθα, -ας, ἡ: Martha; ἐ-τε-θνή-κ-ει: 3sg plup of *θνῄσκω|
|B13.||Ἐξ ἡμῶν ἐξῆλθον, ἀλλ’ οὐκ ἦσαν ἐξ ἡμῶν· εἰ γὰρ ἦσαν ἐξ ἡμῶν, μεμενήκεισαν ἂν μεθ’ ἡμῶν· (ΙΩΑΝΝΟΥ Α, 2:19)||με-μενή-κ-ει-σαν: 3pl plpf, from *μένω|
|B14.||Ἰδὼν δὲ ὁ Φαρισαῖος ὁ καλέσας αὐτὸν εἶπεν ἐν ἑαυτῷ λέγων, Οὗτος, εἰ ἦν προφήτης, ἐγίνωσκεν ἂν τίς καὶ ποταπὴ ἡ γυνὴ ἥτις ἅπτεται αὐτοῦ, ὅτι ἁμαρτωλός ἐστιν. (ΚΑΤΑ ΛΟΥΚΑΝ 7:39)||*ἑαυτῷ: reflexive pronoun (see #6.9); ποταπός, -ή, -όν: of what kind, what kind of (#7.11); ἥτις: fem of *ὅστις; (#7.11, #7.15)|
162 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
|B15.||Καὶ ἐγένετο, ἐν τῷ εἶναι αὐτὸν ἐν μιᾷ τῶν πόλεων, καὶ ἰδού, ἀνὴρ πλήρης λέπρας· καὶ ἰδὼν τὸν Ἰησοῦν , πεσὼν ἐπὶ πρόσωπον, ἐδεήθη αὐτοῦ, λέγων, Κύριε, ἐὰν θέλῃς, δύνασαί με καθαρίσαι. (ΚΑΤΑ ΛΟΥΚΑΝ 5:12)||πλήρης, -ους (follows #D4.7): full; λέπρα, -ας, ἡ: leprosy or other skin disease; πεσών: aor ptc masc nom sg, from *πίπτω, fall (#2.1); ἐδεήθη: 3sg aor pass, from δέομαι (dep), request, entreat; καθαρίσαι: aor inf, from καθαρίζω, make clean|
|B16.||Ὑμεῖς ἐστε τὸ ἅλας τῆς γῆς· ἐὰν δὲ τὸ ἅλας μωρανθῇ, ἐν τίνι ἁλισθήσεται; (ΚΑΤΑ ΜΑΘΘΑΙΟΝ 5:13)||μωραν-θῇ: 3sg aor subjv pass, from μωραίνω, make tasteless, make foolish; ἁλισθήσεται: 3sg fut pass, from ἁλίζω, make salty|
|B17.||Καὶ ἐὰν πορευθῶ ἑτοιμάσω ὑμῖν τόπον, πάλιν ἔρχομαι καὶ παραλήψομαι ὑμᾶς πρὸς ἐμαυτόν· ἵνα ὅπου εἰμὶ ἐγώ, καὶ ὑμεῖς ἦτε. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 14:3)||πορευ-θῶ: 1sg aor subjv pass, from *πορεύομαι (dep); ἑτοιμάσω: 1sg aor subjv, from ἑτοιμάζω; παραλήψομαι: lsg fut dep, from παραλαμβάνω, take with one|
|B18.||ζήλωσον οὖν καὶ μετανόησον. Ἰδού, ἕστηκα ἐπὶ τὴν θύραν καὶ κρούω· ἐάν τις ἀκούσῃ τῆς φωνῆς μου, καὶ ἀνοίξῃ τὴν θύραν, καὶ εἰσελεύσομαι πρὸς αὐτόν, καὶ δειπνήσω μετ’ αὐτοῦ, καὶ αὐτὸς μετ’ ἐμοῦ. (ΑΠΟΚΑΛΥΨΙΣ ΙΩΑΝΝΟΥ 3:19-20)||ζήλωσον: 2sg impv, from ζηλόω, be eager, zealous; μετα-νόη-σ-ον: 2sg aor impv, from μετανοέω, repent; ἕστηκα 1sg pf, with sense of pres, from *ἵστημι, stand; δειπνήσω: lsg fut, from δειπνέω, dine, feast together|
|B19.||ἐὰν ὁμολογήσῃς ἐν τῷ στόματί σου κύριον Ἰησοῦν, καὶ πιστεύσῃς ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ σου ὅτι ὁ θεὸς αὐτὸν ἤγειρεν ἐκ νεκρῶν, σωθήσῃ. (ΠΡΟΣ ΡΩΜΑΙΟΥΣ 10:9)||ὁμολογήσῃς 2sg aor subjv, from ὁμολογέω, declare publicly; ἤγειρ-εν: 3sg aor, from *ἐγείρω; σωθήσῃ: 2sg fut pass, from *σῴζω|
|B20.||Ἐν δὲ τῇ ἐσχάτῃ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ μεγάλῃ τῆς ἑορτῆς εἱστήκει ὁ Ἰησοῦς καὶ ἔκραξεν, λέγων, Ἐάν τις διψᾷ, ἐρχέσθω πρός με καὶ πινέτω. (ΚΑΤΑ ΙΩΑΝΝΗΝ 7:37)||εἱστήκει: 3sg plpf., with sense of impf, of *ἵστημι, stand; ἔ-κρα-ξ-ε-ν: 3sg aor., from root κραγ- of *κράζω, cry out, shout; διψᾷ: 3sg pres indic. or subjv. (here: subjv.), from διψάω, thirst|
|B21.||Καὶ ὅτε εἶδον αὐτόν, ἔπεσα πρὸς τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ ὡς νεκρός· καὶ ἔθηκεν τὴν δεξιὰν αὐτοῦ ἐπ’ ἐμέ, λέγων, Μὴ φοβοῦ· ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ πρῶτος καὶ ὁ ἔσχατος. (ΑΠΟΚΑΛΥΨΙΣ ΙΩΑΝΝΟΥ 1:17)||ἔ-θη-κ-ε-ν 3sg aor., from *τίθημι, place; δεξιάν: fem acc sg of *δεξιός (understand: χεῖρα), right (hand)|
SUPPLEMENTARY PASSAGES IN THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
Passages as set by your teacher.
A STUDENT'S GUIDE TO THE USE OF THIS BOOK
AO. SOME GENERAL EXPLANATIONS AND COMMENTS
A0.1 APPENDIX PURPOSE
A0.11 This Appendix aims to provide additional material which may prove helpful for those who are studying on their own. Those who are part of a Greek class will also find it useful to have these further explanations and comments about some of the points being made in the main Lessons.
A0.12 These additional comments relate to Lessons One to Six. The comments on each Lesson should be read in conjunction with that Lesson, and the indicated Grammar learnt.
A0.13 In general, material of continuing reference value is given in the Lessons, whilst this Appendix contains additional explanatory material and comments which once noted will probably not need to be referred to again.
A0.14 Because of individual differences between all of us, the rate at which you personally will progress, and your speed and understanding and retentivity, will be different from that of others. However, it will help you to attain the maximum of which you are capable in these areas if you note some positive and negative factors that will affect language learning.
A0.15 Eugene Nida, in writing Learning A Foreign Language — A Handbook For Missionaries, begins on page 1 to analyse why missionaries find they have great difficulties in learning a language, and his comments will apply equally well to your learning New Testament Greek. He says:
"There is no valid reason for tragic failure in language learning, for languages can be learned. Children of six years of age in all cultures are able to speak their mother-tongue intelligibly and to discuss many things which missionaries seem never able to talk about. Naturally, we may then ask ourselves, 'Why do we not learn a language as well as a child?' The reasons for our deficiencies are not difficult to discover. In the first place, as adult missionaries we have already acquired a set of language habits, and we have practised them for fully twenty years, until they have become thoroughly a part of us. In the second place, we shelter our ego with all types of inhibitions and restraints. We are afraid of exposing our ignorance and of being laughed at, and as a result our speech becomes ridiculous. Of course, it is also true that we do not have native parents who fondly try to teach us, who never seem to tire of repeating words, and who praise us for our feeble efforts. Furthermore, we are not exposed to the taunting of other children who cruelly force conformity upon their playmates. In reality, we do not have many of the advantages afforded children."
A0.16 F. L. Billows (The Techniques of Language Teaching, page 38) makes a comment on rather similar lines: "Opinionated, over-confident people have not the flexibility of mind to learn languages easily." The extent to which we can put aside our inhibitions and self-consciousness, and risk making ridiculous mistakes and take them in our stride, is the extent to which we will make good progress in language learning.
A0.17 And Nida adds three other comments which are relevant: "On the other hand, we have other advantages which come from analytical training and mature mental faculties." (p.2.) "Lack of time is the most common reason for failure in language learning." (p.8.) "Some of the failure to learn a language results from the wrong approach." (p.9.)
168 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
A0.18 From what Nida and Billows have said, one can draw the observation, regarding partici-pation and learning in class: "The smaller the pride, the greater the progress: I will learn lots of Greek from participation in class — unless my pride and dignity get in the way." A0.19 On page 26, Nida stresses that "Language learning means language using". We can see then that a second major principle in the learning of Greek is, in effect, "Use it, or lose it".
A0.2 THE PHILOSOPHY OF "FRAMEWORK" LEARNING
A0.21 The major problem for many students in a language Course like this is one of attitude and expectation. They expect to be able to memorize and master everything they are told the first time they are told it. This is the approach to learning which has been customary in other subjects they have studied, and so they come to Greek with the intention of mastering it in the same way. They believe this is what is expected of them. Then they find that the material is presented to them faster than they can absorb it, and that they are becoming overwhelmed by an avalanche of information which they cannot fully keep up with.
A0.22 If you are able to assimilate thoroughly everything in the lessons as they are presented, this is excellent; but it is also exceptional. You are not expected to master all the contents of a Lesson when you go through it.
A0.23 What is happening during this Stage One (Beginner's) Course is that you are being introduced swiftly and systematically to the entire range of Greek grammar that is needed for beginning to read and understand the New Testament. The more fundamental paradigms and constructions are set for learning; the rest are provided at this stage as information. What you are asked to do is to become aware of them without necessarily learning them (for example, to know that there is such a thing as the perfect tense without necessarily memorizing the whole flexion). Then, when these words and forms are encountered in New Testament sentences, you will begin to get practice in recognizing them, and your teacher (if you are a member of a class) will explain the forms and their use, in the contexts in which they are actually used in the New Testament — and you will be able to follow and to understand the explanation.
A0.24 This does not mean that you are now being told not to try too hard to learn your work. Not at all. But it does mean that you are not being asked to do all your learning on your own account, by rote, in isolation from actual use situations: you are being asked to become aware of the total framework of work to be learnt, and then progressively to flesh out that skeleton with knowledge and understanding as you gain experience with actual sentences from the Greek New Testament.
A0.25 Your learning acquisition is thus to be a steady progress on a broad base, so that you are gradually developing an increasing awareness of the way in which Greek words and forms and constructions are actually used, from encountering them in use.
A0.26 For most people this is a completely new approach to learning a subject, though it is in fact akin to how you progressively learnt your own mother tongue in the first place.
A0.27 This all means that you should indeed learn as much as you can by means of each of the learning opportunities (as set out below), concentrating particularly upon those sections of a Lesson that are indicated as most important: but you should not be dismayed or even surprised when you are taken on to a new Lesson before you have fully grasped the last one. You should proceed at your own pace (that is, irrespective of whether others are ahead of you or behind)
APPENDIX A: A STUDENT'S GUIDE TO THE USE OF THIS BOOK 169
without being concerned that your pace is not faster. Be content to build your knowledge of Greek gradually; do not be discouraged if you do not remember everything at the first or second hearing: you are not expected to. Your knowledge of the different aspects of Greek will fill out as you are exposed to more and more of the language in extracts from the New Testament during Stage One (the Beginner's Course) and, in Stage Two (the Intermediate Course), in progressing through 1 John, Mark or John (or some other New Testament book) and in working through Appendices C, D, and E.
A0.28 The points of grammar which have been made in each Lesson, and that do need to be noted, are covered in the Workbook which accompanies this book. Be sure to make the fullest use of the help this Workbook can provide.
A0.3 LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES
A0.30 For those who are part of a class (there will be comments for students studying privately in #A0.4) there are several "learning points" for each Lesson which provide "learning opportunities" that will contribute cumulatively to the growth of your knowledge of Greek:
A0.31 Student's Preliminary Reading of the Lesson: If you are able to do so, it is always helpful to do a quick preliminary reading of each Lesson before coming to the Session of your class where it will be introduced. This will provide you with a sense of direction — an awareness, in a general way, of the work that is to be tackled next, and an overview of that work. This quick Preliminary Reading enables you to see the whole of the next work unit in its totality, to get an idea of its scope, and thus to prepare yourself for its presentation in detail. It is something akin to looking at a roadmap of where you are going before you commence a journey.
A0.32 The Introduction of the Lesson by the Teacher: The teacher introduces the grammar content of each new Lesson in its turn, going through each section and explaining it, giving drills in the new paradigms, and discussing any questions raised by the class. This provides you with the opportunity of becoming familiar with the new material, seeing its interrelationships, and gaining an initial understanding of its use.
A0.33 Specific Memorization: In each Lesson, two or three Greek paradigms or flexions (or other material) are set for memorization. A specific effort is now to be made by the student to memorize this particular material.
A0.34 Second Reading by the Student, and Workbook Exercises: The Workbook Practice Sheets and Exercises focus attention on the various issues covered in each Lesson. You are then to find those answers not known to you by looking through the Lesson material, which will require a second reading of whatever was not remembered. This will serve to consolidate your overall understanding of the Lesson.
A0.35 Sentence Translation: Next, you are to put the work of the Lesson to immediate use in the translation of a number of sentences from English into Greek, and of selections from the Greek New Testament, which utilize the grammatical content of the Lesson. The aim of your translation from the New Testament is to reflect an understanding of the meaning of the Greek text, and therefore it must be as literal as it can be (a full explanation of the approach to your translation will be given in #A2.4). In seeking to understand the meaning of the Greek, you will need to use the paradigms you have learnt and to refer back frequently to the grammatical content of the Lesson, and to make use of other aids available such as your Vocabulary Cards. This point in your work,
170 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
at which you make use of the Lesson material in gaining an understanding of a New Testament sentence, is a major learning opportunity: seek therefore to gain an adequate grasp of the grammar that is needed to understand the sentence, and of how the sentence uses that grammar to express its meaning. There will be words, expressions, or constructions, that you cannot readily decipher: do not spend time on these (see #A2.6) but make a note of the problem for classroom discussion.
A0.36 Revision and Recapitulation: Your next Classroom Session will commence with a brief recapitulation of the previous Lesson, together with drills in that Lesson's flexions (or the most important ones, at least). Use this as a check on your overall understanding of that Lesson and of your work in memorizing the set flexions, and in your general understanding of the other flexions and your ability to recognize forms from them.
A0.37 Classroom Consideration of Sentences: After the recapitulation and drills, the class will consider in detail the Greek sentences given in the set Assignments. Take every opportunity to translate a sentence in class and to have it commented upon. Note differences between how you have rendered each of the sentences and the renderings of other members of the class, and ask questions about all the points that are not clear to you. It is important for the learning process that you should come to the point where you can understand the explanations that are given, and the form and meaning of the words in the sentences.
A0.38 Review and Reference Back: In the work on subsequent Lessons, matters will arise which require you to refer back to points of grammar in earlier Lessons. Use these references back to earlier material as an opportunity to review and consolidate your knowledge of that work. Additionally, use any break between the conclusion of your Stage One (Beginner's) Course and the commencement of Stage Two (the Intermediate Course) to work through all the Lessons again, in sequence. You will find that the Greek sentences will now be considerably easier, and that many matters not quite clear when you went through the book the first time will have now fallen into place, and you will be able to have a much better "feel" for the overall functioning of Greek. In your Review of Stage One in this way, attempt to translate the sentences accurately at sight, without writing down a translation. The greater the extent to which you can do this, the better the extent to which you have grasped your work. But however well (or badly) you fare in this Review, the next stage in your learning, studying a Gospel in Greek, will help you progress further.
A0.4 SELF STUDY SUGGESTIONS
A0.41 If you are not a member of a Greek class, why not form a class of your own to work with you? In your church or Christian fellowship or circle of friends, there are sure to be several people who would like to learn to read the Greek New Testament, given the opportunity and a little encouragement. You can provide both of these. Gather together those interested, and plan a suitable meeting time and place. Read through the Basic Principles For Teachers (Appendix B) and you can teach yourselves, even though none of you has done Greek before. Amongst the many advantages of working together in this way: you can give help and encouragement to each other in the work; you can verify each other's pronunciations of the Greek; one member of a group will often spot an error that another has made and not noticed; you can test each other's memorizing of the paradigms and flexions; a co-operative attack on the translation of the Greek sentences will produce better results than if you are working alone; often a small group working together will persevere with the Course through the hard and the tedious parts where a lone student will be tempted to give up; and so on.
APPENDIX A: A STUDENT'S GUIDE TO THE USE OF THIS BOOK 171
A0.42 A small group working together can provide an environment for learning that is not far below that of a formal class. While taking the study of Greek seriously, a group can have fun and fellowship together. Laughter is a tremendous learning environment. A0.43 If joining a class or forming your own group are both out of the question, you can certainly do this Course successfully on your own. But you need to realize that to do this is more difficult, and that you will have to accept the discipline of putting time aside for Greek on a regular basis a few days every week, and keeping that time sacrosanct — or there will always be something "more important" that will arise and claim it. Make it your aim to progress through this book at the fastest rate you can, and follow as far as possible in your personal study all the guidelines for classroom situations that are given in this Appendix and Appendix B — adapt these according to circumstances and apply them to your own situation.
A0.44 There will of course be problems you encounter where you (or your group) will need to consult someone with a greater knowledge of Greek. A minister or some other person who has studied Greek may be your answer here. Alternatively, you yourself may be that person at a later stage of your own Course — you yourself will then have a greater knowledge of Greek, and you will find that many of your earlier problems simply resolve themselves.
A1. LESSON ONE
A1.1 LESSON GOAL This Lesson has a threefold goal:
A1.11 To become fluent in reading the Greek letters accurately. This includes learning the alphabet. The graduated pronunciation exercises which follow will introduce you to the alphabet. A1.12 To begin writing the Greek letters correctly. A1.13 To become familiar with Greek punctuation. A1.14 To learn about Greek words, including learning the flexion of the verb "to be", and doing some simple translation from Greek into English and vice versa.
A1.2 LETTERS SIMILAR TO ENGLISH IN APPEARANCE AND PRONUNCIATION
A1.21 Almost half the letters of the Greek alphabet — ten out of the twenty-four — are sufficiently close to their English counterparts for them to be readily recognizable. Nine of the ten can also be pronounced similarly to English (the tenth, υ, will be discussed a little later, in #A1.37).
A1.22 These ten similar letters are: α β γ δ ε ι κ ο ς τ and υ. Their English equivalents are: a b d e i k o s t and u.
A1.23 There is no dot over the Greek ι.
A1.24 The α can be pronounced as short, as in "along", or long, as in "father", but it is NOT pronounced with the English "a" sounds as in "cat" or "name".
A1.25 The ι can be pronounced as short, as in "in", or long, as in "ski", "kiosk", and "machine", but it is NOT pronounced with the English "i" sound as in "find".
172 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
A1.26 When pronouncing a Greek word at this stage, make α and ι short unless it "feels" better to you to pronounce them long.
A1.27 BUT: ε can only be short, as in "penguin", and ο can only be short, as in "got".
A1.28 NOTE: In the following pronunciation exercises, many words start with a smooth or rough breathing. Make sure you say them correctly!
A1.29 The following forty-nine Greek words use only these letters (not including υ). Practise reading them out aloud several times, being particularly careful to pronounce the vowels correctly, as in the key words "along", "father", "in", "ski", "penguin", and "got". Ἀββᾶ, βία, δέκα, διά, κατά, κακός, τάς, βάτος, βίος, διαβάς, καταβάς, δέ, δίς, δοκός, δέος, ἴδε, τε, ἐκ, ἔτι, τίς, ἔτεκες, ἔκδικος, ἔτικτον, ἴδιος, ἀδικία, διότι, κακία, ἄκακος, ἄδικος, κόκκος, ἔκδοτος, ὁ, ὅς, ὅτι, ὅτε, ὅδε, τότε, τόδε, ἐᾶτε, ἔτος, ὁδός, ἐδίδοτε, ἐκτός, ἕκτος, δεκτός, τακτός, ἄτακτος, διδακτός, διδακτικός
A1.3 LETTERS SIMILAR IN APPEARANCE BUT DIFFERENT FROM ENGLISH
A1.30 Six Greek letters look something like English letters but are in fact quite different — and so they need to be carefully noted. Practise reading the words containing these letters. Take care to pronounce each letter separately: there are no pairs of vowels here that are pronounced together as one sound (a diphthong).
A1.31 γ not "y", but "g" as in "got".
γέ, ἄγε, ἅγιος, ἁγία, κατάγαγε, διαταγάς, ὄγδοος, ἀγάγετε
A1.32 η is not "n", but long "e", pronounced as in "there" and "where".
ἤ, ἥ, γῆ, δή, βοή, δίκη, γόης, ἀκοή, ἥδε, δεκάτη, διετής, ἀκήκοα
A1.33 ν is not "v", but "n" as in "in".
ἐν, ἕν, ἦν, ἀνά, ἵνα, ὅταν, ναός, τέκνον, γένος, ἤγαγον, ἱκανός; διάκονος, ἐγένετο, ἁγνήν
A1.34 ρ is not "p", but "r" as in "throw" or "rope".
ἀγρός, ἀγορά, ὄρος, ἕτερος, τρίτος, νεκρός, κρίνετε, γάρ, ἄρτος, καρδία, ἔργον, κέρδος, ὄρνις
A1.35 χ is not "x", but "ch" (sometimes written "kh") — this sound is not used in standard English, but it occurs in Scottish "loch", and German "Bach" (the name of the composer), and it is also found in Hebrew and numbers of other languages. You make this sound by forming your mouth as if you are going to say "k", almost closing the back of your palate, and then breathing a rough "h" sound through it.
χαρά, χάρις, χόρτος, χρόνος, ἄχρι, ἀρχή, δοχή, διδαχή, ἔχιδνα, ἔνοχος, τρέχοντες
A1.36 ω is not "w", but long "о̄" ("ow"), as in "throw" or "rope".⁷
ἐγώ, ἔχω, ἄρχω, ἕως, ὧδε, ὥρα, κρίνω, ὁράω, διώκω, δώδεκα, ἐρωτάω, ἀγωγή
A1.37 υ is indeed "u", but it is NEVER pronounced like the English "u" in "but". It is usually short (in which case it is pronounced like the "u" in "put"), and it can be long (in which case it is
APPENDIX A: A STUDENT'S GUIDE TO THE USE OF THIS BOOK 173
pronounced like the "u" in "truth"). If it carries a circumflex, as in νῦν, it will always be long; if it has another accent or no accent, it could be either short or long: adopt the rule of thumb of pronouncing it as short (as in "put") unless you are told otherwise by your teacher.
νῦν, νυκτός, γυνή, ὕδωρ, δυνατός, τυχόν, κύριος, ὑδρίας, ἐκχύννω, τέτυχεν, ὑγιές
A1.4 GREEK LETTERS DIFFERENT IN APPEARANCE FROM ENGLISH
A1.40 The remaining eight Greek letters are different in appearance from any English letters, and there is, in addition, another form of the letter "s" which is used whenever it occurs anywhere in a word EXCEPT as the last letter.
A1.41 ζ is "dz" (a double letter), pronounced as in "adze".⁷ (This sound is also heard in the word "gods", though in this particular English word it is spelt with "ds".) Be careful to pronounce both sounds, even when this letter stands first in a word.
γάζα, ζῆν, κράζω, ῥίζα, βιάζω, ἁγιάζω, ζωή, ζάω, ζητέω, ζυγός
A1.42 θ is "th" as in "think" or "throw", NEVER as in "this" or "though".
θεός, θύρα, θρόνος, καθώς, ἔθνος, ἐχθές, ἐχθρός, ἐνθάδε, ἀγαθός, καθαρός, θάνατος, θυγάτηρ, θεωρέω
A1.43 λ is "l", as in "boil", "glimpse".
λέγω, λόγος, βάλλω, θέλω, ἀλλά, καλός, λίθος, ὅλος, λαός, ὄχλος, ἐκλεκτός, λαλέω, δῆλον, βιβλίον
A1.44 μ is "m", as in "men", "glimpse".
μόνος, νόμος, ἅμα, ἐμός, ῥῆμα, μετά, μένω, μήτηρ, ὄνομα, τίθημι, δύναμις, ἡμέρα, ἔρημος, μαρτυρέω
A1.45 ξ is "x" (a double letter), as in "six", "treks", "locks".
νύξ, θρίξ, δόξα, ἔξω, ἕξετε, ἔξοδος,ἐξάγω, ἄξιος, δεξιός, ἀξίνη, ἐδέξατο, ξένος, ξύλον, δοξάζω
A1.46 π is "p", as in "put", "group".
πᾶς, πρός, παρά, ὑπό, ἐπί, ἑπτά, τόπος, πόλις, πάλιν, πίπτω, γραπτός, βλέπομεν, ἀγάπη, ἄνθρωπος
A1.47 σ is "s" when used initially or medially (that is, elsewhere than at the end of a word).
σύ, σύν, σάρξ, σῴζω, ὥστε, γλῶσσα, ὅσος, μέσος, κόσμος, ὅστις, Χριστός, γένεσις, ἐκκλησία, ἀπόστολος
A1.48 φ is "ph", as in "photograph" (pronounced the same as the "f" in "feud").
φῶς, φωνή, φημί, φίλος, τυφλός, τρέφω, γράφω, σοφία, ἄφεσις, ἔφαγον, ἔφυγον, κεφαλή, ἀδελφός, προφήτης, ὀφθαλμός
A1.49 ψ is "ps" (a double letter), as in "glimpse", "steps".
ἅψας, ὀψία, διψάω, ὑψόω, θλῖψις, ὀψάριον, ψυχή, ψηφίζω, ἀποκάλυψις, ψαλμός, ψαλλέτω
174 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
A2. LESSON TWO
A2.1 STEMS AND SUFFIXES
A2.11 The first goal for Lesson Two is understanding the concept of an inflected word. As a rough and ready rule-of-thumb you can take it that, in a given flexion, the part of a word that does not change is the stem, and the part that changes in the different forms in the flexion is the suffix.
A2.12 Question: Apply this rule-of-thumb to κύριος and ἔργον (#2.40): what is the stem of each?
A2.13 Answer: The stem of κύριος is κυρι-, which is the lexical morph (lexal) carrying the meaning "lord". The various morphs added to κυρι- are the suffixes called numbercase morphs meaning "nominative singular", "genitive plural", and so on as the case may require. Similarly the stem of ἔργον is ἐργ-, and the morphs that are added are the numbercase morphs, indicating number and case. Note the similarities and differences between the masculine and neuter numbercase morphs.
A2.14 Question: Apply this rule-of-thumb to λύω (#2.81): what are its stem and suffixes?
A2.15 Answer: The stem of λύω is λυ-, which is the lexical morph (lexal) carrying the meaning "loose", and the morphs added to λυ- can for practical purposes be treated as suffixed pronouns (pronoun endings) meaning "I", "you", "they", etc.
A2.16 This rough rule-of-thumb sometimes needs to be elastic enough to take account of the fact that a stem can change. Thus, Question: What is the stem of the Article (#2.4) and of εἰμί (#1.95)?
A2.17 Answer: The stem of the Article is τ- , and the rest of each form of the Article consists of the numbercase suffix; but in the nominative singular and plural of both masculine and feminine, the stem is the rough breathing only. The stem of eipi is really ἐσ-, but in three forms the -σ- has been replaced by an -ι- (the reason for this will be explained in due course).
A2.2 THE REASON FOR THE MANY FORMS OF THE ARTICLE
A2.21 The second goal is to understand the reason for the twenty-four forms of the Article.
A2.22 Why so many? Because the noun selects the form of the Article that must be used with it, and the form of the Article selected will be the one that agrees with it in gender, number, and case.
A2.23 A noun has an inherent gender: ἔργον, for example, is always neuter. This means that only the neuter forms of the Article can be used with it. In a particular sentence, if ἔργον is being used as a subject, and in the plural (as for example, "The works of the flesh . .", Galatians 5:19), then the form of ἔργον used will need to be the nominative plural, ἔργα, and this will select to accompany it that form of the neuter Article which is nominative plural, τά.
A2.24 Similarly, if one wished to say "of the lord", κύριος will need to be in the genitive singular, κυρίου, and being masculine will select the form of the Article that is masculine genitive singular, that is, τοῦ.
A2.25 The converse of this is that the Article is frequently a useful guide to the gender, number, and case of the noun with which it is used — something which becomes quite important with the Third Declension (see Lesson Five).
APPENDIX A: A STUDENT'S GUIDE TO THE USE OF THIS BOOK 175
A2.3 USING A PARADIGM TO FIND THE MEANING OF OTHER WORDS
A2.31 At this point, make sure that you have memorized the set paradigms for this Lesson. The next goal is understanding how the paradigm of one word applies as a pattern for other words.
A2.32 If the stem of κύριος is κυρι- and -ος is the numbercase ending, then we can tell that the stem of νόμος is νομ-, for -ος is its numbercase ending. From the paradigm of κύριος we see that, as κυρι- is the stem, -οις is the dative plural numbercase ending, having the meaning "to (the) — " or "for (the) — ", so that τοῖς κυρίοις means "to the lords" or "for the lords". Therefore if we put this same ending on to the stem νομ- (which means "law" — see #1.41), then we get τοῖς νόμοις, which thus means "to the laws" or "for the laws". Which of these two possible meanings is intended would be indicated by the context each time it is used.
A2.33 So when you come across a Greek noun (say, θεοῦ), the first step towards understanding its meaning is to break it into stem and numbercase ending, then locate the lexical meaning of the word in your Vocabulary/Dictionary, and work out the meaning of the numbercase ending from the parallel form in a paradigm (that is, the form that has the same numbercase ending). The lexical form of θεοῦ) is θεός, "God", and so the appropriate paradigm for θεός is the one for κύριος, and the parallel form for θεοῦ is κυρίου, which is genitive singular. Thus we arrive at the meaning of θεοῦ as "of God", "God's".
A2.34 The same approach is followed with verbs, using the paradigm for λύω (#2.81): λυ- is the stem (the lexal, carrying the verb's meaning) and the balance of the word consists of two grammatical morphs that are closely joined together. The first of these is the neutral morph (#2.77) and the second is the pronoun morph, a cut-down version of an unemphasized personal pronoun added to the word, meaning "I", "you", "they", or the like.
A2.35 The neutral morph is always -ο- or -ε-: it is -ο- when it is followed by -υ- (λυ-ο-υ-σιν), and when the pronoun morph commences with a nasal (as in λυ-ο-μεν) or consists of lengthening the neutral morph (λυ-ω), and it is -ε- in all other cases. The role of the neutral morph will be explained later (#4.36 and #4.44(b)]. It does not affect us at present and so for convenience the neutral morph can be taken together with the pronoun morph.
A2.36 Thus we can divide the forms of the flexion of λύω in this way:
|S||1||λύ - ω||I|
|2||λύ - εις||you (singular)|
|3||λύ - ει||he/she/it|
|P||1||λύ - ομεν||we|
|2||λύ - ετε||you (plural)|
|3||λύ - ουσι(ν)||they|
A2.37 The same flexion can be constructed for any other verb:
|S||1||βλέπ - ω||I|
|2||βλέπ - εις||you (singular)|
|3||βλέπ - ει||he/she/it|
|P||1||βλέπ - ομεν||we|
|2||βλέπ - ετε||you (plural)|
|3||βλέπ - ουσι(ν)||they|
A2.38 All the verbs that follow λύω in their present tense (the great majority of New Testament verbs) can be divided in the same way that has been done for βλέπω. You then replace the -ω of the lexical form with the appropriate pronoun suffix for the form that is required. Thus to form "they say", take the lexical form, λέγω, "I say", and substitute -ουσι(ν) ("they") for -ω ("I") to get the correct form λέγουσι(ν).
A2.39 Test yourself: from ἔχω, "I have", construct the form "we have".
176 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
A2.4 PRINCIPLES OF TRANSLATION
A2.41 The various explanations and ideas that have been given so far can now be put together and used as the translation techniques for deciphering Greek sentences. The section which follows next will show how that is to be done.
A2.42 First of all, however: reflect for a moment upon the question of what kind of translation you should aim to produce. There is a temptation for a student to attempt to give the best, smoothest, and most idiomatic English translation of the Greek sentences he is working on. This attempt is in fact misguided and unhelpful. Do not allow yourself to fall into this trap.
A2.43 When you translate Greek material into English, this is not the ultimate purpose of your study in Greek at all. It is simply a means to an end. Your goal is to be able to read the Greek New Testament with understanding; when you translate from Greek into English, this is done as a stage in the process of developing your own understanding of the Greek, and it is also to enable your teacher to assess the level of your progress. Do not try, therefore, to put the passage into a kind of smooth-flowing, natural language that the biblical author may have used if he had in fact been writing in English. On the contrary: render the Greek into equivalent English so that the English shows what the author actually wrote in Greek.
A2.44 Your aim therefore must be absolute accuracy in your translation into English. The Greek grammatical form must be expressed in its precise English equivalent: you must render a plural in Greek by a plural in English; if the Greek verb is present tense you must express it by a present tense in English; and so on. Translate what is there, without omitting material that is in the Greek or adding extra material into the English. This will very definitely mean that at times you are producing English that is stilted, jerky, and even perhaps unnatural, but the test is: Is it conveying accurately exactly what is being said in the Greek?
A2.45 However, it is important to translate not only the words of the Greek into English, but also the other features of Greek syntax — word order, special constructions and ways of expressing an idea, etc. There is a difference, that is, between a word-for-word translation and a literal transla-tion. A word-for-word translation (as in an interlinear version) renders each word by its English equivalent but does not take due notice of units of expression larger than the word. A literal translation (and this is your aim) expresses in English exactly what is in the Greek but in doing so translates all the other features of the Greek in addition to just the words as such.
A2.46 Some of the features of Greek syntax that have been referred to are ones that will be explained in subsequent lessons, but we can note these three examples from what has been covered in Lesson Two: (a) Greek names of people often have the Article; this Article would not usually be rendered in English (see #2.34); (b) Greek word position can indicate special emphasis (see #2.92), and it may be desirable at times to find a way in English of indicating this emphasis-by-position; (c) it is a Greek idiom that a neuter plural subject regularly takes a singular verb (see #2.17) — you would render this Greek singular verb into English in the plural. An example of another idiom to be covered later in the Course: When Greek reports indirect speech, it retains the tense that the original speaker would have used, whereas English requires that in indirect speech the verb be put into the past.
A2.47 At times the Greek will be found to be ambiguous, being capable of having two (or more) interpretations. So far as possible, retain this ambiguity in your English rendering, so that you show an awareness of both possibilities; do not shut out, in your English version, part of the range of meaning that is present in the Greek.
APPENDIX A: A STUDENT'S GUIDE TO THE USE OF THIS BOOK 177
A2.48 The ultimate goal towards which you are aiming in Stage One of your Course is to be able to read the Selections from the Greek New Testament in Greek and understand the meaning of what the Greek is saying without actually translating them into English. Now this goal may prove to be beyond the reach of many who do the Course: but a slightly lower goal, which should be well within the range of most students, is to reach the point of being able to read through all the various sentences in this Course and to translate them orally at sight. You may well fall short of this at the time of doing each Lesson (though some students will be able to attain it), but after you have gone through all ten Lessons of the Beginner's Course and you return to the earlier Lessons to revise them (#A0.38), you should find yourself increasingly able to do this.
A2.49 Always write your translation of sentences on a separate piece of paper. NEVER write a translation on the pages of this book itself. If you were to do that, you would see it each time you revised your earlier sentences, and your understanding would thus become limited to what it had been at the time your translation was first written out. To translate afresh each time you revise is to improve your competence in understanding the meaning of the Greek.
A2.5 TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES
A2.51 Before attempting the translation of a Greek sentence, read it over aloud in Greek one or more times, being careful to use the correct pronunciation. Try to get a "feel" for how the sentence operates (this will become easier as your familiarity with Greek improves). Associating the sound of Greek in word and sentence with the appearance of the Greek is a very valuable aid to learning which should not be neglected — it is reinforcing learning by familiarizing you with the sight and sound of Greek simultaneously.
A2.52 The first step to take in commencing the actual work of translation is to check whether or not the sentence is a question. This will be indicated in your edition of the Greek New Testament by a question mark (;) at the end — as your familiarity with Greek increases, you will learn that there are also a number of Greek words which indicate that a question is being asked. If it is a question, you may possibly find it easier to translate the sentence first of all as if it were a statement, and then transform it into a question in English as a second step.
A2.53 Look for the verb in the sentence (or, if it is a long sentence, with two or more sections joined by conjunctions such as καί, δέ, ἀλλά, γάρ, οὖν, or others that you will learn, work on the first section of the sentence first; then go on to the next section). At this stage you will be able to recognize the verb by its form: either it will be one of the forms from the flexion of εἰμί that you have learnt (#1.95) or it will consist of the lexal of a verb plus one of the endings of λύω) (see #2.81, #A2.36 and #A2.37). If you have learnt λύω thoroughly, you should be able to spot a verb quite quickly. In subsequent Lessons you will be introduced to more of the varied forms that a verb can take — each time you are presented with a new verb flexion it is important for you to note the features that will enable you to recognize each of its forms as being a verb.
A2.54 If the verb is afirst or second person form, then the subject is an internal subject, that is, it is the pronoun suffix (#2.76) already contained within the verb: "I", "we" or "you" (singular or plural) as the case may be. There may also be an external subject in the sentence as well, which will be the nominative case of the separate pronoun with the same meaning, and this will thus have an emphatic effect (see #1.95, #2.86). The degree of emphasis will vary according to the style of the author and his intention in a particular context, and can range from slight to very emphatic: the context will be your guide.
178 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
A2.55 If the verb is third person, then the next step is to look for an external subject (#2.84). If there is one, it will have three features which will aid you in locating it: (a) it will be in the nominative case (which you will recognize from knowing the nominative case endings for the different paradigms); (b) it will very frequently have the definite article in front of it, in the nominative case (and the forms of the article are ones that you have learnt, and are very easy to recognize); and (c) it will customarily be just after (or sometimes just in front of) the verb of which it is the subject — occasionally it may be separated from its verb by other words. If there is no external subject to be found, then you will make use of the verb's internal subject: "he" (or sometimes "she" or "it") if the verb is singular, and "they" if it is plural (#2.83, #2.85).
A2.56 Look next for other words which are linked to subject and verb — an adjective referring to the subject (which will be either in front of the noun, or after the noun with the noun's article repeated in front of it; such an adjective will have the same gender, number and case as the noun), or a word — such as a negative — referring to the verb. Another common type of word to look for is a noun or pronoun in the genitive case referring to the subject. The usual position for such a genitive is immediately after the word to which it refers.
A2.57 Now see if there are words in front of, after, or fairly close to the verb which are accusative case and are not preceded by a preposition. Apart from a few special idioms that you will meet in due course, these accusatives will normally form the direct object of the verb. In your English translation you will place such a word or words immediately after the verb. Thus in the sentence "You have faith", "faith" is the direct object and so will be in the accusative case (πίστιν) and, as is frequently the case for the direct object, it comes in front of the verb in Greek; when the sentence is translated into English this direct object is then placed after the verb ("have").
A2.58 Finally, translate any prepositional phrases (a preposition followed by a noun, either with or without an article between them) and any other words which remain. Use your Vocabulary Cards or the Greek Vocabulary at the end of this book (Appendix G) for any words you do not know.
A2.59 Assemble your translation, putting the Greek word order into correct English order: any introductory words (such as "and" or "for" or "behold", etc.), the subject, the verb (noting if it is negative or interrogative), the object, if any, and any other expressions in the sentence, putting these with the words to which they refer. If a sentence is in two (or more) parts, the division will usually be marked by punctuation and/or a conjunction (such as "and" or "but" or similar word), and each part of the sentence (called a clause) is best handled separately. In your translation, do not take words out of one clause of a sentence and put them into another clause.
A2.6 HANDLING GREEK WORD ORDER
A2.61 Some people encounter no problem with Greek word order, while others find it very difficult. This section is intended to assist those who are having trouble with Greek word order.
A2.62 In both languages, a sentence may consist of one or more clauses — if there are more than one, each clause will usually have a verb of its own, and at least one clause and quite probably both or all of them will have a conjunction (#2.18; #2.96). You need to deal with each clause on its own.
A2.63 Your goal is to end up with an intelligible English sentence that accurately conveys the meaning of the Greek. Each Greek sentence and each English sentence consist of a number of "meaning units" — words, and groups of words which collocate (that is, "go together" in meaningful patterns). These "meaning units" are the "building blocks" of sentences in both
APPENDIX A: A STUDENT'S GUIDE TO THE USE OF THIS BOOK 179
languages. But Greek word order is rarely the same as English word order. Therefore, to achieve your goal you are going to need to translate Greek word order into English word order. Think of these "building blocks" as actually being empty boxes with different names, into which are placed the appropriate words of a clause or sentence. That is, a sentence (in Greek or English) is like a row of these boxes, with most of the words going into one box or another, and a few words being jammed into the "cracks" between two boxes. You will find these boxes in one order in a Greek sentence, and your task is not only to translate the Greek words but to rearrange the boxes into the right order required by an English sentence.
A2.64 First, let us note the standard English word order. There are five main "building blocks" or "boxes", usually occurring in a set order:
Conjunction Subject Verb Direct Object/ Complement Indirect Object
That is, these are the names on the five "boxes" which make up an English sentence, and this is the order in which those boxes need to be placed. If the verb has a negative, this goes as part of the verb's "building block"; the article, adjectives, and genitives which refer to a noun go in that noun's "building block" or "box". Other words — vocatives, adverbs, prepositional phrases, and the like — are then fitted into the "cracks" between these "boxes". Very few sentences will have something in every "box" — for most sentences there will be one or more empty "boxes". Here is a two-part sentence which we can put into two rows of "boxes" and "cracks": "So Jesus told these parables to the crowds, but privately he explained everything to his own disciples."
|So||Jesus||told||these parables||to the crowds,|
|but||privately||he||explained||everything||to his own disciples.|
Sometimes these "boxes" can be rearranged differently in English — for example, some verbs (but only some) allow you to put the indirect object in front of the direct object, without using "to", like this: "So Jesus told the crowds these parables"; and you can usually rearrange some of the units, for example, "but to his own disciples he explained everything privately". But the pattern we are using will serve to give us an intelligible English sentence, so make it your goal to turn the Greek word order into this pattern in English.
A2.65 Greek sentences are make up of the same basic "building blocks" as English sentences —#A2.5 has explained how these "meaning units" of a Greek sentence can be identified. Sometimes these "blocks" are already in the same order that English uses, as in Selections B9 and B22:
180 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
I am sending
τὸν ἄγγελόν μου
πρὸ προσώπου σου.
before your face.
A2.66 However a typical Greek sentence will have these "building blocks" in a different order:
NOTE: (a) if a verb has a noun subject, it will typically be placed after the verb; (b) if a verb has a pronoun subject, this may occur anywhere in the sentence; (c) if a verb has an internal subject, then verb and subject will be just one word; (d) there is no typical position for an indirect object — it can be found almost anywhere, in one of the "cracks" between the "building blocks".
Selections B4 and B21 follow the "typical" pattern of a Greek sentence:
NOTE: A negative goes into the verb "block", and when there is no external subject there will be just the one "block" for the verb with its internal subject.
ἔργα τῶν χειρῶν σού
|NOTE:||(a) εἰσιν is a verb of equivalence (#2.95), so ἔργα is its complement;|
|(b) the genitive expression referring to ἔργα goes into the same "block" with it.|
A2.67 Most Greek sentences will have one or more words which do not fit into any "box" and which lie in one or other of the "cracks" between the "boxes"; and/or which have a "box" in a different order. For example, in Selection B 1 the emphatic pronoun ("we", ἡμεῖς) comes first. Similarly B3, B7, B12 and B20. And you will notice how the "dative of the person(s) spoken to" usually comes after the verb of speaking (in B8, B9, B 13, B 16 and B 17 — but not in B 15). For each Greek clause or sentence, identify the "building blocks" used in it, and what words come in between them.
A2.68 Now take these "building blocks" of the Greek sentence which you have identified, and translate the Greek words and the order of the Greek "blocks" into English words and the order of English "blocks". You may find it helpful, while getting used to this procedure, to draw up a grid for your translation of each Greek clause, with a named box for each "building block", and fill in, in the correct box, the English translation for each "meaning unit" of the Greek sentence when you have identified it. Bear in mind that other parts of a sentence not covered by these "boxes" will be placed in the "cracks" between them.
APPENDIX A: A STUDENT'S GUIDE TO THE USE OF THIS BOOK 181
This is the box grid you can use for your English translation:
A2.7 TACKLING PROBLEMS
A2.71 All these guidelines are to be used for the Sentences of Lesson Two and for all subsequent Lessons in this Course as well — they will enable you to decipher most of the Selections from the Greek New Testament. But what should you do when you meet problems: a word or a sentence that you simply cannot work out?
A2.72 The best advice for such a situation is, Give up on it. Don't worry about that particular Selection — after you have worked on it and tried to translate it, and found it too difficult to understand, leave it altogether, and go on to the next one. Never feel obliged to work out each Sentence before you can leave it for another one: if you keep wrestling with one that you find difficult you could waste a great deal of your valuable time which could be more profitably used in doing the other Selections. The problem which has temporarily defeated you will invariably solve itself as the range of your exposure to Greek material increases. If however you do wish to pursue the problem further when you first encounter it, the following guidelines will be of help, both for Lesson Two and all subsequent Lessons.
A2.73 First of all, reread the particular Course Lesson, and if necessary look back over the previous Lessons as well. Chances are that you have overlooked some comment or explanation which will give you the key to the point that is unclear, or which will unlock the right approach to the meaning. (If there is not a comment or explanation in any of the previous Lesson material, write and tell me — it means I have omitted including one, and it would be helpful for me to have you point this out to me.)
A2.74 Next, consult (according to the nature of the problem) a lexicon or dictionary, the appropriate Appendix at the end of this book, a detailed grammar book, or a commentary on the Greek text of the New Testament.
A2.75 Check out the particular passage in an Interlinear Greek New Testament, or in one of the more literal English translations of the New Testament (RV or NASB), and see if this clears up the difficulty. (This is most likely to be helpful if the problem is being able to work out the right English order for the Greek words.)
A2.76 If you are a member of a Greek class, discuss the problem with other members of your class. This is always a good practice for your Greek work generally — two or three students working together can often help each other to understand the full meaning of a Sentence, for one will see what another misses.
A2.77 Make a note of the problem that you have met, and if it is not covered in working through the translations of the New Testament Selections at the next Session of your Greek class, raise the problem yourself for discussion and clarification.
A2.78 But remember: don't be at all concerned at finding in practice that your knowledge of Greek is only partial and incomplete, even for dealing with these Selections from the Greek New Testament. Reading and more reading from the Greek New Testament is the best way of filling the gaps in one's knowledge. It is also the most enjoyable way.
182 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
A3. LESSON THREE
A3.11 The English equivalents for the personal pronouns should be carefully noted. They are:
|First Person||Second Person||Third Person|
A3.12 The longer forms of the first person singular pronoun (ἐμέ, etc.) are usually the emphatic forms, and the shorter forms (με, etc.) are usually unemphatic, but sometimes this distinction does not seem to hold. The second person singular forms are emphatic if accented, unemphatic if not.
A3.13 If you tend to confuse the respective meanings of ἡμεῖς and ὑμεῖς, note that the last letter of the English word is the first letter of its Greek equivalent:
A3.14 αὐτός, αὐτή, αὐτό means "he/she/it", but this word will be referring to some other word and takes the gender of the word that it refers to. Thus if αὐτός refers to (for example) "kingdom" or "cloud" (which are feminine in Greek - see Vocabulary, L2/823 and L2/826), then it will need to be feminine in form, though the English translation would be "it" (because these words are neuter in English).
A3.15 The plural forms of αὐτός are all equivalent to English "they", but: the masculine plural covers masculine or combined masculine and feminine units; the feminine plural covers a group of units all of which are feminine; the neuter plural covers units which are neuter. "Unit" here means "whatever the word refers to", whether person or thing, and "masculine, feminine and neuter" refers to its/their grammatical gender in Greek.
A3.16 The demonstrative pronoun/adjective οὗτος sometimes has the diphthong ου- in its stem, and sometimes changes this to αυ-. Can you see when each one occurs? It is related to the ending of each form: if the ending contains an "o" (short or long), then the stem diphthong will be ου-; but if the ending contains an "a" (short or long - and this includes an η, which at times functions like a lengthened α), then the stem diphthong will be αυ-.
A3.17 The singular of οὗτος (see #3.32) means "this" and the plural means "these"; the same case meanings apply as usual, and the same features about gender apply as in #A3.15. Note that when a form of this word is used as a pronoun (i.e. without referring to another noun) it means "this one", and the gender indicates "this man", "this woman", "this thing" (#3.36).
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A3.2 THE PAST TENSES OF THE VERB
A3.21 Note (#3.62) that ἐ- added at the beginning of a verb form is the augment, the past time indicator or morph. Thus every verb that is referring to past time will commence with an ἐ- if its lexal begins with a consonant; for example, ἔβαλον, second aorist (note the single λ) from βάλλω; and εἶδον, from verb lexal ἰδ- (#3.69). But there are some verbs which have a verb lexal commencing with ἐ- (for example, ἔχω, which we met in Lesson Two). Therefore, when working on a New Testament Selection, whenever we come across a verb form which commences with ἐ-, we need to check in our Vocabulary or Dictionary to see whether this is a verb which has a lexal commencing with ἐ-, or whether this ἐ- is the past time morph added to the verb lexal.
A3.22 When the verb lexal itself begins with ε- , the past time morph (the augment) is the change of this ε- into η-. Thus the verb stem ἐλθ- becomes ἠλθ- when it is augmented (second aorist: ἦλθον). Similarly, an initial α- also becomes η-, and ο- becomes lengthened to ω-. Whenever therefore we come across a verb form which commences with η- or ω-, we have to bear in mind that this may conceal an augment and thus the word may be a past time form of the verb.
A3.23 There are some verb lexals which already begin with a long vowel or diphthong and are not changed by the addition of an augment. Thus the verb stem εἰπ- remains εἰπ- when augmented (second aorist: εἴπον, #3.69).
A3.24 There are three different patterns of the aorist active tense in Greek. This is to say, there are three conjugations in Greek (see #10.13) which may be clearly distinguished from each other in the aorist active flexion. The one being introduced this Lesson is the second aorist, i.e. the aorist active flexion of the Second Conjugation. The first aorist will be introduced in Lesson Four, and the third aorist in Lesson Seven. (εἰμί is from the Third Conjugation, but the flexion from it which is given in Lesson Three is the imperfect tense — it has no aorist flexion.)
A3.25 The second aorist active indicative is formed by prefixing the augment to the lexal and adding to the verb stem a two-part ending. The first part of this ending consists of a vowel which is called the neutral morph (see #2.77, #A2.35), and as in the present tense (see #A2.34) this two-part ending is made up of this neutral morph followed by the pronoun morph. Some of the pronoun morphs are the same in the second aorist as they were in the present tense (#A2.36), and some are different.
A3.26 There are thus four morphs in the forms of the second aorist flexion: augment (past time morph); lexal; neutral morph; pronoun morph. They are all readily identifiable — except in the third person singular, where the ending is just -ε. This -ε is the pronoun morph: the neutral morph, -ε-, elides (that is, slides off or hides from view) when a vowel suffix is added. (Elision will be further explained later on.)
A3.27 Can you recognize the morphs in the forms of the flexion of ἔβαλον (#3.8)? The forms divide into morphs like this:
A3.28 Sometimes we find that in a second aorist form a Greek writer has replaced the neutral morph with the vowel -α-, the vowel of the punctiliar morph which is used by the first aorist (as we
184 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
will see in Lesson Four). Thus we can come across εἶπαν for the third person plural instead of the grammatically correct εἶπον. An example of this is given in Selection 30 of this Lesson's Selections. This is a stylistic variation, and makes no difference in meaning. Indeed, it seems that when it is done it is intended to differentiate the third person plural from the first person singular form, εἶπον - these two forms are identical in the paradigm of the second aorist.
A3.29 Note the movable nu (#1.75) in the second aorist third person singular.
A3.3 WAYS OF THINKING ABOUT GREEK VERB MORPHS
A3.31 Understanding the functioning of the Greek verb is crucial for understanding the meaning of a Greek sentence. And a Greek verb is made up of many morphs each containing a unit of meaning, all of which together give the total meaning of the verb form in any particular sentence.
A3.32 Like a freight train loaded with valuable merchandise, a Greek verb form is loaded with meaning. Just as a freight train consists of a number of "units" — trucks — each carrying valuable goods of different kinds, so a verb form consists of a number of "units" — morphs — each of which brings you a different piece of information.
A3.33 To get the total value of your freight-train-load of goods, you have to unload all the trucks. Similarly, to get the value out of all the morphs in a Greek verb form, you must be sure to "unload" the meaning out of each individual morph, for every morph in the verb form is carrying its own piece of information for you.
A3.34 Alternatively, a verb form can be viewed as a key to a lock, the morphs being the various bumps and indentations on the key. The exact form of these determines the particular meaning "unlocked" by a given verb form.
A3.35 Or, a verb form can be likened to a jigsaw puzzle, the morphs being the different pieces, each of which has to be identified and put in its right place to build up the total picture.
A3.36 Again, the meaning of a verb form is a mystery, and the morphs of the verb are the clues — work out the meaning of the clues, put everything all together, and you solve the mystery of what happened (the action described by that verb form).
A3.37 One of the most helpful ways of viewing the verb morphs is as being like a set of electrical switches — some of them are simple on/off switches, and some are multiposition switches. Thus the augment is the past time on/off switch: when the augment is present in a word, this switch is "on", and it "switches" the meaning of that particular form of the verb to "past time position". The ending is a multiposition switch: when this switch reads "μεν", this "position" indicates the meaning "we"; when this switch reads "τε" , however, this "position" switches the meaning of the verb form to "you (plural)". And so on.
A3.38 Keeping in your imagination these different ways of viewing the nature and function of the morphs in a verb form can help you in your approach to unscrambling its meaning.
A3.4 CASE AFTER VERBS
A3.41 Most verbs require accusative case in the noun which follows them as their direct object. Thus (Selection B26): εἶδεν δύο ἀδελφους, where δύο ἀδελφους ("two brothers") is the direct object of εἶδεν ("he saw"), and is therefore accusative case.
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A3.42 Some verbs take the genitive case instead of (or as an alternative to) the accusative. Thus ἀκούω, "I hear", is sometimes followed by the accusative case and on other occasions by the genitive case (as in Selection B 19). Different shades of meaning can sometimes be intended (see for example the standard commentaries on the use of φωνή in the genitive case in Acts 9:7 and 22:7, but in the accusative case in Acts 22:9, in the accounts of Paul's conversion).
A3.43 Some verbs take the dative case instead of the accusative case, especially where the noun refers to the person to whom the action of the verb applies. Thus πιστεύω ("I believe") is often followed by the person who is to be believed, in the dative case. Alternatively, it can be followed by εἰς plus the accusative (as in Selection B6) or ἐν plus the dative (as in Selection B 11).
A3.5 COMMENTS ON THE ASSIGNMENTS
A3.51 Do your Assignments in sequence. Make sure that you have memorized the paradigms set for learning in this Lesson — and in the previous Lessons — and that you understand the meaning of each of the forms you memorize.
A3.52 After you have finished reading this section of Appendix A, answer the Questions in your Workbook, and then turn to your translations. Note particularly the Prepositions and the fact that each takes or selects a particular case (μετά has two possible cases, each with a different meaning).
A3.53 When you commence your work on the Selections, remember to read each Selection aloud carefully and correctly before attempting to translate it (#A2.51). Then translate each of the Selections, not so as to produce smooth-flowing idiomatic English, but so as to bring out the exact meaning of the Greek. Read again #A2.44 to remind you of your aims in this regard.
A3.54 Note that δέ never comes first in the Greek, but is always put first in the English rendering (#2.96). It can be translated either "and" or "but", according to the context (translate it as "and" unless the context shows that a contrast of some kind is in view, in which case "but" is the right rendering).
A3.55 Some common expressions, especially with prepositions, are regarded as definite even though they do not use the definite article. Thus ἐν μέσῳ (Selections B23 and B28) means "in the middle/midst". Conversely, watch for places where the Greek article would not be required for English (as in Selection B1).
A3.56 In addition to being used for "to" or "for", the dative case can also have the meaning of "in", as in τῷ σῷ ὀνόματι, "in your name" (Selection B 12).
A3.57 When translating Selection B 19, remember that (contrary to the normal rules of agreement) in Greek a singular verb will normally be used after a neuter plural subject (see the Rule, #2.17).
A3.58 If you need to find the meaning of a word in order to understand a particular Selection and the word is not printed alongside that Selection, this is because you have been introduced to this word already, either in a previous Lesson or earlier in this Lesson. You will be able to find the word in your pack of Vocabulary Cards, or in the earlier "New Words" for this Lesson. Remember to take off an augment, if it has one, in working out its lexical form (the form in which it will be given in a Vocabulary). (You will find it helpful to make out Vocabulary Cards for the new words of this Lesson as you come to each of them. so that you keep your pack fully up to date.) You can also look up any words you need in the Greek Vocabulary in Appendix
186 LEARN TO READ THE GREEK NEW TESTAMENT
A4. LESSON FOUR
A4.1 PARADIGM OF THE ACTIVE OF λύω
A4.11 Note carefully the indicative flexions of this Paradigm; particularly:
(a) that the future is the same as the present, with the future time morph, -σ-, added between lexal and endings;
(b) that the imperfect has the augment and exactly the same set of endings as the second aorist (see #3.81);
(c) that the first aorist is marked by having -σα- throughout, except only for the third person singular where the punctiliar morph is -σ-, the -α- of the full morph -σα- eliding when a vowel suffix (-ε-) is added;
(d) that the perfect has the same suffixes as the first aorist (with the aspect morph -κα- instead of -σα-). The one exception is the third person plural, which is -σι(ν) not -ν.
A4.12 Note the meanings of the different morphs in the future forms; that the neutral morph has no meaning (when short, it simply shows that the form is not subjunctive mode); and that the English meaning of the word can be read across from right to left in the combined meaning of all the other morphs. Thus:
A4.13 Similarly, the meaning of the aorist and perfect forms can be read in the morphs: (a) The aorist:
The aorist morph -σα- is not translated, but is noted as indicating the punctiliar meaning of the form, as distinct from the durative meaning of an imperfect tense form, etc. (The meaning of the imperfect cannot be read off from the morphs in this way, but ἐλύομεν means "we were loosing".) (b) The perfect:
A4.14 When a verb lexal commences with a consonant, the rule for reduplication is: double that initial consonant, and insert -ε- between them. Thus, for the verb δουλεύω, the δ- is doubled and -ε- inserted between, and the aspect morph -κα- added to the lexal, to give the perfect δεδούλευκα. (When a verb commences with a vowel, a ρ, an aspirate, a double letter or two consonants together, special reduplication rules apply: see #E4.3.)
A4.15 Note carefully the subjunctive flexions; particularly:
(a) that the present subjunctive is the same as the present indicative but with the neutral morph lengthened, and that the -ι- of a diphthong goes subscript and the -υ- of the diphthong -ου- drops out;
(b) that the aorist subjunctive is the same as the present subjunctive, with the punctiliar morph, -a-, added between lexal and endings. (The -σ- of the full punctiliar morph -σα-has elided before the vowel suffixes.)
A4.16 Note that the difference of meaning between the present and aorist subjunctive has nothing to do with time, but aspect. The present subjunctive means that the action under consideration (for example, "we might loose") is of a durative nature ("we might loose on an ongoing or continuing basis"). The aorist subjunctive means that the action under consideration is of a once-only nature, or relates just to the occasion in question ("we might loose on this particular occasion"). This difference of aspect applies to all use of the subjunctive.
A4.17 Note carefully the other forms of the active Paradigm, and especially the differences between the corresponding forms of present and aorist.
A4.18 Note that the aorist only has the augment in the indicative mode, which means that the aorist has past time signification only in the indicative mode.
APPENDIX A: A STUDENT'S GUIDE TO THE USE OF THIS BOOK 187
A4.19 Note the three pairs of forms in these flexions which have the same spelling:
ἔλυον: the 1st person singular and 3rd person plural of the imperfect (we saw this also last Lesson for the second aorist, #3,83);
λύω: the 1st person singular present of the indicative and also of the subjunctive;
λύσω: the 1st person singular future indicative and also aorist subjunctive.
When these "ambiguous" forms are used, usually some factor in the context will enable you to know which of the pair is intended in any given instance.
A4.2 EXAMPLES OF VERB USE AND RULES
A4.21 In #4.45 we learn that the words ἵνα ("in order that") and ἄν ("ever", indicating indefinite-ness) take the subjunctive after them. The word div is used when the indefiniteness of something is being expressed. Thus, ἕως ἂν παρέλθῃ ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ (L4/B18), literally "until ever the heaven and the earth were to pass away", indicating the indefiniteness and uncertainty of the time when they shall pass away, or indeed the uncertainty that they ever shall. Occasionally this ἄν is written in the variant form ἐάν, with the same meaning. Thus, ὃς ἐὰν οὖν λύσῃ ... (L4/B 18), "whoever then were to loose/break ..." Usually ἐάν (a combination of εἰ, "if", and ἄν) means "if ever", as in καὶ ἐάν τις ὑμῖν εἴπῃ ... (L4/1321), "and if ever anyone were to say to you ...", indicating that it is a possibility (but not certain) that someone will say something.
A4.22 Similarly, 'Iva takes the subjunctive, for it usually expresses a purpose. Thus, ἵνα πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ Ἠσαΐου τοῦ προφήτου (L4/B19), "in order that what was spoken through Isaiah the prophet should be fulfilled". Sometimes ἵνα is used to indicate what should happen (and is translated "that"). Thus: ἐπετίμησεν αὐτοῖς ἵνα μὴ φανερὸν αὐτὸν ποιήσωσιν (L4/B19), "he commanded them that they should not make him known". At times ἵνα is used to express a wish. Thus, Ῥαββουνί, ἵνα ἀναβλέψω (L4/1321), "Rabbi, [my wish is] that I might see again".
A4.23 Example of future of liquid verb (#4.56): In the future σύρω ("I drag") becomes first of all συρέω, with the addition of future morph -ε-, and then when this form is actually used in writing or speaking the two contiguous vowels (that is, vowels next to each other) contract and the word form becomes συρῶ: note the different accent, which results from the contraction and distinguishes the future from σύρω, the present tense. Similarly the future of κρίνω ("I judge") is κρινέω, which contracts to κρινῶ. (This is the sixth situation where an accent should be noted: for the five earlier ones, see #A1.37, #2.88, #3.37, #4.17, and #4.94.)
A4.3 THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN PAIRS OF SIMILAR PREPOSITIONS
A4.31 The core meaning of εἰς is "into" — something/someone is outside an environment, and enters it. Thus Jesus was driven by the Spirit εἰς τὴν ἔρημον (L3/B29). The core meaning of πρός is "towards" — it means to go to someone/something, but does not include in its meaning the idea of entering it. The English sentence "They came to the town" does not itself indicate whether they entered it or stopped outside. Greek is able to resolve this ambiguity: if it uses εἰς for "to", then they entered the town; if it uses πρός then it implies they reached the town but does not in itself imply that they entered it.
A4.32 Part of the extended meaning of εἰς is "right up on to". Thus if the disciples came πρός the mountain, they arrived at it; if they came εἰς the mountain, they went right up on to it. (See Selections B4 and B7.) Both πρός and εἰς imply motion, but εἰς indicates that the motion continued right into the sphere indicated by the word which follows it.
A4.33 Sometimes the sense of εἰς is "throughout", as in Selection B5, εἰς ὅλην τὴν Γαλιλαίαν, "throughout the whole of Galilee".
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A4.34 An extended meaning of εἰς is "for, with a view to". Thus L5/B11, εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν, "for the forgiveness of sins".
A4.35 There is an exactly parallel distinction between ἐκ and ἀπό. ἐκ indicates the source or origin out of which something has come. It was inside, and now it has come from there. Thus L3/B13, "Did the baptism of John arise out of heaven or out of men?" (ἐξ οὐρανοῦ ἢ ἐξ ἀνθρώπων;) — this is a question about its origin or source. Similarly in L2/B5.
A4.36 An extended meaning of ἐκ is that something started right at the point mentioned. Thus L3/B7, ἐξ ἀρχῆς, "right at the beginning, or at any point after that".
A4.37 In contrast, ἀπό can be used of being distant from something without implying having come from that something or not. Thus in L3B18 the disciples in the boat were not far ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς, "from the land". Had they come from that shore or not? The wording does not indicate. Again in L3/B14 Jesus tells a man that he is not far ἀπὸ τῆς βασιλείας, "from the kingdom". It is obvious that this does not mean that he had been in the kingdom and had left it; on the contrary, he was coming close to the kingdom, but he was still some distance ἀπό it.
A4.38 Another extended meaning of ἐκ is to indicate the connection of someone with a group. Thus L5/B10, ἐστὲ ἐκ τῶν προβάτων τῶν ἐμῶν, "you are out of my sheep", that is, "you are part of my sheep, you belong to my flock". It does NOT mean "you are out of my sheep" in the sense "you have left my flock". This meaning of "belonging to" or "being a member of" a group is a very common meaning of ἐκ.
A5. LESSON FIVE
A5.1 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY
A5.10 The goal of this Lesson is to understand how the Third Declension works. It may be helpful for some people if this goal is broken down into a series of small steps, which indicate how to go about achieving it in stages.
A5.11 First of all, learn ἰχθύς, because it is the basic Third Declension pattern paradigm. It has a long vowel stem (the upsilon is long, as in νῦν, pronounced as in the keyword "truth", #1.52). Note that the endings are added straight to the stem without any modifications.
A5.12 In contrast, whenever endings are added to short vowel or consonant stems, linguistic modifications will occur. Most of these modifications are predictable, and are explained by the Rules (#5.31—#5.38). The second thing to do, then, is to learn σάρξ, and to compare its paradigm with that of ἰχθύς. Be sure that you understand the differences: σάρξ takes the consonant-stem ending -α for the accusative singular (#5.30), and combines the last phoneme of its stem, -κ, with a following sigma into -ξ- in accordance with the Amalgamation Rule (#5.33). Otherwise its paradigm is identical with that of ἰχθύς.
A5.13 Thirdly, compare the other vowel stem paradigms (#5.20) with ἰχθύς and note how they agree with and vary from it. Some explanation of these variations will be given at a later stage; for now, seek to cultivate "recognition memory" of the forms of the vowel stem paradigms by the comparison and contrast with ἰχθύς.
A5.14 Fourthly, note the other Linguistic Modifications Rules one at a time (#5.34—#5.38), and observe how these Rules account for the other regular paradigms given in #5.30 and #5.44. If you understand these six Rules, you will understand what is happening in the forms of the vast majority of Third Declension words. This is an understanding well worth gaining.
APPENDIX A: A STUDENT'S GUIDE TO THE USE OF THIS BOOK 189
A5.15 Next, compare how the "slightly irregular" consonant stem paradigms of the "family group" 4) vary from the regular, and note the explanations of these variations (#5.41—#5.44).
A5.16 Then note the similarities and differences of the neuter paradigm σῶμα with its maculine/feminine equivalent, παῖς, D3.8 (#5.5).
A5.17 Finally, observe how adjectives use the paradigms of the three Declensions (#5.7—#5.8). Note particularly πολύς and μέγας (#5.85), which change their masculine/neuter from Third to Second Declension after the first two case forms; and εἷς, μία, ἕν (#5.86) — students often confuse the masculine and neuter forms with prepositions because of not noting the rough breathing, and sometimes they totally fail to recognize μία as the corresponding feminine flexion form when they encounter it. Be sure, also, that you are able to identify the compound forms of εἷς, οὐδείς and μηδείς.
A5.18 The most important of the Third Declension noun paradigms have been set out in Lesson Five. For all the others, including full paradigms for adjectives, see Appendix D.
A5.2 EXERCISE: The answer for #5.39:
A5.3 ITERATED PREPOSITION
A5.31 It is quite common to find that some Greek authors will use the same preposition in a compound verb and governing a noun in a related prepositional phrase. For example, in L5/B6, ἔξελθε ἐξ αὐτοῦ, and again in ἐξῆλθεν ἐξ αὐτοῦ.
A5.32 This is a stylistic feature, referred to as the iterated preposition, and does not indicate emphasis upon the preposition. In translating, you can choose a word which captures both prepositions; e.g., in the above example, "depart out of him". Frequently it is sufficient to translate just one of the iterated prepositions.
A6. LESSON SIX
A6.1 POINTS TO NOTE
A6.11 NOTE CAREFULLY how the presence of the morph -μεν- in Slot 8, the Specifier Slot, indicates that the form is a middle participle (#6.35); but that a middle future participle form will be switched to passive by the insertion of the passive morph -θη- in Slot 5. Thus: λυσόμενος is the middle future participle (#6.33), and λυθησόμενος is the passive future participle (#6.50). The slot is important: -μεν in Slot 9, the final slot, is the pronoun "we". NOTE ALSO that the aorist passive participle has a completely different flexion from the aorist middle participle (#6.29, #6.50).
A6.12 NOTE CAREFULLY that Greek has no passive flexions for the durative and perfective aspects and can use the present and perfect middle forms with passive meaning (#6.37, #6.50). Because of this, whenever you come across a present or perfect middle form, examine the context carefully to assess whether the author's intended meaning is the middle or the passive voice.
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A6.13 NOTE CAREFULLY that only the future and aorist tense systems take the passive morph -θε/θη-. In itself, this morph indicates "aorist passive" unless it is followed by the future morph which in its turn must always be followed by the neutral morph (#4.22, #4.74). The presence of these three morphs together — passive, future, and neutral morphs — indicates that the form is future passive.
A6.14 THE REFLEXIVE PRONOUN: Do not overlook the Reflexive Pronoun given at the end of Lesson Six (set out in full in Appendix D, #D6.8). The 1st person singular means "myself", the 2nd person singular "yourself", the 3rd person singular "himself/herself/itself" (depending upon gender). Note that the one plural flexion is used for first, second, and third person, and means "ourselves/yourselves/themselves" — the reflexive pronoun reflects the subject of the verb, and thus the person of the verb will indicate which person is meant for the pronoun.
A6.2 THE NINE MORPH SLOTS OF THE VERB
A6.21 Progressively, we have now been introduced to all nine morph slots of the verb, that is, positions in a verb framework where a unit of meaning can be placed. The verb's lexal is the core of the verb, carrying the word's lexical or dictionary meaning. There are three types of prefix which can be placed before it, and five kinds of suffix which can be added after it. These nine morph slots of the verb can be likened to switches each of which "switches" the meaning of the verb to a particular alternative (see #A3.37).
A6.22 In a compound verb, four slots are always filled, that is, always contain a morph, each of which will be one of a range of alternatives (with different meanings) that can occur in that slot. Each of these four slots is thus like a multiposition selection switch — it selects for that slot a particular meaning out of the range of alternatives available. These four slots are Preposition, Lexal, Aspect, and Ending, and they thus provide the basic framework for the structure of every verb form (so that a zero morph in one of these four slots is significant). They are represented in the diagram that follows as circular switches.
A6.23 In between these four framework slots are five other slots, all of which can be likened to on/off switches. They are represented in the diagram as rectangular switches. Four of the five are simple on/off switches — for these slots there is no range of alternative morphemes. Rather, there is only one morpheme (or unit of meaning) which can occur in a given slot, though a morpheme can have different allomorphs or alternative morphs — that is, it can have different forms, with identical meaning. (For example: the future morph, which is -ε- after liquids and -σ- otherwise.) If this morpheme is present in its slot it switches the verb to have that particular meaning (that is, in the example just given, "future"). Thus these are all optional slots — slots which may contain a morph, or may not.
A6.24 The fifth optional slot, Slot 8, is also an on/off switch, but if it is "on" — that is, if it is filled by a morph — it can have in it any one of six different possible morphemes, and the verb will then be "switched" to the meaning given by that particular morpheme. Only one of these six morphemes can occur in any given verb form (which is why it is only one slot, not six); or Slot 8 may be "off", and have no morpheme in it at all.
A6.25 The English meaning can frequently be "read off" for a Greek verb form by giving each morph its English equivalent and then reading the morphs from right to left. Examples:
A6.3 THE GREEK VERB MORPH SLOT DIAGRAM
The Greek verb has nine morph slots, which can be viewed as being a mixture of on/off and multi-position switches.
|20-position switch for: No preposition (simplex) 18 prepositions Special prefix (#E4.14)||On/Off||On/Off||The lexal will be one of the one thousand that occur in the New Testament.||On/Off||On/Off||3-position switch (Absent in Third Conjugation flexions.)||On/Off switch — but when it is on, it will specify one or other of six pieces of information: |
1. pluperfect active
2. perfect active participle
3. other active participle
4. middle participle
5. middle imperative/ infinitive
6. optative mode
When switched to one of these three positions, the verb will then take one of the range of endings for that position